Method of determining dryness of stream of wet steam
SUBSTANCE: method of determining dryness of wet steam involves measuring pressure in a controlled stream of steam. A steam sample is then collected from the controlled stream, the collected sample is throttled into a flow chamber and calculations are carried out based on the measured parameters. The collected steam sample flows from the first flow chamber into a second flow chamber. Both chambers are placed in the controlled stream of steam or other heating medium. Pressure and temperature is measured in each chamber. After the second chamber, flow rate, pressure and temperature of the collected sample is measured. The value of flow rate is then established based on parameters measured in the first chamber.
EFFECT: determining dryness of a stream of wet steam without condensing the collected sample.
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The invention relates to the technical physics, namely to the field of determining the degree of dryness and other thermodynamic parameters of wet steam can be used to determine the degree of dryness, as at the sites of production and consumption of saturated and wet steam.
The level of technology
Analogue of the invention is a method, comprising: measuring pressure in a controlled steam flow, sampling from the monitored stream, heating the sample up to a complete evaporation of the liquid phase, overheating of the heated samples, the condensation of the hot samples, measurement of temperature and energy on heating until complete evaporation of the liquid phase, the temperature measurement and energy to overheating, the calculation on measured parameters. [Patent of Russia, having got no 1772705. The method of determining the degree of dryness of wet steam].
With essential features of the invention match the following set of features analog: "measurement of pressure in a controlled steam flow, sampling from the monitored flow, calculation of the measured parameters.
The disadvantages are the counterpart.
A. the Need to measure energy for heating selected samples of wet steam until complete evaporation of its liquid phase;
B. the Need for energy measurement on overheating take samples from humid the CSOs steam heated until complete evaporation of its liquid phase;
C. Condensation of the hot sample pair.
The prototype of the invention is a method, comprising: measuring pressure in a controlled steam flow, sampling from the monitored flow, throttling selected sample in a flow cell with a volume of water, the condensation of the selected sample pair in the volume of water, flow measurement and temperature of the running water before and after the camera, the calculation on measured parameters. (Patent RF №2380694, the Method of controlling the degree of dryness of wet steam).
With essential features of the invention match the following set of features of the prototype: "measurement of pressure in a controlled steam flow, sampling from the monitored flow, throttling selected sample in a flow chamber, the calculation of the measured parameters.
The disadvantages of the prototype are
A. Condensation take samples of wet steam.
The challenge which seeks the invention is a method of determining the degree of dryness of wet steam.
During implementation of the invention can be obtained the following technical result
A. determination of the degree of dryness of the flow of wet steam without condensation take samples.
This technical result is achieved because:
"measure the pressure in a controlled steam flow, select a sample pair of the counter is controlled stream, drossellied selected sample in a flow chamber, calculated using measured parameters;
the sample pair of the first flow chamber is supplied to the second flow chamber; both cameras are placed in a controlled flow of steam or other heating medium in each chamber to measure the pressure and temperature after the second camera measure the flow rate, pressure and temperature of the selected samples; set the amount of flow parameters measured in the first chamber".
The distinctive characteristics from the closest analogue, expressed by the following combination of characteristics:
"the sample pair of the first flow chamber is supplied to the second flow chamber; both cameras are placed in a controlled flow of steam or other heating medium in each chamber to measure the pressure and temperature after the second camera measure the flow rate, pressure and temperature of the selected samples; set the amount of flow parameters measured in the first chamber".
Thus, the objective of the invention is resolved.
List of figures
Figure 1 shows the diagram of a device for implementing the method of determining the degree of dryness of wet steam".
Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention
Figure 1. shows a diagram of a device for implementing the method of determining the degree of dryness of wet steam". Echostruct contains:
- steam 1 pressure sensor 2;
node sampling pair with the orifice 9 in the line selection;
camera 10 with gauges 3 and temperature 4;
- the camera 11 with the pressure gauges 12 and temperature 14;
the flow meter selected sample pair 7, with pressure gauge 6 and a temperature meter 5;
the valve 8 to control the flow of selected samples;
computer 15 connected with the outputs of all of the probes.
The operation of the device is as follows. Regulating valve 8 set flow rate selected samples, in which the camera 10 is installed steam temperature which is not higher than the temperature of the saturating vapor. Then, produce a small increase in consumption. Monitor compliance with the temperature in the chamber 10, the temperature of the saturating vapor. When this condition in the chamber 10 there is complete evaporation of the liquid phase. That is, in the camera 10 saturated steam.
