Ground water level controller
SUBSTANCE: controller comprises a well 7, a stop element in the form of a valve 4 installed in it on the head of the drain, and the valve is connected with levers of a hinged mechanism, and a float 8. The lever mechanism is made as capable of free contact with the floating float 8. The float is installed in an additional chamber 6. The lever mechanism is installed on the horizontal axis 12. Besides, the axis of the lever mechanism divides it into two unequal parts 14 and 15, the top one of which is more than the bottom one. On the top part of the arm 14 there is a counterbalance reservoir 17 hingedly fixed, the centre of gravity of which is placed above the horizontal axis of rotation. On the bottom part of the arm 15 there is a mechanism hingedly fixed to change position accordingly above the float at elevations of maximum and minimum water level in the float chamber.
EFFECT: increased reliability of a device, higher accuracy of control and possibility to adjust system operation into a drying mode.
5 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to the reclamation, in particular for hydraulic structures on drainage, watering systems, and is intended for automatic control of water level in open and closed networks.
A device for humidity control, including a well and a complex armature of the regulation, which provides for changing the operation mode of drainage when changing the water level in the channel (USSR Author's certificate No. 794112, CL E02B 11/00, 1981).
However, the device has a low accuracy level stabilization, require special watering channel and major drainage systems and is characterized by structural complexity, and this entails a reduction of reliability.
The closest in technical essence to the present invention is a regulator of the groundwater level, containing a well, installed it on the head drain shut-off body in the form of a Poppet valve associated with the levers articulated mechanism and the float is placed in the well. Such a device allows to stabilize the water levels in the well and open the drain manifold, regardless of the level with increasing groundwater (USSR Author's certificate No. 763519, CL E02B 13/00, 1978).
However, this device requires a supply of water to the drainage reservoir from the source to the mouth and is characterized by Neva who Oka accuracy level stabilization. In addition, the device is difficult to manufacture, during operation due to silting and sogrevaniya gauge tubular filter is not provided with sufficient accuracy to maintain specified pressures; the complexity of the adjustment knob to another level of groundwater. Another disadvantage is that when simultaneously raising in excess of specified levels of ground water in the upper and lower pools, for example, from rain, floats acting on the actuator of the locking member in two mutually opposite directions, which entails randomness in the choice of its provisions. The inability of the regulator in full drainage.
The purpose of the invention is to enhance reliability of the device and improving the accuracy of regulation and restructuring in the dry mode.
This goal is achieved by the fact that the lever mechanism is made with the possibility of free contact with the floating float placed in the secondary camera, and levers mounted on a horizontal axis, and the axis of the lever to divide it into two unequal parts, horse of which are more grassroots, and horse of the shoulder pinned capacity and balance, center of gravity, which is placed above the horizontal axis of rotation, and at the grassroots of the shoulder hinged mechanism changes the position of the corresponding is but on the float at the maximum and minimum water level in the float chamber.
In addition, the lever mechanism is in the form of two interconnected parts bolt located at an obtuse angle, attached to the convex side of the horizontal axis.
The mechanism for changing the position in contact with the float is made in the form of a helical articulated pusher with a horizontal plate fixed to the downstream end of the shoulder, and the controller is equipped with a lift, interacting with screw hinge follower.
The controller is equipped with a free float is placed on the supports in the chamber, the bottom of which has a slope towards the trash device made in the form of removable vertical grid in the lower part at the bottom of the camera with proryvnym window and has a longitudinal slot with decreasing in the direction of the height of the camera width.
Application level control of groundwater the proposed design allows you to maintain groundwater levels, and also provides a flexible and differentiated regulation specified levels on the commanded area depending on the types of crops and vegetation period, which increases C. agricultural crops regardless of weather conditions. In addition, the proposed device is lower compared to the prototype material. The effectiveness of the proposed controller also ODA is determined by the ability to automatically control the rate of drainage in the humidification-dehumidification, and if you need to rebuild the system in the dry mode, which eliminates the need for creating a sealed well. In addition, wave flow from the well into the chamber, calm down due to the presence of narrowing the slits in the grating, resulting in the float moves along the height of the camera in still filling the chamber with water. The settled suspended sediment on the bottom of the camera is easily dissolved by water and washed off the reverse flow of water when the lowering of the water level in the reservoir. The destruction of the settled sediment is produced by reducing the water level in the discharge manifold below the minimum estimated mark - water from the well, the manipulation of which produces a mechanism provisions on free-floating float. All this is characterized by high reliability of the movement of the floating float in the chamber.
