Hydraulic ram

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: hydraulic ram comprises feed pipeline with impact valve, air chamber with pressure valve and branch pipe and cylinder with piston. Feed pipeline is furnished with flow switch with guides for impact valve, nozzle with outlets and working sections, each being communicated with flow switch.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, expanded applications.

 

The invention relates to a pump engineering turn out, in particular for hydraulic structures Taranov, and can be used as a water-lifting device.

Known hydraulic RAM (hydracarina installation), containing the supply pipe with a shock valve on the end and an air cap to the discharge pipe (USSR Author's certificate No. 964259, CL F04F 7/02, 1981).

However, in the known device the end of the feed pipe when closed, the shock valve forms a tight barrier, which when water hammer occurs, the reflected shock wave that propagates along a feed line toward the liquid source and take away some of the energy of the hammer. The energy of the hammer, which is most concentrated in the area of the shock valve, partially scatters the reflected wave at the approach to the discharge valve, because of the shock valves spaced between a horizontal pipe section. In addition, when the water passes through the pipes and valves of the energy is extinguished due to the pressure pulsation and turbulence flows, which significantly reduces the efficiency of the device.

Known hydropneumatic Taran containing working chamber with shock and discharge valves, the main air cap with the discharge pipe, the power cylinder with a piston and reverse clapano and capacity, when this RAM is equipped with advanced air cap with check valve and a pipe connected with the working chamber via a check valve, and with the capacity - through the pipe and is installed after the power cylinder, and the latter has a discharge duct and exhaust openings, and the shock valve is made in the form of a spring-loaded truncated cone (USSR Author's certificate No. 1328588, CL F04F 7/02,1985).

A disadvantage of the known hydro-pneumatic ramming is the lack of coherence of the drum and discharge valves, as when water hammer occurs, the reflected shock wave that propagates along a feed line leading to reduced reliability because of the frequent change of compression and again opening shock valve when the presence of the spring, which leads to breakage and replacement of the latter. In addition, the pressure difference of the fluid along the length of the working chamber and in front of each air hood running at the same time, reduces the efficiency is low efficiency, while the discharge valve during the closing hits the metal saddle, so that the reflected shock wave is directly related to the different valve designs shock valve. Free play shock valve is quite small and is not associated with the volumetric weight of the liquid, as it is located on the horizontal section of the RA the eyes of the camera. Disassembly and Assembly of such a valve, which is the operation that often have to do when operating hydracarina, is performed with great difficulty.

The purpose of the invention is to improve the efficiency and expand the scope of through the use of energy of fluid flow in the feed line, the synchronization operation shock and discharge valves, and reducing the dynamic pressure of the liquid column on the discharge valve.

This objective is achieved in that the hydraulic RAM (containing the supply pipe with the shock valve, an air cap with pressure valve and the nozzle, the cylinder with the piston, the supply pipe is equipped with a flow switch, a nozzle with outlet openings and provided with work areas, each of which is connected hydraulically with the switch of the flow guides of the shock valve, and guides consist of vertical and inclined segments. In addition, the shock valve flow switch is located below the saddle nozzle and shut-off above the saddle shifted relative to the inlet opening of the work area, communicated with the air cap through the discharge valve, and in the direction of closing the discharge outlet of the flow switch, with valve with hydraulic actuator is introduced into the pipeline after PE is cluches stream.

This design hydraulic RAM is easy to operate, with easy access to the valves. Perform hydraulic switch provides protection shock valve due to its aerodynamics, reliability and fluid with a stable estimated consumption. At a certain density shut-off ball (valve), for example, from 1.05 to 1.1 g/cm3regarding the specific weight of water is sustainable operation of the latter in the cavity of the device. Upon termination of the fluid in the work area with air cap, due to the presence of shut-off ball (valve) in the nozzle, is closing the outlet opening in flow switch, i.e. rapidly closing hole at a certain speed outflow that retains the remainder of the liquid in the working area, and thereby creates the possibility of the absence of liquid in the flow switch (at the moment of its liberation from the pressure of the fluid). Using the flow switch is working on the energy flow of the fluid in the working chamber, where the closing of the valve with hydraulic actuator with the piston increases the volumetric efficiency of each of the air cap separately compared to similar devices of the talus type. The device working areas when the hammer (they are partially filled by the remainder of the liquid allows the liquid stream with the rapid closing of the shock valve in one of the sections of the thread switch move progressively forward, increases the useful work of hammer and ensuring increased productivity each air cap for the consumer.

The present invention allows to extend the scope of application of hydraulic Taranov, as it provides automatic adjustment of the shock valve in the cavity of the flow switch and shut-off valve in the nozzle. The weight of the valve (ball) reaches in the range of 1.05 to 1.1 g/cm3on average 1,08 g/cm3regarding the specific weight of water.

