Hydroelectric turbine with floating rotor

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: hydroelectric turbine includes stator 12 and shaftless rotor 14. Stator 12 restricts an opening in which rotor 14 is installed with possibility of being rotated. The opening allows rotation of rotor 14 about its central axis due to its shape and size, and movement in a circumferential direction of the opening, thus moving in the direction opposite to direction of rotor 14 rotation.

EFFECT: creation of an improved turbine that is characterised with a decreased friction of bearings, which occurs at its start-up, and provides the possibility of cleaning and cooling of bearings during its functioning, which improves operating characteristics of the turbine.

12 cl, 5 dwg

 

The technical field

The object of the present invention is a hydroelectric turbine that contains the stator and mounted therein for rotation beshlawy the rotor, which can make the inside of the stator essentially hypocycloidal movement.

The level of technology

This invention relates to turbines, generating electricity using the energy of water flow. More specifically, the invention relates to a device that uses tidal flows to bring the rotation of the large rotor blade of the type having an annular outer rim, set in large circular case.

The most famous designs of turbines involves having a Central rotating shaft, on which is placed the blades or vanes. However, the prior art also known turbine with a hollow center, called turbines, mounted on the rim. In low pressure, i.e. at slow currents, effective such turbine, equipped with a rotor with a hollow center in which the blades are fixed between the inner and outer rings or rims, and the energy is transferred through the outer rim of the circular housing that holds the rotor.

Examples of these turbines with a hollow center, mounted on the rim, shown in U.S. patent No. 5592816 issued 14.1.1997 and reissued 2.12.2003 number RE 38336; in U.S. patent No. 6648589 issued 18.11.2003; in U.S. patent No. 6729840 issued 4.05.2004; and U.S. patent application No. 2005/0031442 published 10.02.2005 (ordinal 10/633865). Examples of hydroelectric turbines, used in low pressure (tidal current) is presented in U.S. patent No. 4421990, issued in the name Heuss et al.; in U.S. patent No. 6168373 and 6406251, issued in the name Vauthier; British patent application No. 2408294 filed by applicants Susman et al.; and in the publication WO 03/025385 international applications filed by applicants Davis etal.

Turbine powered from the energy of the fluid, are currently considered as an environmentally safe replacement of power plants that use fossil fuels or nuclear energy. Energy use water to generate electricity on a large scale, i.e. in amounts sufficient to supply industrial complexes, small and big cities and so on, you need a large number of turbines, these turbines should be as large as possible to maximize the amount of electricity produced by each turbine. The length of the rotor blades of these turbines is calculated metres, and in some experimental designs provided by the blades longer than 50 meters.

Unfortunately, with increasing DL the blades are having problems of their manufacture, not typical of turbines and generators smaller. In particular, in the case of a turbine mounted on the shaft, it is difficult to make long blades were both strong and light. According to one possible solution, the blades mounted on the turbine shaft provided with an external annular rim, is placed inside the annular housing, whereupon the blades are relying both on the shaft and the rim. In the alternative case relating to mounted on the rim turbines that do not have a shaft, this problem can be solved by performing the ring support on the inner and outer ends of the blades, and the outer supporting rim is placed in the housing having an annular recess or channel. In conventional means of electricity generation along the annular support rim are a large number of magnets, and along the surface of the channel in the stator housing are a large number of coils. The magnetic field created by the field system of the rotor penetrates the gap between the rotor and stator. When the rotor is changing the coupling of magnetic flux from the coil, which induces in the coil of the electromagnetic force.

Because the outer annular rim of the rotor is placed in the channel, passing inside the stator, this channel can be delayed portable liquid foreign objects. When C is ucitelem the accumulation of foreign objects they will interfere with the rotation of the rotor and can even cause various injuries. The accumulation of foreign objects is particularly problematic in low pressure, for example, generators operating from tidal currents, since the settling of foreign objects in the channel, most likely at a relatively slow flow of water.

Thus, the present invention is to improve the turbine, the rotor blade which has an external annular rim held inside formed in the stator channel. Advanced turbine must be reduced-friction bearings that occur when it is run, and to ensure that the cleaning and cooling of these bearings in the process of its functioning that will improve the operational characteristics of the turbine.