Saturated steam from the chamber 10 into the chamber 11, where there is a significant overheating.
From the chamber 11 hot sample pair comes in line with the temperature measurement 5, pressure 6 and flow 7.
During the experiment, registered the following values of measured parameters:
- Pressure in the steam line, (Rcouples=12,4 MPa);
- Pressure in the chamber 10, (R10=1.4 MPa);
The temperature in the chamber 10, ( 10=200°C);
- Pressure in the chamber 11, (P11=1,3 5 MPa);
The temperature in the chamber 11, (t11=290°C);
- Flow in-line flow meter sample pair (G7=0.06 kg/s).
Set the flow rate in the sampling line with the condition that the camera 10 has been saturated steam (or insignificant superheated steam).
In the chamber 11 will be obtained substantially superheated steam.
Cameras 10 and 11 are identical, the external conditions for these cameras are identical, through the chambers are of equal mass selected sample of wet steam.
In the camera 10 evaporation; on the entrance - two phase (steam) - output single phase [saturated steam (or insignificant superheated steam)].
In the chamber 11 overheating - input and single-phase output stream.
Of steam into the chamber 10 enters the wet steam:
where Gsamplesthe flow of wet steam from the steam in the chamber 10;
G - flow steam phase in a selected sample of wet steam;
G' is the flow rate of the liquid phase in the selected sample of wet steam.
From the chamber 10 into the chamber 11 receives saturated steam:
where Gn- consumption of saturated steam from the chamber 10 into the chamber 11.
From the chamber 11 in the line of site of consumption is supplied superheated steam:
where Gnthe flow of superheated steam from the chamber 11 to the node of the control flow.
The difference of heat flow is and the outlet and the inlet chamber 11 determines the heat flow to the sample vapor coming through the walls of the chamber 11 from the heating medium, encased camera, for example, the controlled flow of wet steam in the steam line.
where Q11- heat flow from the heating medium into the chamber 11;
inthe enthalpy of saturated steam from the chamber 10;
inthe enthalpy of superheated steam from the chamber 11.
Heat flow from the heating medium in the camera 10 (Q10several more of the heat flow from the heating medium into the chamber 11 (Q11) mainly due to various values of the temperature differences inside the chambers and the heating medium, such as steam.
It follows from the identity of the material and the geometry of the chambers of the identity of external conditions (e.g. temperature wet steam in the steam line corresponds to the pressure to complete its condensation), as well as from the fact that the temperature of saturated steam in the chamber 10 below the temperature of superheated steam in the chamber 11.
That is: ΔQ10=k·ΔQ11=1,2042*3,066=3,692 kcal/sec
where k is the compliance rate of heat flow Q10and Q11.
This coefficient can be determined from the following equation:
where η is experimentally determined correction. In calculating taken η=1,0.
Heat flux with a sample of wet steam from the steam in the chamber 10
where Qsamples- heat flux with a sample of wet steam from the steam in the chamber 10. The flow rate of the vapor phase in taken from the steam sample:
where i is the enthalpy of the vapor phase in a controlled flow of wet steam;
i' - enthalpy of the liquid phase in a controlled flow of wet steam.
The degree of dryness (x) wet steam in the steam line:
The method of determining the degree of dryness of wet steam, comprising: measuring pressure in a controlled steam flow, sampling a pair of controlled flow, throttling selected sample in a flow chamber, a calculation on the measured parameters; characterized in that the sample pair of the first flow chamber is supplied to the second flow chamber; both cameras are placed in a controlled flow of steam or other heating medium in each chamber to measure the pressure and temperature after the second camera measure the flow rate, pressure and temperature of the selected samples; set the amount of flow parameters measured in the first chamber.
SUBSTANCE: method of determining volatility and heat of vaporisation of a mixture of liquid substances from the rate of evaporation from a flat surface involves establishing a correlation relationship between volatility values, calculated using known reference data, for individual liquid substances selected as calibration liquids, and the rate of evaporation thereof, determined based on data from thermogravimetric analysis carried out in isothermic conditions when an equilibrium state is achieved. The rate of evaporation of the analysed mixture is determined and the volatility value is found from the correlation relationship. The heat of vaporisation of the mixture of liquid substances in the analysed temperature range is determined using the relationship between the found volatility values and temperature. The value of the heat of vaporisation is determined from the value of the slope of a linear graph, the abscissa of which is the value of the inverse absolute temperature and the ordinate is the logarithm of the product of the experimentally determined volatility value and the absolute temperature value.
