Electronic fuse for electric power supply unit
SUBSTANCE: protection circuit of the power supply unit of a dc voltage apparatus is installed at the output of the power supply unit, and between the positive terminal (3) of the power supply unit and the positive terminal (1) of said apparatus there is a switching element (S1) and an inductor (L1), which is connected between the switching element (S1) and the positive output terminal (1), wherein the inductor (L1) on its side connected to the positive output terminal (1) is also connected to the an output capacitor (C2), and the side of the inductor (L1) connected to the switching element (S1) is connected to a diode (D1), which is connected in parallel to the output capacitor (C2) n the cathode side, and there is also a device for controlling the switching element (S1), which includes the switching element (S1) depending on current measured in the protection circuit.
EFFECT: designing an apparatus which, as a result of connecting units when the apparatus is operating, the absence of current harmonics is determined, and therefore undervoltage on the conductor line.
The invention relates to a protective circuit power supply unit installation of direct current according to claim 1 restrictive part of the claims.
In clocked the power supply unit for the protection of power semiconductors and material of the windings is almost always a limit current. This limitation of the current leads to the fact that in the distribution of output power across multiple branches in the protection using fuse or machine in the event of a short circuit may not be necessary for the current turn. Electronic fuses with the exact characteristic ultimate load and the exact amount of current inclusion already went on sale. However, these schemes road because, when a large load in the switching elements of the fuse is lost very large capacity.
Therefore, in the prior art, such as restriction of loads such species that transmits only small starting current overload and have therefore pulse power dissipation is less than the current-limiting circuit breakers, operating in the phase of start in the linear mode. During normal phases of pulses in linear mode (5-200 MS) power dissipation cannot be discharged from the transistor quickly enough, so that the power loss has to be consumed only by its heat capacity is. So used a silicon chip with a thickness of about 100 μm and an area of several square millimeters can consume energy only in very limited quantities.
Therefore, in the prior art it is also proposed to shift the power losses on the additional resistance, which is managed by a separate transistor, and thereby to have a much greater mass for energy. In accordance with the assignment by using any of the set values (adjustable) protection in case of maximum power loss resistance may take only 75% of the energy. Thus, the remaining 25% of the transistors must cover due to its heat capacity. This scheme is known from WO 02/082611.
With the help of a number of resistors in a large power dissipation with sequentially connected to each electronic switch at a corresponding gradation by selecting the correct combination of include and turn off transistors is also possible to achieve a total resistance between the load and the power source, so that the load current does not exceed the specified limits.
In principle, all existing electronic fuses differ in that they are installed at an unknown distance from the power supply unit. This Osnach the em the design of the fuse should be considered this when connecting loads to increase the current in the load. Active branch should be positive wire (for example, + 24V)and zero wire load spatial should entirely go separate ways, as, for example, car drivers, when the ground connection is made through the body and which also connected the wire only a + 12V voltage. Since the zero wire load never or almost never comes to the point guard, pulsing scheme, it is impossible. Zero wire of the whole installation went pulsating current, causing an increase of the potential mass and failures in the work units and loads.
Another problem occurs when the connection of large loads, such as when charging load capacities (for example, the input unit DC-to-DC) or low-speed engines. The problem is that in industrial control devices used many loads with a control voltage of 24V (for example, solenoid valves, units of a processor with its own DC Converter, a capacitor connected in an unloaded condition, high-speed DC motors, incandescent lamp, the filament of which must first be heated and so on). Many of the Pacific loads have a property when connecting to miss for a short time current the nominal. When using a clocked power supply unit is also evident negative aspect of these network power supplies. Blocks almost unable to produce at the output of any significant short-term maximum currents. When exceeding the rated currents of the power supply unit almost without delay triggered current limiter, and the result is a decrease in the output voltage. Because of this "breaks" the whole control system. Now, if you want to continue to use the clocked power supply, there is only the possibility of limiting current in a separate loads to levels only slightly higher than the current consumption specified for this user when designing the installation. In this case, as a rule, the power of the clocked power supply unit if the units design is determined based on the sum of the individual expected consumers (loads) and their simultaneous connections, and in accordance with this selected types of network power supplies. By limiting the maximum current in the load, if necessary, only slightly exceeding the rated current, and thus not beyond a total energy consumption of the installation is to decrease the high turnover in these loads. Thus, the engine is, for example, slower accelerating, the capacitor slowly charges, incandescent lights more smoothly and tpet delay in most cases are not functionally critical, but they should be taken into account by the designer of the installation. A significant advantage is that the control voltage (e.g. 24V) when connecting the consumer ceases to fail, and failure of the installation does not occur.