Perform design protective grille allows you to automate the process of protecting the camera from the dam suspended (fine) sediment and small debris. The process of protection is differentially: the destruction of pronounced dam - at the command of the reduction in water level in the reservoir or when closing pipe-elbows valve by manipulation of the control mechanism configured to support the maximum design elevation of the water level (conque the well from the water), that is, its drain.
Figure 1 shows the regulator groundwater, top view; figure 2 is a section a-a in figure 1; figure 3 - scan grid.
The level control consists of a welded housing 1 with a flange, connected to Drenai 2 and is made in the form of a pipe-elbows 3 at 90°. Vertical pipe end valve is also blocked by the shut-off body in the form of a valve 4, is rigidly fixed to the two hinge lever bolt 5, which is located in a high-rise ratio above the float chamber 6, is placed within the well 7. In the float chamber 6 is sensitive element in the form of floating (free) float 8. Removable grating 9 has a longitudinal slot with decreasing in the direction of the height of the camera width and mounted in the guide transversely of the chamber 6 to the bottom 10. The bottom of the chamber 6 provided with a bias towards the inlet pipe-elbows 3 and has lugs 10, which drops float float 8. A lever mechanism is mounted on a horizontal axis 12, and the axis 12 of the lever to divide it into two unequal parts 14 and 15 and the axis 12 is fixed to the lugs 13. A lever mechanism is in the form of two rigidly interconnected parts of the bolt 14 and 15, arranged at an obtuse angle, attached to the convex side to a horizontal axis 12. The axis 12 is displaced relative to the mounting bolt 5 to the valve 4 in the direction of the float chamber 6. On the horse part II is ECA 14 fixed swivel camera counterweight 17, the center of gravity which is located above the horizontal axis 12 of rotation. At the grassroots of the shoulder 15 hinged screw plunger 18 with a horizontal plate 19 in contact with the floating float 8 in the chamber 5. To change the job, screw pusher 18 can move along the screw relative to the grassroots of the shoulder 15 by a specified amount, with the screw plunger 18 with the flange 20 is fixed inside the latch 21 with the lift 22.
In General, the regulator is a hard dvuhzonovy hinge mechanism is rigidly attached to the supports 13. Camera-the counterweight 17 is placed in the well 23 with drain pipe 24 at the bottom of the well. This removable grating 9, made with decreasing width toward its top end, is placed in the guide and made in the lower part at the bottom of the camera proryvnym 28, with lifting handle 29, and drena 24 is connected to the collector 25.
The controller operates as follows.
