Shell-and-tube heat exchanger
SUBSTANCE: shell-and-tube heat exchanger includes a tube bank of variable cross section with alternating coaxial cylindrical sections which are equal as to length and have two different diameters, and divergent and convergent conical sections with optimum opening angles of the diffuser and the confuser, which connect them, and headers with tube sheets. Tubes of the bank have opposite periodic sequence of alternation of conical-and-cylindrical sections relative to each other under conditions of their longitudinal and transverse streamlining. Tubes with straight end sections of similar diameter are located in opposite vertexes of a rectangular of breakdown at in-line arrangement or in vertexes at the triangle base of breakdown of tube sheets at in-line arrangement of the tube bank.
EFFECT: improving heat transfer efficiency of tubular surface; reducing the weight and metal consumption at reduction of overall dimensions of the heat exchanger.
The invention relates to heat-exchange technique and can be used to create heat exchangers and devices for industrial and energy purposes, which are based on smooth tubular surface.
The known heat exchanger, containing a bundle of tubes of the same diameter with a triangular or rectangular breakdown and collectors with tubular boards [1, p.7-8, figure 1.1 a; s-26, table]. The disadvantage of such a heat exchanger is low heat transfer efficiency and low compactness of the surface, due to the fact that the tube bundle is made of straight smooth pipe of the same diameter.
The closest technical solution, selected as a prototype, is a shell-and-tube heat exchanger containing longitudinally streamlined chess bundle of heat exchange tubes with periodically repeated along the length diffusore-confused-profile opening angle of the cone and confuser 6-10°C, shifted to each other by a half period of the profile diffuser-confuser" .
The disadvantage of this shell-and-tube heat exchanger are reduced heat transfer efficiency and increased intensity. Marked low intensity of heat transfer in the pipes due to the weak interaction of a thread formed in the narrow section of the channel at the border confused and diffusors the x parcel with the surface in the area of maximum cross-section at the border of the diffuser and confused plots because of his "breakthrough" and the lack of opportunity more fully to follow the profile of the pipe wall under the conditions of separation and vortex formation. This reduction in the effect of intensification of heat transfer is manifested in the annular space at the outer wrap of the beam adjacent the coolant, since the control action of the form and geometry of the "elementary" tubular cells in structuring stream is not effective enough. In addition, the use of pipes of the specified profile is realized in this technical solution only in the form of chess (triangular) layout of the beam.
The objective of the invention is to increase efficiency of heat transfer tube surface, reducing the metal and increase the compactness of the heat exchanger.
This problem is solved in shell and tube heat exchanger containing a bundle of tubes of variable cross-section with alternating coaxial same along the length of the cylindrical surface with a large d1and smaller d2external diameters (d1>d2and connecting them diffuser and confused areas with optimal angles of the diffuser and confuser and collectors pipe boards, characterized in that the pipes in the bundle have the opposite of ojou relative to each other the frequency of rotation of the conical-cylindrical sections in terms of their longitudinal and transverse flow stream; in this case the axis of the beam pipe with straight end sections of the same diameter d1or d2coincide with the opposite vertices of the rectangle split pipe boards in the corridor linking, or with vertices at the base of the triangle breakdown at chess piping arrangement of the beam, and each layout option in the annular space is winding and the alternating current stream.
During implementation of the invention can be obtained following a feasibility results:
1. Improving the efficiency of heat transfer in the tube bundle due to additional turbulence in the flow, due to the creation of favorable conditions separated flow past the surface in the annular space, and in pipes with optimum conical-cylindrical profile.
2. The reduction step breakdown of tubes in tube plates through the use of profile tubes with different end diameters and the corresponding increase in the compactness of heat transfer surface and reducing the metal of the heat exchanger.
Figure 1 shows a diagram of shell and tube heat exchanger with a corridor linking pipes beam (square breakdown), longitudinal section; figure 2 - cross section A-a in figure 1; figure 3 - cross section B-B in figure 1; figure 4 is a tubular cell of the beam in cross-section A-A; figure 5 is a tubular cell of the beam in the treatment of B-B.