This soft start requires that the difference between energy supply and energy consumed by the load in the form of the product of current and voltage of the load on the switching element, had to decline. When charging the capacitor, for example, in the first moment it acts as a short circuit, and the product of voltage and steady-state current must fall on the switching element. This may be resistance or better a variable resistor or semiconductor, operating as a variable resistor. When the corresponding high-power capacitors energy converted in the switching element (or resistance) in the heat can become large very quickly exceeds the capabilities of the transistor.
Thus, the aim of the invention is the creation devoid of these shortcomings of the protective circuits of the power supply unit installation permanent Tokai, in particular, providing a cost-effective means of performing electronic fuse in the output circuit of the regulated power supply unit.
These objectives are achieved by means of the characteristics of claim 1 of the claims. Claim 1 of the formula of the invention relates to a protective circuit power supply unit installation of direct current, in which according to the invention it is proposed that it is installed at the output of the power supply unit and between a positive terminal of the power supply and the positive output terminal installation DC envisaged switching element and an inductor connected between the switching element and the positive output terminal, and to choke on its part, is connected to the positive output terminal that was connected to the output capacitor, and the side of the inductor connected to the switching element, is connected to the diode in parallel to the output capacitor from the cathode, and also provided to the control unit switching element includes a switching element depending on the current measured in the circuit.
This scheme is also known as a voltage Converter (Tiefsetzer). Through the use of the device according to the invention with the proposed protective scheme directly the public at the output of the power source (for example, power supply unit 24 V) with a much smaller total number of structural elements can be solved, in particular, the problem of the connection of large loads, such as charging a load capacities (input unit DC-to-DC) or low-speed engines. Thanks to the application schema according to the invention the conversion of the entire differential energy power source and the load is not required. However, you need to integrate the protective circuit according to the invention in a power supply unit, or install the power supply unit at least close enough to create similar conditions power supply.
The advantage of the circuit according to the invention is that the installation of one or more voltage converters (Tiefsetzer) directly at the output of the power supply unit is prevented failures fueled installation. Each voltage Converter (Tiefsetzer) to obtain pulse currents required in accordance with conditions requires a stable supply voltage, supported with a capacitor. When this switching transistor, to enable a magnetic choke again to reduce their current, constantly interrupts the flow of current from the power source. When the inductor current varies around-ear, closed the g values of the output current. So double the amplitude of the alternating current is called historical program data, finally, the average value of the throttle current is the output current.
Thanks to the diode that is connected to the throttle, is achieved automatic protection from negative voltages when switching off a powerful inductive consumers or disabling a power supply unit.
According to claim 2 protective circuit is integrated in the housing of the power supply unit, and in this case, the input capacitor protective circuit may be an output capacitor of the power supply unit. Thus, it is possible to save on one structural element.
However, alternatively according to claim 3 of the formula of the invention, the protective circuit can be made in the form of its own node for direct connection to the power supply unit. Thus, the circuit according to the invention can act as takarasiennes.
According to claim 4 of the formula of the invention provides that the protective scheme was carried out as a site remote from the power supply unit connect to it, with its own ground wire is provided as feedback to the power supply and close the protective circuit provides a lter for pulse currents. Appropriate smoothers the La pulsed currents are known from the prior art.
Claim 5 of the formula of the invention provides that the switching element is controlled with a microprocessor. However, as more details will be shown below, the management VM at regular intervals may also send a signal applying for a separate outputs corresponding to the effective value of the current limit. Because of this when replacing the power supply unit, for example, in case of damage, automatic alignment can occur only after you enter the address of the device.
Alternatively, use the throttle to claim 6 of the formula of the invention involves the use of only one resistance. The protective circuitry is again installed on the output of the power supply unit, and a resistance connected in series with the switching element between a positive terminal of the power supply and the positive output terminal installation DC. In addition, the resistance on its part, is connected to a positive output terminal connected to the output capacitor. In addition, again provided by the control switching element, which switching element is turned on depending on the current measured in the circuit. Although this variant implementation of the invention is also suitable as a protective circuit, it is not all that p is impactfully option.
7 claims refers to the scheme with power supply unit installation DC voltage and at least two protective circuits according to the invention at least two positive output terminals as output channels.