The invention

The problem is solved by creating a hydroelectric turbine that contains the stator and beshlawy the rotor and the stator restricts himself opening in which is rotatably mounted a specified rotor. Turbine is characterized by the fact that the aperture due to its size and shape allows the rotor to rotate around its Central axis and to perform while moving around the circumference of the opening, moving in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the rotor.

In the preferred case, the aperture through the I its size and shape allows the rotor to make essentially hypocycloidal movement.

According to a preferred variant of the invention, the turbine contains mounted on the rim of the generator, which includes a group of coils located on the stator, and the corresponding group of magnets located on the rotor.

In the preferred case, the turbine provides a bearing on which the rotor is held inside the stator, and these bearings include a group of bearing assemblies that are located either on the stator or on the rotor, and the corresponding liner located on the remaining element of the specified pair of stator-rotor.

According to a preferred variant of the invention, bearing in virtue of their design is subject to wear during operation.

In the preferred case, between any adjacent bearing units stipulated period.

According to a preferred variant of the invention, the turbine includes at least one sensor embedded in the corresponding at least one bearing Assembly and configured to issue a signal indicating that this bearing unit has reached a predefined threshold of wear.

In the preferred case of this bearing system is located in such a way that it is exposed to water during operation of the turbine.

According to a preferred variant of the Britania, the rotor is at least partially made of floating material.

In the preferred case, the stator has an annular channel, limiting himself the aperture, within which is rotatably mounted rotor.

According to a preferred variant of the invention, the rotor has a hollow center.

In the preferred case, the rotor and the stator is made in such a way that the rotor can rotate in both directions.

In this application, the term "axial rotation" means the rotation of the body, for example, rotor hydroelectric turbine, around its longitudinal axis.

In this application, the term "transfer" means the movement or displacement of the body, for example, rotor hydroelectric turbines, along a certain trajectory, such as a curve or circle.

In this application, the term "hypocycloidal" means a movement of a rotating body inside essentially circular opening whose diameter exceeds the outer diameter of a rotating body, in which the rotating body can rotate around its Central axis and simultaneously move along the peripheral surface of the specified aperture.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 depicts a perspective view of a hydroelectric turbine, corresponding to a preferred variant of the invention.

Figure 2 depicts a perspective view of the stator, awlays is the action scene part shown in figure 1 of the turbine.

Figure 3 depicts a perspective view of a rotor, which is part shown in figure 1 of the turbine.

Figure 4 depicts shown in figure 1, the turbine section from the side;

Figure 5 depicts a cross-section side view, similar to the one shown in figure 4, but corresponding to the case when the turbine rotor has moved forward relative to its position shown in figure 4.

Detailed description of drawings

On the accompanying drawings depicts a hydroelectric turbine (generally indicated by item 10), corresponding to a preferred variant of the invention. The proposed turbine has superior performance characteristics due to the fact that its constituent parts during operation of the turbine make a move on a new trajectory. Turbine 10 includes a stator 12, which during use of the turbine can be mounted, for example, on the seabed, and a rotor 14 mounted for rotation within the stator 12, as described in more detail below.

The rotor 14 (shown in figure 3) contains essentially all of the inner rim 16, bounding a hollow center, essentially all of the outer rim 18 and blades 20 mounted between the inner and outer rims 16, 18. It should be noted with reference to the subsequent description of the operation of the turbine 10, the configuration of the blades 20 and/or their quantity, and under the inner rim 16, are not essential features of the invention and therefore the change will not affect achieved by the invention advantages.

Figure 2 shows a preferred variant of the stator 12, limiting himself aperture in the form of essentially annular channel 22 within which the process is located in the outer rim 18 of the rotor 14, as shown in figure 1. The channel 22 is of such a width that allows you to place the outer frame 18, while preventing undesirable displacement of the rotor 14 in the longitudinal direction under the influence of tidal currents. In the channel 22 is preferably provided by mechanical and/or magnetic bearings (not shown)holding the rotor 14 oriented in the axial direction. Although it is not shown in the drawings, the turbine 10 is supplied mounted on the rim generator (not shown), among the most significant components of which include the group of coils (not shown)that are located either on the outer rim 18, or on channel 22, and the corresponding group of magnets located on the remaining element of the specified pair of the outer rim 18 of the channel 22. When in operation, the rotor 14 rotates under the action of passing through him, tidal currents, these magnets and coils move relative to each other, resulting in each coil produces current is swetnam from physics.