In the case of chess composition pipes beam (equilateral triangular splitting) scheme tubular cells in the corresponding characteristic cross-sections A-a and B-B shown in Fig.6, 7.
Tubular heat exchanger includes a casing 1 in which is placed the tube bundle 2 variable cross-section with alternating coaxial, equal in length, cylindrical surface and 6 of different diameters d1and d2(d1>d2and connecting them diffuser (b) and confused (g) conical sections with optimal angles of the diffuser and confuser, and collectors 3 and tube 4 boards. Shaped tube secured in tube plates straight ends 5 with different diameters, thus ensuring uniform distribution across the section of the annulus of the incoming primary fluid. The tubes with the same end diameters of d1or d2can be located in the opposite vertices of a rectangle or vertices at the base of the triangle split tube plates, forming a corridor (rectangular) with steps s1Kand s2K(figure 4, 5) or chess (triangular) with steps sSand s2sh(6, 7) layout of the beam. Pipes in the beam have opposite relative to each other the frequency of rotation of the conical-cylindrical sections in terms protolog and their cross flow of coolant flow.
The use of bundles of tubes of variable cross-section with the presented configuration in shell-and-tube heat exchangers will allow the intensification of heat transfer and reduction of hydraulic resistance on the outer side due to the favorable effect of foreign tear flow, reducing turbulence losses in the core of the main flow in the annular channels and internal, by generating a flow of non-stationary Microdrives at optimal angles of the diffuser and confused plots of the tubular surface. When this vortex structures formed in the diffuser sections, can be used to activate the processes of heat transfer surface in the cylindrical sections of the channel with a larger diameter d1as well as the effect of increasing the speed of the near-wall layer confused plots in cylindrical sections of the channel of a smaller diameter d2. You can also assume that the specified geometry in-line channel with optimal angles of the conical sections not only provide the minimum possible coefficient of head loss, but will also contribute to partial restoration of the velocity profile and pressure in the transition from the cone section to the confused through the connecting cylindrical pipe.
Prirate shell-and-tube heat exchanger, heat from the primary coolant, passing into the tube longitudinal channels with a complex spatial configuration is transmitted through the walls of the pipes of the secondary coolant flowing inside the pipe channels with periodically alternating conical-cylindrical sections. The result is a positive effect of additional turbulization of the flow and the greatest intensification of heat transfer on both sides of the tubular surface and the overall energy efficiency of the heat exchanger.
Sources of information
1. Bajan P.I. and other Reference heat-exchange apparatus / P.I. Bazhan, G. Canevet, V.M. Seliverstov. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1989. - 368 S.
2. Copyright certificate SU1763842 A1. Shell-and-tube heat exchanger. - B No. 35, 1992.
Shell-and-tube heat exchanger containing a bundle of tubes of variable cross-section with alternating coaxial, equal in length, cylindrical surface with a large d1and smaller d2external diameters (d1>d2and connecting them diffuser and confused conical sections with optimal angles of the diffuser and confuser, and collectors pipe boards, characterized in that the pipes in the beam have opposite relative to each other the frequency of rotation of the conical-cylindrical sections in terms of longitudinal and cross the x flow stream; in this case the axis of the beam pipe with pryamimi integral parts of the same diameter d1or d2coincide with the opposite vertices of the rectangle split pipe boards in the corridor linking, or with vertices at the base of the triangle breakdown at chess piping arrangement of the beam, and each layout option in the annular space is winding and the alternating current flow.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to system of channels intended for optimising system pressure drop-to-heat exchange and moisture transfer-to-fluid mass transfer ratios. System of channels comprises channel with its wall and preset height flow guide element. The latter extends along fluid flow and across the channel and comprises upstream and downstream parts and intermediate part arranged there between. Said upstream part deflects along fluid flow from channel wall inward the channel while downstream part displaces toward channel wall. Transition section between intermediate part and downstream part is bent to preset radius.