Thus, even a few channels, hereinafter referred to as well as output channels, can be integrated into the body, where they can be fed from the same power source. Thus, for example, when turning on the output channels may be provided for synchronization in order to reduce the load in the input capacitor protective circuit corresponding to the output capacitor of the power supply unit, and thus the total double amplitude (historical program data) at the output of the power supply unit.
According to paragraph 8 may be provided to be provided by the inputs for activation and deactivation of output channels. This is achieved by using electronic relays.
In the case of multiple output channels according to claim 9 of the formula of the invention may also be provided in order to control the switching elements of at least two protective schemes was provided in a separate microprocessor.
10 the formula of the invention provides, in order to control the switching elements of at least two protective circuits was before is considered a similar scheme. Applying a similar circuit to control switching elements is also possible if there is only one channel.
According to item 11 of the claims provided by the Association of power semiconductor devices with device control circuit in one large specialized integrated circuit (ASIC).
Under section 12 of the claims provided by the hybrid circuit containing power semiconductor devices and voltage converters (Tiefsetzer) and which, preferably, may be manufactured and mounted in a module.
13 formulas invention relates to a method for control of protective scheme, and provides the nominal value of the current, and the switching element is actuated only after a predetermined time exceeding the current rating of the protective circuit. The amount of current exceeds the value of the rated current is called current overload. Time to actuate the switching element, and thereby to the operation of the protective circuit depends on how much exceeded a given value of the nominal current. This period of time may also be dependent on how big the overload current in comparison with the magnitude of the rated current, and to be around so much longer, how much less current overload is compared with the value of the nominal current.
Actuation switching element for actuation of the protective circuit can also be made dependent on the position with the heating power semiconductor devices and other structural elements in the circuit. When this current values are calculated by measuring the temperature or only the ambient temperature and current characteristics.
According to 14 of the claims provided to additionally set the value of the current limit exceeds the value of the rated current, and after a set duration exceeding the value of the current limiting protective circuit is deactivated corresponding output terminal. In turn, the duration of the limited amount of current can be made dependent on the specified value of the rated current and to be around so much longer, how much smaller is the value of the nominal current. In turn, the actuation switching element for actuation of the protective circuit can also be made dependent on the position with the heating power semiconductor devices and other structural elements in the circuit.
Clause 15 of the formulas of the invention provides that at a voltage below the input voltage of the protective circuit and the corresponding output terminal was deaktivirovana. Thus, the ri voltage lower than the input voltage protective circuit, the corresponding output voltage of the power supply unit corresponding to the overloaded output, i.e. the output load which is due to overcurrent overloads the power supply unit so that limits the current and thereby the fall of the output voltage on it, off. Thus, the power supply returns to normal mode and, for example, when there are multiple outputs again provides a nominal voltage. For linear regulators such system has been described in EP 1236257.
Finally, article 16 of the claims refers to the use of a voltage Converter (Tiefsetzer) as a current-limiting protective circuit at the output of the power supply unit installation of direct current.
Below the invention is described in more detail in the example implementation using the attached figures, while
figure 1 depicts the scheme in accordance with the prior art,
figure 2 - preferred option the implementation of the protective circuit according to the invention in the working phase, in which the switching element is closed,
figure 3 - protection circuit 1 is in the working phase, in which the switching element is open, and
figure 4 - typical unit installation when using a protective circuit according to the invention.
1 shows a protective circuit in accordance with the level of those who IKI with the same current limit. On the left side of figure 1 are visible to the current terminals 3, 4 and the right side output terminals 1, 2. Output terminals 1, 2 load side connected with the installation of DC. As a current limiter is provided switching element S1, which, however, works without clocking. When the current limit switching element S1 must move in the conducting state, to use the difference between the input voltage (+24,1V/0V) and the voltage (+24V/0V) load. As a result, the switching element S1 is lost a lot of power. Therefore, the time limit should focus on the specific switching element S1.
In figure 2, by contrast, depicts a preferred implementation of the protective circuit according to the invention in the working phase, in which the switching element is closed. Protective circuitry of the power supply installing a DC according to the invention is installed at the output of the power supply unit. Between the positive terminal 3 of the power supply and the positive output terminal 1 set the constant current provided by the switching element S1 and the inductor L1 connected between the switching element S1 and the positive output terminal 1, and the inductor L1 for its part, is connected to the positive output terminal 1 connected to o demo the capacitor C2. Side inductor L1 connected to the switching element S1 is connected to the diode D1 from the side of the cathode.
