Technique and device for automated control over crops productional process with regard for self-organisation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to the field of agriculture. The method includes calculated or instrumental determination of exergy values of plant radiation parameters. In a complex multi-factor system "plant - environmental factors - control factors" they select an order variable from a large number of variables, and this variable is the most quickly varying and most intensely acting at processes in the system, also control parameters are selected, with the help of which it is possible to influence productional processes of plants. At the same time the order variable is inflow of optical radiation exergy to plant in respect to plant photosynthesis. The control parameters are temperature, air moisture, soil moisture, concentration of mineral elements of root nutrition. For arid southern zones of agriculture with excess of solar optical radiation and lack of moisture, the order variable selected is soil moisture - exergy of soil water potential. For northern cold areas of agriculture the order variable is ambient air temperature - exergy of temperature potential, and total exergy of optical radiation in respect to plant photosynthesis for these areas of agriculture is included into the number of control parameters. The device comprises a comparator, a timer, a memory unit, a sensor of solar radiation exergy, an ambient temperature sensor, a soil temperature sensor, a soil moisture sensor. The control logical switchboard has five control switches. At the same time inputs of control switches are connected to the first, second, third, fourth and fifth outputs of the control logical switchboard. The sensor of optical radiation exergy capacity is connected to the fifth input of the control logical switchboard. The unit designed for functioning under conditions of arid southern areas of agriculture with excess of solar optical radiation additionally contains a unit for calculation of soil water potential exergy, the output of which is connected to the first input of the comparator. The unit designed for functioning under conditions of northern cold areas additionally contains a unit for calculation of temperature potential exergy, at the same time the output of the unit for calculation of temperature potential exergy is connected to the second input of the memory unit.

EFFECT: inventions make it possible to increase productivity of plants and to increase energy efficiency of crop sector.

2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of agriculture, particularly crop production technologies, and can be used in industries as greenhouse and field crop production.

Known methods and devices of control of production process plants, for example, by heating greenhouses, providing for measuring the effective value of the radiation depending on the spectral sensitivity of the plant and the temperature of the plant habitat. These include the calculation of the values of air temperature, comparing the measured value with its given value, and the automatic regulation of the air temperature inside the greenhouse [sventizkiy I.I., Sulacco VG, Storozhev P.I., Efanov VI ON reconciling temperature cultivation areas with optical irradiation // Mechanization and electrification of socialist agriculture. 1968. No. 2. P.24-28; sventizkiy I.I. Environmental bioenergy plants and agricultural production. Pushchino: an SSSR. NTS biological research. Institute of Agrochemistry and soil science. 1982. 222 C. (see str-173)]. There is also known a method and apparatus control the growth process of plants containing the sensor optical radiation(exergy), the computing unit, the calculated values of exergy, a comparator, a control key. The device evaluates the degree of sosr is of plants, and considering this is the process control [control Method and control plants growing process and device for its implementation. Patent RU 2282979 C1, 10.09.2006, bull. No. 25].

The closest in technical essence to the proposed are a method and apparatus of automatic control of the production process of plants taking into account the self-defining variable order, namely, the total exergy of optical radiation in relation to photosynthesis of plants [Patent RU 2350068, BI No. 9, publ. 27.03.2009,].

A disadvantage of the known technical solutions is the inability to fully realize the potential productivity of plants in conditions of extreme farming, namely, in the hot arid climates where solar radiation can adversely affect crop yields and quality, as well as in conditions of cold climate when the main negative impacts are low temperature. Under these conditions, the costs associated with the consumption of material and energy resources in the cultivation of plants is high, and it is impossible to determine physiologically and economically feasible variables of order, points in time impact on the process of growing the concrete batch plants in soil and climatic conditions of the contract is to maintain the region, i.e. physiologically and economically feasible sequence of process control in the plant.

The objective of the invention is to improve the economic and energy efficiency of crop production by increasing plant productivity while reducing energy costs in the performance of the process.

In use of the present invention determine the potential productivity of plants in specific growing conditions and manage the process of growing plants, ensuring the achievement of this production.

The above technical result is achieved by the fact that the proposed method of automatic control of the production process of plants taking into account self-organization, including payment or instrument of the definition of the exergy values of the parameter of the functional state of the plant, involving a complex multivariate system "plant - environmental factors - factors controls from a large number of variables the choice of one - variable order, the most rapidly changing and most strongly influencing processes in the system, and the choice of control parameters, by means of which possible impacts on production processes of plants, at the same time as moving the Noah about choosing the inflow to the plant exergy of optical radiation in the ratio of photosynthesis of plants, as control parameters - temperature, humidity, soil moisture, concentration of mineral elements root nutrition in arid southern areas of agriculture with excess solar optical radiation and lack of moisture as a variable order chosen by the soil moisture - exergia soil water potential, and for the Northern frigid zone agriculture as a variable order chosen by the ambient air temperature - exergia potential temperature and total exergia optical radiation in relation to photosynthesis of plants for these areas include agriculture in the number of control parameters.

The technical result is also achieved by the fact that the automatic control device production process of plants taking into account the self that contains a comparator, a timer, a memory unit, the sensor exergy of solar radiation, the sensor ambient temperature sensor, soil temperature, soil moisture sensor, managing logical switch with five control keys, to the first, second, third, fourth and fifth outputs of the logical switch is connected to the inputs of the control keys, power sensor exergy optical radiation is connected to the fifth input of the logical switch in the node designation is hydrated to function in the arid southern areas of agriculture abundant solar optical radiation, put the block of calculation of the exergy of soil water potential, the output of which is connected to the first input of the comparator, and a site that is designed for operation in conditions of the North frigid zone, put the block of calculation of the exergy of thermal capacity, and the unit output calculation of the exergy of thermal potential is connected to the second input of the memory block.