EFFECT: high reliability and objectivity of estimating volatility of not only individual liquids, but also mixtures thereof at different temperatures, broader functional capabilities of the method of determining volatility.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of controlling detached vapour voidage and phase velocity of wet steam in a steam pipe includes measuring static steam pressure, dynamic pressure and dynamic vacuum in an initial mode and in two flow modes varied based on flow rate, restoring the initial static pressure in the varied modes. Computation is then performed, said computation including measurement of dryness of wet steam.
EFFECT: enabling realisation of the method on a stream without measuring mass flow of wet steam.
SUBSTANCE: essence of the claimed method consists in formation of the desired thermal condition of a solid body by non-contact one-way non-destructive heat impact on the surface of the latter by means of a source of infrared radiation in the laboratory and experimental conditions. The onset moment of steady-state thermal condition of the solid body is set by the analytical method. Upon reaching the steady-state thermal condition the temperature fields of surfaces of the solid body are simultaneously recorded with a non-contact temperature measuring instrument and a mirror reflector which field of vision comprises the rear surface of the solid body. The heat flow density in the direction towards the front surface of the solid body from a source of infrared radiation is fixed with a heat gauge mounted on the front surface of the solid body under study. Experimental estimated determination of the coefficient of thermal conductivity of a solid body is carried out in the zone of steady-state thermal condition according to the equation of thermal conductivity for a flat plate.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of measurement of thermal conductivity coefficient.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sample is heated to temperature of polymer binder decay. Filler content is calculated by variation of a sample mass, taking into account the ash residue in process of polymer binder decay defined under conditions identical to composite decay. At the same time the variation of the sample mass is defined according to a thermogram.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of detection of filler content in a polymer composite, reduced time of analysis, lower labour and power inputs.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method to display a temperature field of an object includes measurement of temperature in different points of its surface. Previously an object image is introduced into a computer base, and the image is displayed onto the screen, the points of temperature measurement on the surface of the object are displayed on the object image on the monitor screen, and after performance of measurements and treatment of results of measurements in the computer the image of the temperature field of the object is formed on its image with software.
EFFECT: simplified design of technical facilities used to vary temperature field of an object.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: in the method to measure relative air humidity based on measurement of difference of oscillation frequencies of resonators - a working and a reference ones with subsequent amplification of an analytic signal and regeneration of film coatings with an inert gas, three piezoquartz resonators are used with internal oscillation frequencies of 13-16 MHz, two of which are working ones with different hydrophilic coatings, properties of which are optimised for operation in a certain range of temperatures, and one is a reference resonator without a film coating, which supports the permanent frequency of oscillations, at the same time the device is equipped with a switch of working resonators.
EFFECT: measurement of relative air humidity in a wide range of temperatures, also in the negative range, higher accuracy of measurements, reduced time of regeneration of film coatings of resonator electrodes.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is used for testing of aircraft (AC) thermal protection to determine its thermal properties and serviceability. The proposed device comprises a heat vacuum chamber with a metering module placed in it, in which there is a high-temperature heater installed, being located between two tested fragments of thermal protection, behind which there are two calorimeters with thermocouples and security heat insulation, and an automated heating and measurement control system. Calorimeters are installed relative to tested fragments of thermal protection with a gap, and heat control coatings are applied onto opposite surfaces of the fragment and the calorimeter. Calorimeters are divided into sections. The automatic system is equipped with a block for control of gas pressure in the heat vacuum chamber and in the metering module.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of test results due to approximation of AC thermal protection testing conditions to conditions on location.
FIELD: fire-prevention facilities.
SUBSTANCE: in implementation of the method a check of individual values of quality of wood construction elements is carried out, then the dangerous sections are revealed, breed and type of wood, the value of its auto-ignition temperature, the type of rolling wood covering and ignitability values of its elements are revealed, the thickness and values of thermal diffusion of fire-retardant layer material for wood of the covering boarding is identified, and using the obtained values of quality of the elements, according to analytical expression, the fire resistance limit of wood covering of the building is revealed.