When you activate the positive output terminal 1 of switching element S1 turns on from an off state in the clock mode. By a smooth increase of the duty cycle of the pulses to constantly enabled status you can determine the current output. This current is measured, for example, the resistance of R1, acting as a shunt, resulting in dependence on the measured current through the device control (figure 1-4 not shown) impacts on the duty cycle. The diode D1 is designed as a short circuit and therefore in normal operation should not be cooled. Switching element S1 is a semiconductor switch, preferably a field MOS transistor. When using a MOS transistor depending on the type of radiator can also be absent.
Switching element S1 operates in clock mode, only a short time when switched on, resulting in switching losses occur only in this phase. As at present, on sale are already very low impedance transistors, when the surrounding temperatures of the order of 60°C and output currents of the order of 10 And the heat sink is no longer needed. The inductor L1 is continuously flown Toko is, so he's a long time you need to spend in the heating. However, due to the brevity of the period of "acceleration" during a typical 50-500 msec choke cannot take additional losses associated with the high-frequency regime. The inductor L1 when the corresponding high frequency may be in the form of throttle without a ferromagnetic core, and we are talking only about the coil with no core. This structural element is usually made of enamelled copper wire. Owing to the short duration of treatment in order alternatives choke with ferrite core can be equipped with a core with high magnetic permeability, even despite big losses in the switching of magnetization. Such structural elements are interference suppression chokes in the form of a rod or mushroom-shaped cores. They do not have a closed core, because this simplifies and facilitates manufacture. The result can be obtained a compact design and smaller permanent loss in the line, because thanks to the use of the ferrite core, the number of turns of wire will be reduced considerably. The usual capacitor to maintain the voltage at the input disappears, as this function takes the output capacitor of the power supply unit thus is ejstvujuschij input capacitor C1 of the protective scheme.
The current measurement can be performed using resistance R1 in the lead wire of the electronic fuse. In the alternative, the resistance R1 can be switched to the output line of protective circuitry directly. This has the disadvantage that the unit Converter voltage (Tiefsetzer) at the point of activation appear uncontrollable currents as before current can flow into the load must first charge the output capacitor C2. Instead of the shunt resistance of the current measurement can be made using the compensated DC-to-DC, as, for example, a Hall sensor.
Attempts to fully lower the resistance R1 can also measure the voltage drop across the switching element S1. If we are talking about MOS transistor, there is almost a linear relationship between current and the measured voltage drop. However, a great influence on this relationship is the temperature of the transistor. At a known temperature of the transistor using (analog or digital) compensation schemes it is possible to calculate the actual current. However, the evaluation of the current at the high frequency switching element S1 becomes difficult, since very little of the measured value (during power switching element S1) with Bo is isoi frequency alternate with full power supply voltage during turn-off of switching element S1). Another alternative current measurement represents the inductor L1, namely, using RC-link parallel to the inductor L1, which has a time constant substantially greater than the duration of the period of the clock frequency in the case of current limitation or start. Thus, the ohmic voltage drop across the inductor L1 can be measured and used for regulation as valid values. Here also is the dependence of the resistance of the inductor L1 from the temperature. If the temperature of the inductor L1 is known, then measuring the voltage drop on the transistor is compensated. In addition, the current can be measured using the so-called Sense-Fets, it is a MOS transistor having its own output current sensor with evaluation.
Below we will talk about the principle of operation of the protective circuit according to the invention. First, the measured current in the resistance R1, and when exceeding the current rating of the switching element S1 is opened. During phase off of switching element S1, the inductor L1 has the ability to reduce the current, as it delivers energy to the load. Since the current through the switching element S1 is terminated, does not leak also no current through the input capacitor C1 and the resistance R1. Therefore, the input capacitor C1 must be able to submit impul the si current. However, this is only necessary when the current limit on the output, for example, when turned on, and thereby charging the output capacitor C2 and the potential of the load capacitor at the output, as well as in current limitation mode. The current limit time-limited and serves to prevent reverse action in the connection nodes when running the installation (when the so-called "Hot-plugging") or in the absence of harmonic currents and thereby planting the voltage on the conductive bus (24,1V/0V).