When water enters the collector controller is in position when the casing pipe-elbows 3 preloaded valve 4 and the float 8 is freely placed on the lugs 11 of the chamber 6. The water in the well no. The incoming water enters the collector 25 and there is an increase in water pressure on the valve 4. As a result, the valve 4 under the action of the buoyancy of the water rises up to a value that allows you to skip the required supplies is on the water in the well 7. When levels in drena smaller Hpvalve 4 under the action of the weight capacity of the counterweight 17 with a stabilizer (e.g., fill - gravel, cobble or other heavy improvised material) is closed, since the torque from the force of the hydrostatic water pressure G·l1>P·l (where G is the weight capacity of the counterweight; P - force hydrostatic water pressure; l1and l - respectively, the distance horizontally and vertically to the axis of rotation). The amount of ballast for capacity-counterweight 17 is selected such that when the water level in the ditch Hpthe force of the hydrostatic water pressure on the pressure valve 4 Particlewas sufficient to automatic valve 4 is moved and opened up from the top of the water drains 2 into the well 7. The upper part of the valve 4 with the bolt 5 is rigidly connected with a lever mechanism supported on the axle 12 with the convex side (friction force can be neglected because of their smallness) rises due to the action of dvuhtomnogo mechanism, consisting of interconnected at an obtuse angle turning of the shoulders 14 and 15. Simultaneously with the rotation of the lever, turning around the axis 12, rises the capacity of the counterweight 17. By increasing the level in the float chamber 6 8 floats upwards, releasing the lugs 11, and comes in contact with the plate 19 and acts on the plunger 18, the pinned hinge is on at the grassroots of the shoulder 15. The filling with water of the well 7 and the camera 6, and the contact plate 19 of the plunger 18 continues until the pressure in the chamber 6 are balanced for maximum this discharge water level in the outlet manifold 25. At the termination of reset and rise of water level in the reservoir 25 and, consequently, increasing the hydrostatic pressure in the chamber 6 of the valve 4 is closed and the well 7 remains filled with water. Wave flow from the well 7 through narrowed slits removable grating 9 is supplied into the chamber 6, calms down, because this is a peaceful movement of the float 8 freely on the height of the camera 6. If the lower part (base) of the grating 9 the flushing box 28 sediment suspended sediment on the bottom 10 of the chamber 6 are washed away by the flow of water during the lowering of the water level in the reservoir 25. During the washing chamber 6 from the settled sediment due to lowering of the water level in it, perhaps to explore the bars 9 and, if the fin is partially delayed on the grid 9, then it is lifted (for example, a hook or other known devices) handle 29, is cleaned from the remnants of the fin.
The reduction of the total area of holes in the lattice 9 allows exceptions ripple on the surface of the water in the chamber 6 without special dampers, which is characterized by high reliability free movement of the float in the chamber 6.
When full the m emptying of the chamber 6 and pit 7, the water gradually flows from the drain 24 in the manifold 25. When the float 8 falls freely on the supports 11. The inclined bottom 10 of the chamber 6 is connected with proryvnym hole 28 with a removable grate 9, allows washing of sediment into the well 7 and the drain 24. The fin also breaks away from the proposed construction of the lattice, as washing will depend on the speed of flow of water at a lower level in the well 7 and the speed of movement of water in the drain 24. Articulated lever mechanism (actuator) with capacity-counterweight 17 shoulder 14 rises, the valve 4 opens the pipe elbow 3. Water from the inlet drains 2 under pressure rushes into the well 7 and fills again the camera 6. The pressure in the drain outlet 24 is maintained at a specified value, caused by the filling of the reservoir 25.
Thus, in the inter-irrigation period is automatically maintained constant pressure in the outlet ditch determined based on the amount of water loss of soil at the time of release estimated, for example, arable layer of this drainage system that keeps the pipe from impact and from destruction. Moreover, the hydraulic regime in the drain outlet 24 is characterized by a smooth, gradually fading the change in the flow rate until the complete evacuation of the cavity drains and sediment.
At lower water levels in the upper ditch 2 to a given Hpthe resultant force is Alenia water P articledecreases and the moment of this force becomes smaller moments of the weight capacity of the counterweight 17. Valve 4 begins to close. The upper part of the shoulder 14 of the lever based on the axis 12 of rotation is lowered, and the lower part of the shoulder 15 is moved upward with the plunger 18, the float 8 is lowered to the lugs 11. When closing the valve 4, the ratio of the moments will be G·l1>R·l.
The value of the obtuse angles must settle during design development.
The magnitude of the resultant is determined by the formula
where Hp- estimated working head, m;
γ is the volumetric weight of water, t/m3;
Finally the weight capacity of counterbalance is specified by filling ballast 17 when designing a controller (fill - gravel, cobble or other heavy improvised material).
Thus, the combination of floating of the float 8, the pusher 18 plate 19 associated with the two shoulders of the hinge mechanism and the valve 4, is placed in the General well 7, is supported by the pressure in the automatic mode, even after emptying capacity of the well 7 and the camera 6, the reclamation system g is ready for a new cycle of operation.
For this control in dry mode, you need the latch 21 lift 22 to press down fully on the flange 20 of the plunger 18, thereby the valve 4 will open the pipe elbow 3.