EFFECT: perfected channels.
19 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat engineering and can be used in heat exchangers with a tube and a chamber for movement of heat exchange media. Heat exchange chamber has an inlet, an outlet and multiple walls forming the chamber inner space. Heat exchange medium passing in the first flow direction along the initial stream line is supplied to the inlet. In inner space of chamber there located is medium direction component that has an inclined surface and deflects the medium from initial flow direction so that it is spread in inner space of the chamber. The medium leaves the chamber through the outlet along the initial stream line. Chambers are connected to each other by means of assembly formation tubes. Multiple groups of assemblies consisting of chambers and tubes are located between headers to form a heat exchanger.
EFFECT: increasing heat transfer capacity at reduction of weight of the whole heat exchanger.
38 cl, 19 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: air cooling unit of ABC GI sectional type with cylindrical displacers consists of steam supply header, several rows of inclined or vertical heat exchange tubes, condensate collection header and cylindrical displacers.
EFFECT: fundamental improvement of the design of sectional unit with air cooling due to improved efficiency of the surface use.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: steam generator pipe, where to create an internal profile that forms turbulence, at least one insert is installed in the internal space of the pipe, comprising multiple wires adjacent to internal wall of the steam generator pipe and having identical slope and arranged with the possibility of bending as the multiple thread in a helical manner lengthwise on the internal wall of the pipe.
EFFECT: simplification and reduced cost of steam generator pipes manufacturing with preservation of heat transfer characteristics.
13 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat engineering and represents methods, instruments and systems in which there is partial liquid boiling in minichannel or microchannel at least 15 cm long. Partial boiling removes heat from exothermic process.
EFFECT: eliminating non-uniform distribution of flow, instability of local heat removal, as well as temperature control during generation of steam from convective boiling in nuclear reactors.
18 cl, 45 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises stages whereat tubular case is arranged inside synthetic gas cooler to connect set of plates to said case to facilitate steam generation in synthetic gas cooler. At least one first plate with, at least, one length larger than that of second length. Said plate features nonlinear geometry and is inclined to synthetic gas cooler wall. Invention covers also the design of synthetic gas cooler and that of multiple plates therein.
EFFECT: perfected method.
20 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger contains housing having external and internal cylindrical walls connected to each other by means of radial partitions forming through-type chambers with formation of continuous circulation circuit, heat exchange plates located inside the chambers and end covers one of which has an inlet opening and the other one has an outlet opening. Internal wall of the housing is made in the form of central insert with heat exchange element located in it; inlet opening is located coaxially to central insert. Radial partitions and heat exchange plates are fixed by means of inner ends in longitudinal slots made on external surface of central insert, and their outer ends are bent along circular arc and enclosed in the housing; at that, housing is equipped with heat exchange jacket. Radial partitions and heat exchange plates are equipped with longitudinal expansion joints.
EFFECT: heat exchange intensification in heat exchanger at simplification of its manufacture and increase in its operational life at complete use of the whole volume of heat exchanger; enlarging functional capabilities of the device.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: furnace is proposed for melting of inorganic substances, including device for heat extraction from gas, containing particles of dust and (or) condensed substances, and recuperation of condensate, and including at least heat exchanger, comprising chamber with symmetry of rotation that contains a hole, providing for supply of substance for surface treatment of inner wall of above-described chamber, at the same time this chamber includes multiple inner tubes, which limit processed cavity, between tubes there is a flow of cooling medium circulating, each tube has screw with helical pitch, device comprises facilities for supply and collection of substance for surface treatment installed accordingly at the inlet and outlet of that part of device, where rotary motion of gas flow is carried out. To solve the problem assigned, method is also proposed for operation of furnace, when temperature of flue gases is brought up to approximately 700°C at the inlet of heat exchanger, besides at this temperature condensed substances released from volatile elements included into glass composition still remain in gaseous condition, and dimensions of heat exchanger are arranged such that spent gas at the outlet of device is cooled down to temperature of approximately 200°C.