In the beginning of the next period of the switching element S1 is switched on again. When the current is switched on can be set linearly increasing function of current, which should follow the current limit. Easier, and with unknown loads in practice it is safer to specify a linearly increasing function of the voltage, which increases subject to the maximum current limit. In case of unexpected loads, as, for example, when connecting DC Converter, may be unlikely to re-planting stress that when linearly increasing function of current may occur. An alternative to both methods can be control using only current limiting, so that the scheme did not take into account the voltage at the output. After activation of the output switching element S1 remains enabled until then, the current in the current sensor does not exceed the maximum values. After this disconnection occurs, and in the next period start again.
Finally, figure 4 shows a typical device installation using electronic protective circuits according to the invention, with arrows show the direction of the current at constant load. Zero voltage for electronic protective circuit is used only to recharge the internal electronics. Load connected to a zero voltage on separate wires. This connection is usually not to the same point as the connection of the electronic circuit, because otherwise the pulse currents pulsing system can result in the setting of uncontrolled currents, and this will cause a rise in potential of the masses. This capacity building mass is primarily due to the inductance of the cables and wires, because usually we are talking about big butts and because of the large inductances.
It should be noted that the protective circuit according to the invention is suitable also for detection of broken wire by charging the output capacitor C2 via the high-ohmic resistance using a higher voltage (for example, 26C). If the output voltage of the power source exceeds the voltage specified by the manufacturer, for example, 2V, no load, so it can be pickup is about the broken wire. In addition, the analog signal can be represented as display current on high-resistance "protected" outputs, so that the operator using the voltmeter can unambiguously measure the actual current value. Besides can be, for example, openings are provided in the printed circuit Board and the contacts on its galvanized surfaces.
Thus, by using the circuit according to the invention is implemented protective circuitry power supply unit installation of direct current, representing a cost-effective opportunity to perform electronic fuse in the output circuit of the regulated power supply unit.
1. Protective circuitry power supply unit installation of direct voltage, characterized in that it is installed at the output of the power supply unit, and between a positive terminal (3) of the power supply and the positive output terminal (1) set the constant voltage provided by the switching element (S1)and the inductor (L1)connected between the switching element (S1) and the positive output terminal (1), and the inductor (L1) connected to the positive output terminal (1)connected to the output capacitor (C2), and the side of the inductor (L1), connected to the switching element (S1)connected to the diode (D1)connected in parallel to the output capacitor (C2), from the side of the cathode, as well as that provided by the device control switching element (S1), including a switching element (S1) depending on the current measured in the circuit.
2. Protective circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that it is integrated in the housing of the power supply unit, and the output capacitor (C1) of the power supply unit is an input capacitor protective circuit.
3. Protective circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that it is a private site for direct connection to the power supply unit.
4. Protective circuit according to claim 1, characterized in that it is made as a site remote from the power supply unit connect to it, with its own ground wire is provided as feedback to the power supply and close the protective circuit provides a lter for pulse currents.
5. Protective circuitry according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that to control switching element (S1) includes a microprocessor.
6. Protective circuit for a power supply unit installation of direct current, characterized in that it is installed at the output of the power supply unit, and between a positive terminal (3) of the power supply and the positive output terminal (1) to set the DC voltage provided by the switching element (S1), and a load resistance connected between the horizontal is inim element (S1) and the positive output terminal (1), moreover, the load resistance on its part, is connected to the positive output terminal (1)connected to the output capacitor (C2), and provided by the device control switching element (S1), includes a switching element (S1) depending on the current measured in the circuit.
7. Circuit with a power supply unit installation DC voltage and at least two protective circuits according to any one of claims 1 to 6, at least two positive output terminals (1) as the output channel.
8. The circuit according to claim 7, characterized in that provided inputs for activation and deactivation of output channels.
9. The circuit according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that to control the switching elements (S1), at least two protection schemes, there is a separate microprocessor.
10. The circuit according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that to control the switching elements (S1), at least two protective circuits are provided analog circuit.
11. The circuit according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that provided for the unification of power semiconductor devices with device control circuit in one large specialized integrated circuit (ASIC).
12. The circuit according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that is provided by the hybrid circuit containing power semiconductor devices of the voltage converters (Tiefsetzer), and which, preferably, may be manufactured and mounted in a module.
13. The control method of the protective circuit according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that provided the nominal value of the current, a switching element (S1) is actuated only after a predetermined time exceeding the current rating of the protective circuit.