EFFECT: elimination of fire tests of wooden structures in the building, reduction of labour intensity in determining the fire resistance of wood covering with the structural fire protection, expanding the technological capabilities of determining the actual fire resistance of differently engineered wood coverings, the ability of the testing the wooden structures for fire resistance without violation of functional process in the building, improving the accuracy and expressiveness of testing.
9 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method is proposed to determine specific volume burning heat (VBH) of combustible gas in a bomb calorimeter, including preliminary measurement of the calorimetric bomb measurement with the error higher than the required error of specific VBH determination, preliminary determination of an energy equivalent of the calorimeter, filling of the calorimetric bomb with analysed gas in working condition and then with compressed oxygen. When the bomb is filled with a calibrating and analysed gas, final pressure of gas in the bomb and bomb casing temperature are measured. The energy equivalent and specific VBH of analysed gas are calculated with account of water evaporation into the bomb volume. Also a device is proposed for filling of the calorimetric bomb with combustible gas, which additionally contains a vessel with a mixed fluid, having a thermometer for measurement of temperature of a fluid, in which the calorimetric bomb is installed.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of measurements.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sample of a lubricant material of permanent volume is heated with mixing in presence of air, measured, and the light flux absorption coefficient is determined. At the same time, at first each sample of the lubricant material is pre-heated for a continuous period of time at atmospheric pressure and fixed temperature, which in process of each subsequent test of a new sample is increased, and after each heating a sample of a lubricant material is taken with permanent mass, which is then heated with mixing in presence of air within the time established depending on the base under permanent temperature and permanent speed of mixing, which after oxidation is measured, the light flux absorption coefficient is determined. Then the graphical curve is built for dependence of the light flux absorption coefficient on heating temperature. Thermal-oxidative stability of the lubricant material is defined by heating temperature with least value of the light flux absorption coefficient.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination of thermal-oxidative stability of lubricant materials.
FIELD: building, particularly for investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing adiabatic thermal action on surface of outer structure layer with the use of disc heater arranged in plane of test probe surrounded by protective heat-insulation ring; recording time dependence of investigated material surface temperature; arranging heat flow sensor on contact surface of the second probe instead of disc heater; installing two linear heaters at a distance from disc heater of the first probe and two linear heaters at a distance from heat flow sensor of the second probe; arranging thermoelectric batteries at fixed distance from linear heaters along line parallel to line of heaters location; applying single heat impulse from linear heat sources to outer structure layers to determine heat and physical properties thereof; determining time of temperature field relaxation in controlled points; performing action of heat pulses in both probes from linear heat sources; changing heat pulse frequency up to obtain temperature in points spaced the same distances from linear heaters equal to two pre-determined values along with determining frequencies of heat pulses for the first and the second outer layers correspondingly; determining heat and physical properties of outer structure layers with the use of above information and obtained mathematical relations; performing heat action on inner structure layer with the use of disc heater of the first probe to define heat and physical properties of inner layer; recording heat flux value by sensor arranged on contact surface of the second probe; measuring temperature in points located correspondingly under disc heater and on contact surface of heat flux sensor with the use of pre-measured temperatures in above points, pre-measured value of heat flux passing through structure layers and previously obtained values of heat and physical properties of outer structure layers; determining heat and physical properties of inner structure layer on the base of mathematical relations describing temperature drop in each of three layers.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of heat and physical properties determination in multi-layer articles.
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring in given sequence of appropriate parameters with following calculation of determined characteristics on basis of certain relation. Device for determining characteristics for sublimation of liquid oil products contains sublimation retort with dimensions, allowing to place 5-15 ml of analyzed probe therein, device for heating retort in its lower portion with constant and adjusted heating intensiveness, two inertia-less temperature sensors providing for continuous measurement of true value of temperature of sample in steam couple, device for continuous pressure measurement in stem phase of sample during sublimation, which includes pressure sensor as well as capillary and receiving and signals processing sensors, sent by temperature sensors and pressure sensor.
EFFECT: simplified construction, higher speed of operation.
2 cl, 4 ex, 10 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: working body of indicator is made in form of thin metal membrane which is subject to cooling according to linear law by means of thermo-electric cooler. Direct measurement of temperatures of body and cooler is provided. At the moment of water vapor condensation the speed of cooling of membrane reduces abruptly due to consumption of cold used for cooling of moisture that condenses on surface of membrane turned to atmosphere.
EFFECT: improved precision of indication.
FIELD: thermal physics.