EFFECT: cleaning of smoke gases and development of device that provides for a long-term extraction of heat during the whole time of flue gases generation, without disturbance of production process.
13 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in axial heat exchanger containing longitudinal external channel for the first gas medium, which passes along the axis, and many parallel internal channels for the second fluid medium, the internal channels are located in external channel so that they pass inside the above external channel in axial direction with possibility of heat transfer between the above first gas medium and second fluid medium; at that, at least one internal channel is attached at least to one elongated plate which passes in axial direction along the above internal channel so that it coincides with direction of flow of the first gas medium in external channel; at that, heat exchanger includes central channel passing along the centre or central axis of heat exchanger for distribution of the second fluid medium through internal channels.
EFFECT: improving heat transfer, especially at small difference of fluid and gas temperatures.
9 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is of relevance for operation of apparatus for air cooling of gas and is to be utilised in power engineering industry. The proposed method of the heat exchanger apparatus fabrication envisages the following activities: fabrication of finned heat exchange tubes, a framework, at least a single apparatus section with lateral walls and beams joining them together, gas inlet and outlet chambers; packing the section with a bundle of finned one-way-flow heat exchange tubes; fabrication of a manifold for gas supply and removal, a support structure and their assembly. The section walls are represented by channel bars with shelves turned towards the tubes and are equipped with fairing displacers forming the U-bar reinforcement ribs. One of the methods of the apparatus heat exchanger section fabrication envisages positioning an optimal number of tubes within the section in accordance with the dependence specified within the framework of the invention concept. An alternative method envisages assembly of the section elements on a holding frame designed within the framework of the invention concept. A third method envisages assembly of the elements in a specific sequence combined with performance of hydraulic pressure testing. The method of fabrication of the apparatus chamber for gas inlet or outlet envisages manufacture of the chamber elements and their assembly in a sequence developed within the framework of the invention concept. The method of fabrication of the gas delivery and removal manifold envisages manufacture of the manifold body sections and their assembly with the help of the tool tab designed within the framework of the invention concept. Method of hydraulic pressure testing of the apparatus sections envisages mounting the section to be tested on the hydraulic test bench designed within the framework of the invention concept with the pressure increase and drop modes as per the dependence given. Method of the manifold hydraulic pressure testing envisages it being mounted on the hydraulic test bench or a loft with the help of support structures designed within the framework of the invention concept.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness and precision of assembly of the apparatus and elements thereof combined with reduction of labour and material consumption, reduction of hydraulic losses occurring in the apparatus as well as technological simplification of the hydraulic pressure testing of heat exchanger sections and manifolds of the apparatus for air cooling of gas, improved effectiveness and reduced labour intensity of their performance.
25 cl, 30 dwg
SUBSTANCE: vortex apparatus comprises casing wit upper and lower covers, the lower one making a condensate collector, gas inlet/outlet and condensate outlet branch pipes, partitions, vortex pipe, initial compressed gas flow rate control device and condensate-separation units. Aforesaid vortex pipe includes a cold flow and hot flow pipes. Initial compressed gas flow rate control device incorporates a screw-type tightening device (STD) with adjusting washer furnished with a cross-piece with stem arranged in the STD membrane hole. The said stem passes via the cold flow pipe and through the gland in the upper cover out from the apparatus and is furnished with the rotation drive. The condensate-separation units comprise pipe laid between the said partitions, two pairs of crosswise slots arranged opposite to each other on the hot flow pipe at the distance of (1.25 to 1.45) d, where d is the pipe ID, from the STD edge and shifted relative to each other by 90°. Note that the said slots are arranged along the axis at the distance of (0.15 to 0.25) d. The circular chamber outlet channels, inside the hot flow pipe, are terminates at the gap between the casing wall and thin-wall cylinder. The hot flow pipe outlet is furnished with a nozzle and thin-wall cylinder is provided with confuser-diffuser element making an injector.
EFFECT: control over initial compressed gas flow rate by external effects and higher efficiency of condensation-separation processes.