In addition, in complete emptying of the well 7 and the camera 6, which contributes to the erosion and transport of suspended sediment from the cavity structures and drains must retainer 21 lift 22 to engage the flange 20 and fully raise the plunger 18, thereby the valve 4 will close the pipe elbow 3.
To supply a given flow rate Q, the valve 4 is set to opena. Due to the lever-hinge mechanism and the interaction of a screw plunger 18 with the float 8, actual consumption, expiration equal to
where ωNr.- the cross-sectional area of the knee, m2;
µNr.- consumption ratio tribe is (0,3...0,4);
Z - the difference between the hydraulic pressure in the output section of the knee and the level of the downstream manifold, m;
This means that the regulator may have the optimum ratio of the geometric dimensions. Given that the float chamber 6 made for p is edely pulsating area and are equipped with soothing removable grating 9, with the reduction of the total area of the holes of the grating 9 and proryvnym 28, grill, which is located in the guides, as well as the lack of influence of the pulsation of the water level from the opening of the orifice tubes-knee 3 valve 4, is created the stability of floating of the float 8. Flooding of the outlet above the valve, it is advisable to take is equal to (1,0...1,5)DNr.(where DNr.the diameter of the knee), the height limit valve opening (0.5 to 0.8)DNr.Given that the opening of valve 4 also depends on the unit level screw plunger 18 with the mechanism in position with the lift and installs any mode flow from drains, connecting the opening and the flow rate, it is advisable to maintain these parameters. The pipe-elbow 3 in such diameters is responsible for regulating the flow of water in the well when the change in the flow rate (level) in the manifold 25.
The calculation of the float determines the volume of the float and the length of the lower arm when the contact to the axis of the lever. Based on the fact that both of the shoulders 14 and 15 of the lever is different and fixed with the convex side towards the axis 12 in the direction from the valve 4, the floating float 8 works steadily with less vertical load. The controller design is simple and compact. Installation guide removable grids with narrowing the slits in the side with decreasing its top end width and prom the main window, characterized by high reliability free movement of the float in the chamber. The camera, with the slope of the bottom in the direction of the flushing box in the grid will increase its floating float.
This version of the controller, according to the authors, was previously unknown and meets the criterion of "Significant differences".
Thus, compared with the prototype controller allows you to regulate the water level in the ditch in the automatic mode with high accuracy and high performance. Has a simple system of nodes and decreased sensitivity to suspended sediment due to the fact that water flows under pressure from the well even when closing the valve on the pipe - elbows not received when it is closed. Therefore, the proposed controller is robust with variations above the minimum specified level of water in the upper ditch.
The effectiveness of the proposed controller is that it provides the opportunity to control the process of wetting and drying; washing the float chamber and cavity drains, as well as the need to rebuild the system in the dry mode, which eliminates the need for creating a sealed well, which is larger and cost several times more expensive than the device itself. The proposed controller has a simple connected with the battle part of the bolt, located at an obtuse angle, attached to the convex side of the horizontal axis, and reduces the amount of control effort when working design.
1. The regulator of the groundwater level, containing a well, installed it on the head drain shut-off body in the form of a valve associated with the levers articulated mechanism and the float, characterized in that, in order to increase reliability, simplify the device and improve the control accuracy, the lever mechanism is made with the possibility of free contact with the floating float placed in the secondary camera, and levers mounted on a horizontal axis, and the axis of the lever divides it into two unequal parts, horse of which are more grassroots, and horse of the shoulder pinned capacity and balance, center of gravity, which placed above the horizontal axis of rotation, and at the grassroots of the shoulder hinged mechanism changes position, respectively, above the float at the maximum and minimum water level in the float chamber.
2. The regulator according to claim 1, characterized in that the lever mechanism is in the form of two rigidly interconnected parts bolt located at an obtuse angle, attached to the convex side of the horizontal axis.
3. The regulator according to claim 1, characterized in that the mechanism of the change of the position in contact with the float is made in the form of a helical articulated pusher with a horizontal plate, attached to the downstream end of the shoulder.