14. The method according to item 13, wherein the additional value of the current limit exceeds the value of the rated current, and after a set duration exceeding the value of the current limiting protective circuit is deactivated corresponding output terminal (1).
15. The method according to item 13 or 14, characterized in that when the voltage is lower than the input voltage of the protective circuit is deactivated corresponding output terminal (1).
16. The use of protective circuitry according to one of claims 1 to 5 as a current-limiting protective circuit at the output of the power supply unit installation of direct voltage.
SUBSTANCE: in a stabiliser, comprising an input capacitor, a transistor, a diode, a throttle, a current sensor and an output capacitor, parallel to the input capacitor there are the following components connected in series - an upper stabilitron, a current stabiliser and a lower stabilitron, joined to a negative pole of the input capacitor, parallel to the upper stabilitron there are the following components connected - an interlocking device, connected to an upper comparator, an operational amplifier and a reference voltage divider, a sawtooth oscillator, an upper comparator and an operational amplifier, and a bridge circuit is connected in parallel to the lower stabilitron, including a transistor of an optical transistor and three resistors, and also a lower comparator. At the same time devices are used for galvanic isolation of control elements.
EFFECT: expansion of input voltage range, simplification, reduced cost, increased reliability and convenience of the stabiliser operation.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering.
SUBSTANCE: voltage switching unit with protection against current overload includes electronic switch which supplies the power to load unit and to overload freezing unit. Overload freezing unit freezes the activation of electronic switch at initial supply of input voltage and provides the deactivation of electronic switch when the current is higher than the specified one. Additionally introduced shaper of delayed pulse unlocks the electronic switch, provides the specified delay relative to the supply of input voltage.
EFFECT: improving reliability of the device owing to excluding the current stabilisation mode at any kinds and modes of load, and enlarging functional capabilities owing to tuning of current commutation time relative to supply of input voltage.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: integrated power supply voltage converter is intended for efficient conversion of power supply voltage for low-capacity and low-voltage devices that operate from batteries and accumulators to voltages that are less than voltages of chemical power supply sources. Circuit of integrated power supply voltage includes the following components: substrate for circuit arrangement, output unit connected to power supply source and generating output signal, control unit, which controls output unit by means of feedback, unit of low-frequency filter, function of which is to level output signal received from output unit, control unit is equipped with source of reference voltage, voltage divider, clock signal generator and error detector, besides voltage divider transforms signal from reference voltage source and sends it to input of error detector, where signal is also supplied from output unit as well, and further from error detector control signal arrives to permitting input of clock signal generator, and output unit is arranged as based on switched capacitors in the form of two cascades connected in parallel, the first of which comprises capacitor (17), one p-channel transistor (18) and three n-channel transistors (19, 20, 21), the second cascade comprises capacitor (22), p-channel transistor (23) and three n-channel transistors (24, 25, 26), besides transistors of output unit cascades are controlled by two paraphrase signals from clock signal generator "input 1" and "input 2" so that "input 2" signal is sent to transistors (18, 20, 21) and (24), and signal "input 1" is sent to transistors (19, 23, 25, 26), transistors are connected so that depending on level of "input 1" and "input 2" signals, which may either be high or low, at the moment of time, when "input 1" signal is of high level, and signal "input 2" is of low level, current passes through transistors (18, 19) and capacitor (17) from power supply source to output, besides capacitor (17) is in charging phase, and through transistors (25, 26) and capacitor (22) from common bus to output, besides, capacitor (22) is in discharging phase, and at the moment of time, when "input 1" signal is of low level, and signal "input 1" is of high level, current passes through transistors (20), (21) and capacitor (17) from common bus to output, besides, capacitor (17) is in discharging phase, and through transistors (23, 24) and capacitor (22) from power supply source to output, besides capacitor (22) is in charging phase, and at the same time, both in charging or discharging phase of capacitors (17) and (22) current flows in one direction towards outlet of output unit.
EFFECT: achievement of low output voltages and improved efficiency factor at low energy consumption.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed diode-transistor bridge relates to electrical engineering, particularly to electrical machines and can be used in structural couplings with magnetic bearings. Diode-transistor bridge comprises supply diagonal and load diagonal incorporating at least one inductor coil (8). Note that throttle (7) is additionally included in load diagonal, RC-circuit (9) being connected in parallel to said throttle. Capacitor (12) and power source are connected in said supply diagonal, the latter being connected via separating diode (13). Transistors (5,6) connected into bridge arms have no common connection point. Storage capacitor (12), throttle (7) with RC-circuit (9) and separating diode (13) connected in the diode-transistor bridge in proposed manner, allows a notable reduction in consumed power of the bridge, diametre of conductors connected to power supply and its overall dimensions.