SUBSTANCE: device has heater, movable heat-conductive rod, set of contacts one of which is connected with rod and the other one is able to move along axis of rod. Device also has temperature pick-up and registrar. Working end of rod sharpened in shape of a cone. Rod is connected with case of heater by spring which allows to regulate force. Temperature pick-up is attached to sharpened end of rod. Heat-insulating cup is located between heater and surface of sample. Melting point can be measured without preparing samples in case when inclination or curvature of surface is presented.
EFFECT: reduced labor input.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: thermograph comprises differential thermocouple and aluminum thermal unit provided with two symmetrically arranged cylindrical holes for crucible with specimen and standard. The crucibles are made of cylinders with caps provided with copper pipes for hot junctions of Chromel-cupel thermocouples. The wires of the thermocouples are housed in the two-channel ceramic rods. The thermoelectric heating of the unit is provided with the use of temperature-sensitive resistor made of nichrome wire. The unit is mounted in the steel sealed housing with a lid and provided with a device for locking it inside the housing during cooling and heating.
EFFECT: simplified design and enhanced accuracy of measuring.
FIELD: investigating and analyzing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises heating the outer surface of the metallic layer with a disk heater and recording time dependence of the surface temperature. The heater is housed in the space of the central probe, which allows the heat flux to be directed normally to the surface of the contact of the probe with the article The ring probe is mounted concentrically to the central probe to keep the heat flux constant. To exclude the heat exchange with the ambient air, each probe is enveloped with one concentric guard ring.
EFFECT: enhanced speed of response.
FIELD: measurement technology; material quality control.
SUBSTANCE: method involves testing lubricant material sample in presence of air with stirring constant volume under optimum temperature selected with its dependence on lubricant base and a group of operational properties during a time interval characterizing equal oxidation degree taken into account. Acting in equal time intervals, absorption coefficient is measured for luminous flow absorbed by oxidized lubricant material by applying photometry methods. Viscosity and thermal oxidative stability coefficient Ktos are calculated by using relationship like Ktos = Ka μ0/μin, where Ka is the luminous flow absorption coefficient of oxidized lubricant material; μ0 and μin are the viscosities of oxidized and initial state lubricant, respectively. Graphic dependence of thermal oxidative stability coefficient against luminous flow absorption coefficient of oxidized lubricant material is plotted. Rate of oxidation end products release and their influence upon tested lubricant viscosity growth is determined from plot slope angle tangent with respect to abscissa axis after inflection point. The inflection point coordinates are used for determining the starting point the oxidation end products release begins.
EFFECT: high reliability of estimation method.
FIELD: measurement technology; material control.
SUBSTANCE: device has cool and hoot electrode, relay for supplying lowered voltage to heating element, thermocouple mounted on hot electrode and connected to it via variable resistor, galvanometer, potentiometer, transformer, unit for analyzing data and mechanism for positioning cutting tool. The mechanism has two mutually perpendicular carriages of longitudinal and transverse movement and is mounted on plate having mechanism for moving a movable throw-back cantilever having built-in hot electrode.
EFFECT: high accuracy in predicting metal-cutting instrument operation capacity.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: device has two units. The first one combines mechanical units and has casing, connection tube with gas duct. The tube branches into the main one and internal one placed inside, electrically connected to each other. Filter collecting moisture is mounted on entry to the internal tube. The third tube having entry closed from the gas flow side is formed above the internal tube surface. The fourth tube is located in the third tube. The fourth and the third tube go out from the main one. The fourth one is connected to pump which outlet is separately connected to cooler and heater. Dielectric layers cover external surface of the third tube and internal surface of the fourth one. Its dielectric properties depend on moisture amount. The dielectric layers are covered with reticular electrodes bearing temperature gages attached to them. The second unit is electric circuit for shaping, processing and recording electric signal. It has generator, bridge circuit, differential amplifier, recorder and two-channeled amplifier.
EFFECT: high accuracy in concurrently measuring humidity and temperature.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining the values of the inform-parameter for various reference petrols, plotting calibration dependence of the inform-parameter on the octane number, determining the value of the inform-parameter of a sample of petrol to be analyzed, determining octane number of the petrol to be analyzed from the calibration curve, and measuring density and temperature of the sample. The value of the inform-parameter is determined from measuring the surface tension of the sample. The octane number is calculated within temperature range 10-40oC.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining.
1 tbl cl, dwg