Let us further consider figure 4. To reduce friction between the rotor 14 and stator 12 in the radial direction, in the turbine bearing system is provided that represents a group bearing assemblies (not shown)placed within the channel 22, and a liner (not shown), for example, stainless steel or similar material covering the outer rim 18. Bearing assemblies can be a conventional bearings, rollers or any other functional equivalent. It should be noted that a separate bearing assemblies can be formed by vitacilina grooves at intervals along a continuous circumferential support that will restrict a separate bearing assemblies or bearings. The shape and size of the opening formed by the channel 22, in which is placed the outer rim 18, taking into account located in a bearing assemblies allow the rotor 14 to make concentrically rotation in the channel 22, as described in more detail below.

Due to the increased diameter of the channel 22 in comparison with the rotor 14, the outer rim 18 or, more precisely, the liner at each moment of time in contact with only a small arc of the bearing assemblies so that the other bearing assemblies are open to attack by water passing through the turbine 10. During startup of the turbine liner, due to the static action of the weight of the rotor 14, will be in contact with the bottom bearing units on the stator 12. However, if the rotor 14 is able to swim, it may not be so. For example, if the buoyancy 14 of the rotor exceeds the neutral buoyancy, it is in a static condition will come into contact with the upper bearing sites on the stator 12 and exert a vertically directed force to the stator 12. However, regardless of the buoyancy of the rotor 14 when will pass through it in tidal maelstrom current, the rotor 14 will rotate around its Central axis. Moreover, as the rotor 14 rotates around the axis, it will gradually shift around the circumference of the channel 22, moving in the opposite direction of its rotation. For example, if the tidal otlivnyy flow causes the rotor 14 to rotate clockwise about its axis, as shown by the arrow As in figure 4, the contact between the liner and bearing units will cause the rotor 14 will move or shift on the peripheral surface of the channel 22 in a counterclockwise direction. Figure 5 shows how the rotor 14 has shifted about a quarter of the circumference of the channel 22 with respect to the initial positions shown in figure 4. Despite considerable slippage between the liner and bearing units, the resulting movement of the rotor 14 is most suitable for the t motion on hypocycloid and is therefore hereinafter referred to in this application as "essentially hypocycloidal movement". It should be noted that to make this essentially hypocycloidal movement having a hollow center in the inner rim 16 are not important; important is the fact that the rotor 14 is not installed on the Central shaft, which would codify the trajectory of rotation of the rotor 14 and would not allow him to move around the peripheral surface of the channel 22.

It should also be noted that when changing the direction of tidal currents, the rotor 14 will rotate about its own axis in the opposite direction. Accordingly, to move or shift on the peripheral surface of the channel 22, it will also be in the opposite direction. During the period of time when there is a change of tidal currents, the rotor 14 is not rotated or almost does not rotate about its own axis, so it can again be lowered to the bottom of the channel 22, as shown in figure 4.

Specified essentially hypocycloidal movement of the rotor 14 during operation of the turbine 10 provides several advantages. As the rotor 14 in each moment of time in contact only with a small number of bearing assemblies, the remaining bearing assemblies are open to the influence of tidal flow through the turbine 10, which allows the cooling of these bearing assemblies running water and clean them from foreign object is in, which may accumulate on them or between them. As the rotor 14 moves along the circumference of the channel 22, each bearing unit sequentially opens the influence of water, which in turn allows to cool and clean all bearing assemblies. In addition, since the rotor 14 is located in the channel 22 having a larger diameter between the rotor 14 and the channel 22 is formed a gap which narrows in the direction of the zone of contact between the rotor 14 and bearing assemblies. As a consequence, in the area between the liner and bearing units, indicated in the drawing by the letter (i.e. a little further points of contact of these elements in the direction of rotation of the rotor 14), the water in the channel 22 will be compressed by passing in the specified area of contact between the liner and bearing supports. This compression of water in the area of contact designated In the will to create a hydrodynamic effect between the bearing units and bearing, reducing friction between the rotor 14 and stator 12. To strengthen this hydrodynamic effect, the contact surface of each bearing support, you can perform specialized or adapted in any way to maximize the hydrodynamic effect.