EFFECT: higher reliability, reduced dependence of source weight-and-size upon consumed power.
SUBSTANCE: connector for a high voltage and frequency converter has one circuit board. One input terminal and one output terminal are separately placed on two sides of said circuit board. The disclosed circuit board is characterised by that a ferrite nut and a varistor are mounted on said circuit board. The ferrite nut is placed at the end of the input terminal of the circuit board and the varistor is placed at the end of the output terminal of the circuit board. The design is not complex, is easy to maintain and reuse.
EFFECT: enabling filtration of numerous electric power supply noises due to that the ferrite nut and the varistor are placed between the input terminal and the output terminal of the circuit board, and also providing safe and reliable operation of electrical circuits.
SUBSTANCE: device for protection of equipment connected to a high-voltage DC line comprises a current valve (12), comprising at least one semiconducting device (13) and a rectifying element (14), connected back-to-back with it. A discharger (16) for protection against spark overvoltages is configured to connect the specified current valve (12) to the specified line (2), and a control unit (15) is configured to control the current valve (12), so that it serves as a conductor for removal of current from the line (2) to the ground (11).
EFFECT: protection reliability improvement.
13 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: safety device (1) comprising at least one protective element (FS, SD1, SD2) for protection of an electric system against negative impact and/or damage as a result of a fault event, and comprising a facility (2) for diagnostics to detect a functional condition of a safety device (1), depending on the case of application of the proposed protective device, has a metering device and a device for detection of fault event recognition. The metering device is designed to measure a voltage curve between the first and second point (3, 4) of measurement, besides, the metering device is arranged so that if the device for fault event recognition on the basis of a row of previously established criteria detects a fault event, then the metering device inspects, whether the voltage curve satisfies the row of previously established criteria. The safety device (1) is determined by a facility (2) of diagnostics as serviceable, if the voltage curve registered by the metering device satisfies a row of previously established criteria, and as non-serviceable, if the voltage curve registered by the metering device does not meet a row of previously established criteria.
EFFECT: reduced costs for monitoring, inspection or maintenance of considered safety devices.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises at least one protective element (SD1, SD2), designed to protect an electric system against damage and/or breakage whenever an emergency situation occurs. This safety device (1) is equipped with a device (2) for recognition of a condition, which realises monitoring of the specified at least one protective element (SD1, SD2), and is arranged as capable of making measurements to detect a fact of establishment of predetermined condition of the specified at least one protective element (SD1, SD2), and also a switching device (3), which is controlled by the specified device (2) of condition recognition, and is arranged as capable of deactivation of the specified at least one protective element (SD1, SD2), if the device (2) for condition recognition detects a fact of establishment of the predetermined condition of the specified at least one protective element (SD1, SD2).
EFFECT: development of a safety device, its testing, and repair with minimum costs.
9 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention has two body frames divided by power-limiting barrier. In the first body frame there are contacts (terminals) of leads supplying power and subject to sparking or ignition that is why this body frame is made explosion-proof. Power-limiting barrier provides limitation of power that can be delivered potentially to the second body frame up to the level when sparking (ignition) is impossible. It allows making the second body frame explosion-proof without performance of explosion safety requirements and producing all user interface elements (keys and indicators) in more economic way.
EFFECT: provision of compliance with explosion safety requirements.
39 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to overload protection. Proposed system comprises data transfer line (DTN) incorporating assemblies interconnected by data transfer lines (DTL), solid-state device connected with DTL and machinery structure, that is, ''earth''. In compliance with other version, protection system comprises casing with conducting section, DTL arranged inside said casing, solid-state devices connected in between casing conducting section and DTL. Another version comprises data bus (DB), overload protection deviuce connected therewith, assembly connected with protection device and ''earth''. ''Earth'' is used as a common wire of DTN.
EFFECT: higher reliability.