4. The regulator according to claim 1, characterized in that, with a view to restructuring in the dry mode, the controller is equipped with a lift, interacting with screw hinge follower.
5. The regulator according to claim 1, characterized in that the free float is placed on the supports in the chamber, the bottom of which has a slope towards the trash device made in the form of removable vertical grid in the lower part at the bottom of the camera with proryvnym window and has a longitudinal slot with decreasing in the direction of the height of the camera width.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to automatic control systems and may be used in oil producing industry, in plants for oil and gas preparation and conversion processes. Device includes separation container 1, collector of gas-liquid mixture inlet 2, gas pipe 3, liquid pipe 4 and outlet collector 5. Connections of liquid pipe, gas pipe and outlet collector form a complex consisting of one direct trap 7 and two opposite traps 8 and 9. Liquid pipe 4 is connected to outlet collector 5 by direct trap 7 and opposite trap 9 with common elbow 10. Gas pipe 3 is connected to outlet collector 5 by the other opposite trap 8, formed by elbow of gas pipeline 12 and by elbow of liquid pipeline 11 connected to outlet collector.
EFFECT: improving operational performance, reliability, tightness of device for liquid level control and simplifying of its design.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and can be used primarily in automatic rice irrigation systems. The siphon type hydraulic automatic device consists of a mounting attachment 1 made from a base 2 and pipes rigidly and strictly vertically mounted on it. In pipes 3 there is a crest on which a rod 5, fitted with floats 6, is rigidly attached. The rod is made composite so that, when the submersion layer in the level basin rises, the float does not lead to forced launch of the automatic hydraulic device. Its parts are joined by a threaded sleeve which allows for fast change (within necessary limits) of the length of the rod 5. Rigidity of the entire connection is retained and coaxiality of the rod 5 is observed. In the top part of the crest there is an air admission valve 7. The automatic hydraulic device is connected to level basin water outlet through a sleeve 8, and the water level in the level basin is set by a guide plate 9.
EFFECT: use of the automatic hydraulic device increases reliability of operation, rapidness and accuracy of regulation, improves regulation of the submersion layer of the level basin.
FIELD: irrigation systems, particularly ones to be used with opened water streams using energy source, for instance hydraulic level drop at retaining structures.
SUBSTANCE: water lift unit comprises chamber with controllable water inlet, water outlet pipe and water lifting means made as pump. The chamber has orifice receiving water inlet flow regulation valve. The valve has float, rod and guiding means. The chamber is connected with water outlet pipe provided with water turbine having shaft extending into chamber interior and communicated with shaft of water lifting means pump.
EFFECT: possibility to create pressure difference enough for water lifting along with possibility to retain desirable structure throughput.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly means to close water-discharge weir or dam orifices and to regulate water level in water storage pond.
SUBSTANCE: automatic hydraulic gate comprises counterweight and rotary sheet performing rotation about horizontal axis and having working chamber located over the axis of sheet rotation. The working chamber comprises adjustable water intake means. Drainage orifices are created in working chamber from lower pool side. In closed state the sheet may be supported by weir still and by spillway piers so that the sheet is inclined towards lower pool. In opened state the sheet may be supported by spillway piers. Water intake means may be filled with water from upper pool and has inlet orifice located over axis of sheet rotation. Inlet water intake means orifice may be arranged above overflow ridge of the sheet.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability and prevention of water level elevation in upper pool over predetermined mark.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device to join drainage pipes 1 and 2 comprises connection elements 4, which are installed in holes 3 near ends of joined pipes and are made in the form of two cylindrical plugs with ball-shaped endings 7, equal to diameters of holes connected to each other with a link. Each connection element 4 is made as Z-shaped. The link in the middle part 5 has width equal to width of a water-receiving gap 6 equal to thickness of the pipe wall. Plugs with ball-shaped endings are introduced into holes of joined pipes, one at the inner side, and the other one at the outer side.
EFFECT: improved reliability of water-receiving gap fixation and prevention of pipes collision against each other in process of mechanised installation.