Hydraulic RAM such constructions do not depend on the fluctuations of water elevations upstream of the working chamber. Collaboration percussion and additional shut-off valves, i.e. functioning at closing or opening the valve with hydraulic actuator that can be operated both in manual and in automatic mode, or from the control center (not shown), increases the reliability of the device. Thus, the admission of fluid flow may alternately in left and right work area with air cap with pressure valve.

It should be noted that the ratio of the shut-off ball (valve) to the diameter of the outlet in the flow switch is not more than 0.7 (the durability of the ball depends on the material: rubber, plastic and other).

Thus, the invention significantly increases the efficiency the efficiency of operation and reliability of the hydraulic RAM in this relationship work flow switch with shock valve and nozzle with non-return valve, and hydraulically connected with the working area of the air cap from the discharge pipe.

It should additionally be noted that after the first cycle filing and disable fluid flow occurs in the second cycle, on and off in the second air cap pressure pipe and, consequently, the pressure in each working area is increased. Shock valve in the form of a ball placed in the flow switch can pass, completing a full cycle, which includes several cycles of the stroke of the shock valve, and all the time, making movement around the vertical rod 90, placed in the center of the flow switch.

Figure 1 schematically shows a hydraulic RAM, a longitudinal section; figure 2 is a section a-a in figure 1; figure 3 is a cross-section B-B in figure 1; figure 4 - switch design flow in the scan and the scheme of the trajectory of the shock valve; figure 5 - a section b-b In figure 4.

Hydraulic RAM provides the supply pipe 1 and valve 2 hydraulic. Case 3 cylinder control valve connected to the hydraulic tubes 4, 5 of the control piston 6, respectively, with 7 remote control.

The flow switch includes a housing 8, a limited top nozzle 9 and the bottom 10 a perforated disk with holes 11, 12. Nozzles 9 is a horizontal pipe separated PE is gorodki 13 into two chambers 14, 15 with a return ball valves 16, 17, overlying the outlet openings 18, 19 in the upper part of the flow switch, which alternately lowered into the seat holes 18, 19. Nozzles 9 and the disk 10 are connected by a rod 20, and the outlet openings 17, 19 are placed coaxially perforation of the lower disk 10 with holes 11, 12. Each chamber 14, 15 is communicated through the inlet holes 21, 22 work stations 23, 24, provided with an air caps 25, 26 with the discharge valves 27, 28 and discharge pipes 29, 30.

On the inner surface of the housing 8 flow switch is placed vertical guides 31 a, 31 b, 31 b, 31 g and inclined guides 32 a, 32 b below the nozzle 9, and also above the disk 10.

Vertical guides 31...31 g are shifted relative to each other on the magnitude of impact of a ball valve 34. In addition, vertical guides connected with inclined guides, and, respectively, with the bases of the head and disk.

On the principle of the flow switch with the shock valve - push-pull (open, closed). In the first step with increasing fluid pressure shock valve 34 rises to the nozzle 9 in the area opposite to one of the outlet openings, for example, the hole 18. With decreasing fluid pressure shock valve 34 is lowered to the disk 10 is rotated 90. In the second step with increasing fluid pressure shock the valve 34 is lifted off with a 90 rotation to the nozzle 9 and closes another outlet 19 and so on takes the position opposite to the placement of the inlet disk 10. In this case shock valve 34 is located below the seat holes 18, 19 of the nozzle 9, and the shut-off valve 16, 17 above the saddle holes 18, 19 in the chambers 14, 15, and shifted shutoff valves relative to the opening of the inlet holes 21, 22 of the work area 23, 24.

Hydraulic RAM operates as follows.

Before admission of fluid flow in the supply pipe 1 shock valve 34 is in its original position, i.e, for example, above the hole 11 in the base of the disk 10. When the flow of the liquid in the supply pipe 1 valve 2 hydraulic Assembly stops the flow after the flow switch and case 3 cylinder control valve 2 is connected by a hydraulic tubes 4, 5 of the control piston 6, respectively, with 7 remote control (manual operation is possible, and others).

The liquid fills the casing 8 flow switch, shock valve 34 is fond of fluid flow and moves along a rectilinear guides 31A and 31B, then along the inclined guide 32A at the upper part of the lower nozzle 9, sharply overlaps one of the outlet openings 19 under the action of pressure in flow switch, forming a hammer.