33 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: overvoltage protection device (1) comprises a voltage surge limiter (2) and a disconnecting device (3) with electric contacts (4, 6). The disconnecting device comprises the first connecting electrode (40), electrically connected with the first contact site (41), the second connecting electrode (50), electrically connected with the second contact site (51), and the third switching electrode (60), electrically connected with the second contact site (51). The actuating mechanism (7) moves the third electrode (60) for forced execution of permanent opening of electric contacts (4, 6). The protection device comprises a disconnector (9) from short-circuit currents connected in series between the third electrode (60) and the second contact site (51). The disconnector is switched off from the circuit, when the electric arc (100) is thrown over between the first connecting electrode (40) and the second connecting electrode (50).
EFFECT: improved efficiency of short-circuit protection.
16 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: protective device with double alarm and several protective functions is located between telecommunication cable and commutator and includes protection circuit, the first alarm circuit and the second alarm circuit. Protection circuit consists of two identical protection modules which are located on two different signal lines respectively. Each protection module includes thermal resistor and fuse, which are in series connected to one of the signal lines, as well as semiconductor discharge tube and voltage-controlled resistor, which are connected between signal line and earthing wire.
EFFECT: improving reliable protection of service personnel when high voltage is being supplied to the protective device.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a throttle (1) and a capacitor (2), which form an LC-filter, a reed relay (3), the first output of which is connected to an anode of a diode (4), and the second output is connected to the throttle (1) and a cathode of an additional diode (5). The cathode of the diode (4) is connected to the first output of a charging resistor (6), the second output of which is connected to an anode of the additional diode (5) and to the first output of the resistor (7), included into a voltage divider made of resistors (7), (8) and a capacitor (9). The second output of the resistor (7) is connected to the input of a threshold device (10) and to the first outputs of the resistor (8) and the capacitor (9), the second inputs of which are connected to the ground. The second output of the throttle (1) is connected to the first output of the reed relay winding (11), to a cathode of a limiting stabilitron (12) and to the first output of the capacitor (2). The second output of the capacitor (2) and the anode of the limiting stabilitron (12) are connected to the ground. The second output of the reed relay (3) winding (11) via an electronic key (13) is connected to an input of a controller of a submersible remote measurement unit. The threshold device 10 output is connected to a control input of the electronic key (13).
EFFECT: increased accuracy of power circuit elements insulation resistance measurement.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to monitor insulation resource includes treatment of equipment with the specified treatment frequency, which exceeds the industrial frequency at least by a factor of ten, measurement of instantaneous voltage values on electric equipment, comparison of measured instantaneous values modules with a rated value of the amplitude voltage at the electric equipment, detection of overvoltage, detection of value, which is in inverse relation with the detected permissible duration of exposure to each of the detected overvoltages, and its addition to the current value of the spent insulation resource. At the same time the specified value is periodically subtracted from the current value of the spent insulation resource, if overvoltages are not registered for the specified period of time, which makes it possible to take into account recovery processes that occur in the insulation in case overvoltage is not available for a long period of time.
EFFECT: increased validity of the spent insulation resource monitoring and provision of possibility of a more complete usage of the available electric equipment resource without reduction of operational reliability.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: surge protection of railway signaling devices.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has protection stages series-connected to line conductors and isolated by low-induction resistors. Each stage has parallel-connected varistor and capacitor. Series-connected in line conductors at input of first stage are limiting inductances in the form of transformers with gas-filled arresters inserted in their secondary windings whose center taps are grounded. Voltage limiter is connected at output of last stage in parallel with capacitor.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of protective gear, enlarged range of protected equipment.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: radio communications; protection of antenna-feeder assemblies.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device designed for protecting antenna-feeder assemblies against pulse surges set up due to lightning discharges that incorporates provision for electrical connections between input and output required to transfer supply voltage of antenna amplifier, for neutralizing adverse impact of high capacitances of voltage limiters on high-frequency channel characteristics, and for keeping induced voltage pulses in circuit being protected at minimal level has high-frequency line and series-connected isolating filter and arrester whose second lead is connected to ground; newly introduced in device are low-frequency line and second isolating filter; low-voltage line has low-pass filter incorporating low-voltage limiter; input of low-frequency line is connected to junction point of first isolating filter and arrester and its output, to input of high-voltage line through second isolating filter; T-shaped high-pass filter is inserted in high-frequency line between junction points of isolating filters.
EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering and power electronics.
SUBSTANCE: fuse serviceability is indicated by light-emitting diode. Voltage regulator diode functions to limit voltage surges across load. Novelty is introduction of diode and second light-emitting diode indicating probable breakdown OF voltage regulator diode.
EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities and enhanced reliability.
2 cl, 2 dwg