Due to the increased in comparison with the rotor 14, the size of the opening in the channel 22, allowing the rotor to make the above there is TSS hypocycloidal movement, the turbine 10 is resistant to thermal expansion/compression and bending or deforming influences of tidal currents. In any place of operation of the turbine 10 may experience fluctuations in temperature, leading to thermal expansion/contraction of the stator 12 and rotor 14. In addition, significant forces acting on the turbine 10 by tidal currents cause some bending or deformation of the turbine 10, and in particular, the rotor 14. However, due to the increase in size of the channel 22 in comparison with the rotor 14 thermal expansion/contraction and deformation of the turbine 10 can occur without causing locking or braking/deceleration of the rotor 14 within the stator 12.

As described above, the turbine 10 includes a mounted on the rim of the generator (not shown)that includes a group of coils and the corresponding group of magnets, which are located, respectively, on the outer rim 18 and the channel 22 or Vice versa. When the rotor 14 of the coil move relative to the magnets, causing the produced electricity. The magnetic field of the magnets (not shown) penetrates a water-filled gap between the rotor 14 and stator 12, traversing the coil and inducing them current. Since the size of this gap varies along the peripheral surface of the rotor 14 and the channel 22, will be different and the magnetic tension is on the field, crossing the corresponding coil. The higher the value of the gap filled with water, the smaller the magnetic field crossing the coil, and therefore, less current is induced in these coils. Thus, the motion of the rotor 14 on the peripheral surface of the channel 22, the amount of current produced by the individual coils arranged around the turbine 10 will vary. Therefore, it is advisable to rectify the current from each coil before summation, because the summation of the direct currents to be much easier than the sum distinguished by the magnitude of alternating currents. Therefore, in the preferred embodiment, the turbine 10 each coil (not shown) equipped with a means of straightening induced in her power, and in the preferred case, it is made as a separate rectifier, located next to the corresponding coil.

Since the bearing units in operation continuously cooled and cleaned, they wear out less intensively. However, bearing units still subject to some wear and tear. However, the operation of the turbine 10 is resistant to such wear, which causes only a small extension of the peripheral surface of the track at which the rotor 14 moves around the channel 22, but does not resultando or not pravilnoy landing of the rotor 14, as it would happen with a regular, concentric rotating rotor mounted on conventional bearings. Meanwhile, the turbine 10 may also include one or more wear sensors (not shown), embedded inside one or more bearing assemblies at a preset depth. This means that when the bearing unit is worn down to the level sensor (not shown), the sensor can send a signal indicating that the wear of bearing assemblies reached that degree, which requires repair or replacement.

In conclusion, we note that the design of the turbine 10, according to which the rotor 14 does essentially hypocycloidal movement, has a number of significant advantages in comparison with known solutions of the prior art. These advantages include, in particular, by providing the possibility of cooling and cleaning the bearings.

1. Hydroelectric turbine that contains the stator and beshlawy the rotor and the stator restricts himself opening in which is rotatably mounted a specified rotor, characterized in that the aperture due to its size and shape allows the rotor to rotate around its Central axis and to move along the circumference of the opening, moving in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the rotor.

2. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized t is m, that the aperture due to its size and shape allows the rotor to make, essentially, hypocycloidal movement.

3. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains mounted on the rim of the generator, which includes a group of coils located on the stator, and the corresponding group of magnets located on the rotor.

4. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a system of bearings on which the rotor is held inside the stator, and these bearings include a group of bearing assemblies that are located either on the stator or on the rotor, and the corresponding liner located on the remaining element of the specified pair of stator-rotor.

5. Turbine according to claim 4, characterized in that the bearing assemblies because of their design is subject to wear during operation.

6. Turbine according to claim 4, characterized in that between any adjacent bearing units stipulated period.

7. Turbine according to claim 4, characterized in that it contains at least one sensor embedded in the corresponding at least one bearing Assembly and configured to issue a signal indicating that this bearing unit has reached a predefined threshold of wear.

8. Turbine according to claim 4, characterized in that the bearing system is located in such a way that, for example, the clicking action of water during operation of the turbine.

9. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that the rotor is at least partially made of floating material.

10. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that the stator has an annular channel, limiting himself the aperture, within which is rotatably mounted rotor.

11. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that the rotor has a hollow center.

12. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that the rotor and the stator is made in such a way that the rotor can rotate in both directions.



 

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