At the same time when filling flow switch fluid shut-off valve 17, overlying the outlet opening 19, p is animalsa in the chamber 15, the nozzle 9 up. But, since the share of the shutoff valve 17 (16) is 1.05...1.1 g/cm3on average 1,08 g/cm3regarding the specific weight of water, what happens ahead of the fluid flow in the initial period. As a result, the abrupt closing of the outlet 19 of the shock valve 34 reflected wave of the fluid flow is directed in the work area 24, the discharge valve 28 is opened and the liquid is expelled into the air cap 26 and further to the discharge nozzle 30. When the attenuation of the energy of the surge discharge valve 28 is closed and the flow of fluid in the working area 24 is terminated. At this time, the shut-off valve 17 is in the upper position of the camera 15, the nozzle 9 is supplied by a partition 13. Upon termination of the supply fluid in the supply pipe 1, or the opening of the valve 2 hydraulic transit, shock valve 34 is lowered down and to the right along the guide rails 31B, b and 32A, and is located above the other of the input hole in the disk 5. When this shut-off valve 16, 17 are lowered into the socket holes 18, 19 of the nozzle 9, closing the latter, and in work areas 23, 24 is formed of the residual liquid, as the outflow from the last missing partially into the body of the flow switch. The next submission of fluid flow in the flow switch in the second cycle enable this feed pipe 1 and thus the consequently, shock valve 34 moves upward along the guide rails V, g and 32b, making the turn around the rod 20, sharply again closes the second hole 18, forming a hammer, which enters the second air cap 25 and then the liquid flows into the discharge pipe 29. The total volume of the given liquid to the consumer increases. This completes a full cycle of the switches and the process is repeated in the already described sequence, and the shock valve 34 all the time making moving around the rod 20 is rotated 90.

Outlet openings 18, 19 of the flow switch must be run by the ratio of their diameter to the diameter of the shock ball valve is not more than 0.7 and the mass density of such valves from 1.05 to 1.1 g/cm3on average 1,08 g/cm3, this eliminates jamming of the shock valve 34 in the seat with calibrated holes 18, 19 (for example, material - rubber and so on). This improves the functional ability of the flow switch and the shock valve 34 starts to operate stably when the current pressure of not less than 1.0 m in the feed line 1.

The outputs of the holes 18, 19 of the top in the chambers 14, 15, backward ball valves 16, 17, which also allow you to automatically close the discharge outlet of the flow switch on top at the moment is clucene operation of the flow switch. This means to maintain a balance of fluid in the working areas 23, 24, i.e. at the moment of cessation of fluid flow in the flow switch.

An integrated approach in the work of the hydraulic RAM is to establish functioning elements of the proposed device in one unit.

In this arrangement, the hydraulic RAM locations of each of the air cap and filled the remainder of the liquid and when the hammer allows the fluid to move progressively forward (not to backtrack in the form of a reflected wave) with shut-off valves 16, 17, working on raising the level of water in the body of the flow switch. Shock valve 34 operates on the power feed line 1, which increases the volumetric efficiency of each device of the air cap, independently from each other in comparison with similar installations RAM type. The increase in volume is useful feed is achieved by the use effect of the shock valve in the pressure flow switch located on the pressure feed line and requires no additional expenditure of other energy.

Near injection valves air caps due to the residual liquid in the working areas precluded the formation of large efforts that are harmful for the particular design, and it's durability.

The use of straight line segments guides in combination with inclined stabilizes the trajectory of the shock valve 34, respectively, improves the flow switch.

Automatic action synchronizing device with shock valve and hold the latter in certain relative positions, i.e. rotating at a given angle, ensures reliable operation of each air cap pressure pipe, in the work RAM is continued automatically.

The present invention allows to extend the scope of application of hydraulic Taranov, as it provides automatic control of the movement of the shock valve without jamming when changing the level (pressure) in the body of the flow switch and improved performance.

1. Hydraulic RAM containing the supply pipe with the shock valve, an air cap with pressure valve and the nozzle, the cylinder with the piston, characterized in that, to improve efficiency and expand the scope of through the use of energy of fluid flow in the feed line and synchronize the operation of the shock and discharge valves, and reducing the dynamic pressure of the liquid column at the discharge valve, the supply pipe SN is been the flow switch a nozzle with outlet holes, equipped with work areas, each of which is connected hydraulically with the switch of the flow guides of the shock valve.

2. Hydraulic RAM according to claim 1, characterized in that the guides consist of vertical and inclined segments.

3. Hydraulic RAM according to claim 1, characterized in that the shock valve flow switch is located below the saddle nozzle and shut-off above the saddle shifted relative to the inlet opening of the work area, communicated with the air cap through the discharge valve and in the direction of closing the discharge outlet of the flow switch.

4. Hydraulic RAM according to claim 1, characterized in that the valve with hydraulic actuator is introduced into the pipeline after a thread switch.



 

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