SUBSTANCE: drain opening is closed with the plug with a branch pipe provided with a branch with a valve and a dispensing container. The branch is connected by the hose to the exhaust pipe of the internal combustion engine, and the exhaust gases are fed into the drain cavity. The dispensing container is filled with fine powder of colloidal copper. The valve is opened, and the powder is fed into the drain cavity. The supply of gases is stopped when the dispensing container is completely empty. The colloidal copper powder together with the stream of exhaust gases is fed onto the inner surface of the drainage pipes and the slits of the drainage pipes.
EFFECT: increased intensity of suppression of life activity of iron bacteria.
SUBSTANCE: method of performance control of transverse drains on catena lies in determining the timeliness of their lowering of the level of groundwater, and ensuring the required drainage rate. To implement the method the measurement of position of the depression curve in the drain spacing on the established wells is carried out. To do this, between the wells the distance is specified depending on the distance between the drains. The first and the last wells in the drain spacing are located in the trench where the drains are stacked. The second and the penultimate wells are located at one metre from the drains. The remaining wells are located taking into account the asymmetry of the depression curve between the transverse drains. The distance from the upper and lower drains is calculated based on the distance Ev. The distance Ev is defined as the distance from the vertical at the point on the depression curve with its tangent line, parallel to the soil surface, in which there is a minimum drainage rate - the maximum approximation of the groundwater level to the soil surface.
EFFECT: improvement of drainage performance and improvement of effectiveness of use of drained mineral soils of catena.
SUBSTANCE: method is carried out by means of heading of containers, such as a cutting cylinder, onto a monolith. At the same time previously the soil is sampled. For this purpose a site is chosen, and in its centre a circular trench is dug with depth of not more than by 25 mm lower than the height of the cutting cylinder, belting the untouched soil, representing a truncated cone in shape, the diameter of the upper base of which is by 10…15 cm more than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder, and the diameter of the lower base is more than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder by 15…25 cm. From the soil left untouched the monolith is cut with the diameter of at least by 6 mm smaller than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder and the height that is at least by 25 mm smaller than the cylinder height. At the same time the cylinder is periodically put on the monolith, using it as a template to monitor the diameter of the cut monolith. After cutting of the monolith and putting of the cutting cylinder on it, the cylinder is pushed into soil, until its upper layer levels with the monolith surface. In the space between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder and the outer surface of the monolith four Z-shaped supporting monolith-supporting plates are inserted with height equal to 3/4 of the cutting cylinder height. Evenly they are distributed along the cylinder perimetre and put on its upper edge. The slot between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder, the soil monolith and its supporting plates is filled with a molten waterproof material, having lower temperature of melting, for instance, a mineral wax. Afterwards the monolith is cut at the bottom at the lower edge of the cylinder, it is installed on the solid surface, packed and delivered to the area of filtration tests performance.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of soil filtration coefficient detection and accuracy of establishment of land reclamation system parameters, efficiency of using reclaimed soils, expanded zone of application of monoliths for detection of filtration coefficient.
SUBSTANCE: method for erection of a vertical drain includes drilling of a well with simultaneous fixation of its walls with a casing pipe, where a casing filter string is lowered. Previously, before lowering of the filter string, a perforated pipe of smaller diameter is lowered into the well, and inside this pipe a filter pipe is lowered, which has been previously perforated and wrapped into a net of non-ferrous metal. Geotextile is wrapped onto the net, which is fixed by a copper wire. The perforated and filter pipes are aligned so that the distance between the inner wall of the perforated pipe and the filter pipe is identical along whole circumference. Then the space between the pipes is filled in layers with a sand and gravel mixture. A well pump is installed inside the filter pipe with installation of coupling pipes and electric cables. Afterwards the casing pipe is withdrawn from the well, and a conductor is arranged from the earth surface.
EFFECT: increased reliability of drain operation.