1 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for heating liquid and gas in technological processes of oil refining, petrochemical, gas and other industries. Heat exchanger contains a casing, pipe walls and grates with heat exchange pipes. Between transverse walls damping baffles that contain rectangular disk packages mounted between rows of pipes parallel to each other in a transverse plane exchanger, and rectangular disk packages of rectangular cross section mounted between rows of pipes parallel to each other in another heat exchanger transverse plane are installed.
EFFECT: increase of endurance.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: multi-sectional heat exchanger comprises sections made of at least two rectilinear pipes whose ends are provided with collectors which are interconnected in series through a tube bend. Each section is made of a set of pipes with piping collectors. The sections are parallel one to the other. The area of the cross-section of the bend tube is no less than that of the collector pipes.
EFFECT: reduced hydraulic drag and enhanced efficiency of heat exchanger.
FIELD: heat exchange equipment, namely used in oil processing, chemical, gas, oil and power production industry branches.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger includes shell having bundle of heat exchanging tubes, inlet and outlet branch pipes for draining fluid from space between tubes, collector chamber connected with one end of shell and having branch pipes for inlet and outlet of tube fluid, collector tube wall and lengthwise heat insulated partitions mounted along axis of collector chamber and axis of shell. Lengthwise partition of shell is provided with sealing members in the form of packs of longitudinal bands arranged between partition and inner surface of shell symmetrically relative to lengthwise partition. In places where cross ends of sealing longitudinal bands adjoin to tube wall that is in trihedral angles, sealing units in the form of packs of bands or petal- or lug-shaped plates are mounted symmetrically relative to lengthwise heat insulated partition. Said packs are closely secured to tube wall; each band or plate is arranged in such a way that it adjoins to longitudinal bands and has camber to side of sealing longitudinal bands.
EFFECT: possibility for providing labyrinth seal of trihedral angle between inner surface of shell, sealing longitudinal bands and tube wall.
4 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: heat-exchangers, particularly submersible ones.
SUBSTANCE: heat-exchanger comprises body perforated with orifices located at cylindrical inlet chamber height, tube plate, tube bundle arranged so that coolant is directed transversely to the tube bundle. Heat exchanger also has displacers and spacing grid. Hexahedral collector is formed on tube bundle at inlet chamber height so that the collector is coaxial to the body. The hexahedral collector perimeter is free of tubes. Radial channels extend from collector corners to tube bindle perimeter. The radial channels are also free from tubes. Displacers are installed in spacing grid below inlet chamber.
EFFECT: possibility of uniform coolant flow over each heat-exchanging tube, provision of equal temperature characteristics at each tube outlet and reduced vibration of tubes in tube bundle.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger comprises pipes with spiral-ring fins. The fins are provided with longitudinal slots. The pipes in the heat exchanger are arranged vertically.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: heat exchange.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger comprises housing with front and back supporting lags of different height, lens compensator, pipe bundle with branch pipes for supplying and discharging heat-transfer agent, and front water chamber with the baffle which divides the pipe bundle into two sections. One of the sections is provided with branch pipes for supplying and discharging fluid to be heated, and the other section defines the back water chamber. The lens compensator is mounted in the vicinity of the back water chamber, and back supporting lag of the housing is provided with the additional supporting unit and mounted on the housing upstream or downstream of the lens compensator.
EFFECT: improved heat exchange and enhanced reliability.
FIELD: heat exchange apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: surface heat exchanger comprises casing provided with bearing lags, lens compensator, pipe bench with branch pipes for supplying and discharging heat-transfer agent, and front water chamber with the baffle that divides it into two sections. One of the sections is provided with the branch pipes for supplying and discharging of the fluid to be heated, and the other section defines the back water chamber. The pipe bench inside the housing is separated by the horizontal baffle provided with the by-pass port interposed between the lens compensator and back water chamber. The top and bottom sections of the pipe bench are separated with the vertical baffles arranged symmetrically to each other.
EFFECT: improved heat exchange and enhanced heat power and reliability.