SUBSTANCE: closed collector comprises a trench with an inclined bottom, a perforated pipeline wrapped with a protective-filtering material and laid onto the trench bottom, and solid or interrupted filtering fill of the trench with a water-permeable material with filtration ratio higher than filtration ratio of soil that surrounds the trench, and entering the closed collector. In order to increase quality of arrangement of a longitudinal profile of the trench bottom by the mechanised method and to reduce volume of manual completion of its bottom to the bottom meeting the laid requirements, the average minimum inclination of the trench bottom along the entire length of the collector is accepted as equal to 0.006. At the same time the length of the closed collector is accepted depending on natural inclination of soil surface under specific conditions, but at least 50 m.
EFFECT: reduced sedimentation of drainage lines and demand for their washing, provides for reliable hydrological action of a closed collector in process of its operation of many years for at least the rated service life.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes feeding into the drain cavity of internal combustion engine exhaust gases. Along with the feeding of the exhaust gases into the drain cavity the spray of aqueous solution of formalin is fed. The drops of the aqueous solution of formalin with the flow of exhaust gases are fed to the inner surface of the drainage pipes and to the slits of the drainage pipes. Formalin blocks the bacterial process of converting the iron compounds into insoluble forms.
EFFECT: iron bacteria are killed, the process of coloring with ochre stops.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with first version, method comprises forming open drainage channels composed of unit linear cuts in channel area to create conditions for unobstructed evacuation of water from drainage strips into channels by leveling terrain micro relief. Note here that furrows are ploughed from drainage strip axes and outer edges of channel being created, and along said channels. Furrows are ploughed in intervals equal to their width with depth decreasing from maximum to minimum equal to quotient of furrow maximum depth of the number of furrows within boundaries of drainage strips. Intensive hydrothermal land-reclamation of strips is carried out by territory detention unless elimination of excess moisture and/or gleisation. Thereafter, dump pits are shifted from pillars into adjacent furrows in direction from axes and outer edges with respect to drainage strip of channels being created to form transverse bulged surfaces of drainage strips. In compliance with second version, method comprises deepening drainage channels with laying removed soil into channel area and forming conditions for unobstructed evacuation of excess moisture into channels by leveling micro relief of drainage strips. Note here that furrows are ploughed between channels and closest furrows immediately from edges of reconstructed channels or at distance that ensures integrity of pillars Furrows are ploughed similarly with first version and, thereafter, intensive hydrothermal land-reclamation of strips is carried out by territory detention unless elimination of excess moisture and/or gleisation. Thereafter, dump pits are shifted from pillars into adjacent furrows in direction from channels. Channels are cleaned (deepened). Thereafter, dump pits are shifted from pillars into adjacent furrows in direction from axes and outer edges with respect to drainage strip of channels being created to form transverse bulged surfaces of drainage strips.
EFFECT: better drainage and soil properties.
16 cl, 16 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: coupling comprises a body perforated along an outer surface from an elastic recycled tyre fixed inside two pipes in their butt joint. The tyre body at the end sides is axisymmetrically rigidly fixed with extreme recycled tyres, the outer diametre of which is less than the outer diametre of the tyre. To provide for fixation of the coupling inside pipes in their butt joint a tyre body is used, the outer diametre of which exceeds the diametre of the clear opening of connected pipes. The diametre of the inner hole of the tyre body is smaller than the outer diametre of extreme tyres, which is equal to the diametre of clear opening of joined pipes.
EFFECT: increased reliability of pipes joining, simplified design of joined pipes and provides for the possibility of mechanised laying of pipes of a drain collection line.
SUBSTANCE: coupling comprises a body of a recycled tyre with perforation on an outer surface, elements covering joined pipes, and an element of pipe fixation in a unit of connection. Two extreme recycled tyres of identical dimension type that cover joined drainage pipes are rigidly axisymmetrically connected to the tyre body at the ends. A tyre body is used as an element of pipe fixation. The diametre of the inner hole of the tyre body is smaller than the outer diametre of drainage pipes, but not less than the diametre of clear opening of drainage pipes. The diametre of the inner hole of extreme tyres is equal to the outer diametre of drainage pipes, and the outer diametre of extreme tyres exceeds the outer diametre of the tyre body.
EFFECT: simplified connection of drainage pipes, increased reliability of connection in case of mechanised laying and when laying a drainage line into structurally unstable soils.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.
EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.