The method is as follows:

1) in a complex multivariate system "plant - environmental factors from a large number of variables chosen one of the fastest-changing and most strongly influencing processes in the system (variable order):

for arid southern areas of agriculture with excess solar optical radiation at the lack of moisture as a variable order chosen by soil moisture (exergia soil water potential);

for the Northern frigid zone agriculture as a variable order chosen by the ambient air temperature (exergia temperature potential);

2) then choose the control parameters, by means of which possible impacts on production processes of plants:

for arid southern areas of agriculture with excess solar optical radiation most efficiently take as parameters to control values of climatic factors on m is d approximation of their values relative to the minimum value, namely, temperature, humidity, concentration of mineral elements root nutrition, total exergy optical radiation in respect of plant photosynthesis;

for the Northern frigid zone agriculture in the most efficient way to take in as parameters to control the values of the climatic factors as they approach values relative to the minimum value, namely, temperature, soil moisture, concentration of mineral elements root nutrition, total exergy optical radiation in respect of plant photosynthesis;

3) in the subsequent management of the system into account, mainly the variable order and control parameters;

4) for the considered system and the specific growing conditions of the plants measure the value of a variable order;

5) test on the basis of the actual state determines which of the control parameters is relatively low, i.e. changing any of the control parameters will lead to the most growth indicator of the functional state;

6) produce effects on the plant, by changing the value of parameter control in relative minimum in the direction of its increase to a value not greater than 5% of its actual value;

7) assess changes in the actual condition of the plants displaced by the Neu order or other indicator, selected as an indicator of functional status, under the current power value of the exergy of radiation in the zone of plants;

8) if the value of the variable order is increased, producing the effect by changing the value of the same parameter of the control in the direction of its increase to a value not greater than 5% of its initial value;

9) if the first impact on the control setting value to a variable order declined, carry out a new impact, reducing the value of the control parameter to a value not greater than 5% of its initial value. Then move to item 7 above sequence of operations in respect of another control parameter whose value is approaching relative to the minimum value;

10) impact on plants produce before the termination of the change of variable order;

11) produce effects by changing the value of another parameter control according PP-12 the above sequence of operations;

12) this operation is carried out alternately with all control parameters, and then perform the first control setting. All measurements of a variable order and change the control settings are made at intervals of not more than 3 hours.

Thus, the method will provide control of the process of growing plants with regard to the process of example is lennosti natural, energy-efficient self-organization processes occurring in the plant in accordance with the principle of energy extreme of self-organization, thus the account of this orientation is assessed according to the indicator of the functional status of the plants (variable order)that have an impact, if the value of the functional state of an organism or community decreases, forcing change is not consistent with the self-organizational focus and this change must be reversed.

The essence of the invention illustrated by figure 1, 2. Figure 1 is a given structural diagram of a node that is intended for use in hot climates, figure 2 - block diagram of the node that is intended for use in cold climates.

In figure 1 the device includes a soil moisture sensor 1, the unit of calculation of the exergy values of soil water potential 2, timer 3, a memory unit 4, a comparator 5, managing logical switch 6, the temperature sensor soil 7, the air temperature sensor 8, the power sensor exergy optical radiation 9, control keys 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.

The output of the soil moisture sensor 1 is connected to the first input of the computing unit, the calculated values of exergy soil building 2, the output of which is connected to the first input to which paratore 5. The first output of the memory unit 4 is connected to the second input of the comparator 5. To the first, second, third, fourth and fifth outputs of the logical switch 6 is connected to the inputs of the control keys 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. The power sensor exergy optical radiation 9 is connected to the sixth input of the logical switch 6. The first output of the timer 3 is connected to the second input of the computing unit, the calculated values of exergy soil water potential 2, and the second output of timer 3 is connected to the seventh input of the logical switch 6. The second output of the memory unit 4 is connected to the eighth input of the logical switch 6, the ninth input of which is connected to the temperature sensor soil 7, the tenth input is connected with the air temperature sensor 8, and the eleventh input with the output of the comparator 5.

In figure 2 the device comprises an air temperature sensor 15, the computing unit estimated exergy thermal capacity 16, a timer 3, a memory unit 4, a comparator 5, managing logical switch 6, the temperature sensor soil 7 soil moisture sensor 17, the power sensor exergy optical radiation 9, control keys 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.

The output air temperature sensor 15 is connected to the first input of the computing unit, the calculated values of exergy thermal capacity of 16, the output of kotorogodostoevskiy to the first input of the comparator 5. The first output of the memory unit 4 is connected to the second input of the comparator 5. To the first, second, third, fourth and fifth outputs of the logical switch 6 is connected to the inputs of the control keys 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. The power sensor exergy optical radiation 9 is connected to the sixth input of the logical switch 6. The first output of the timer 3 is connected to the second input of the computing unit, the calculated values of exergy soil water potential 2, and the second output of timer 3 is connected to the seventh input of the logical switch 6. The second output of the memory unit 4 is connected to the eighth input of the logical switch 6, the ninth input of which is connected to the temperature sensor soil 7, the tenth input is connected to the soil moisture sensor 17, and the eleventh input with the output of the comparator 5.

The device operates as follows.

When working at time intervals determined by the timer 3, is monitoring the values of the control parameters:

a) for a device, scheme of which is shown in figure 1, the temperature, humidity, power exergy of solar radiation;

b) for a device, scheme of which is shown in figure 2, the humidity, the capacity of the exergy of solar radiation, soil moisture.

Simultaneously, at time intervals determined that the Merom 3, is monitoring values characterizing variable order:

a) for a device, scheme of which is shown in figure 1, exergia soil water potential;

b) for a device, scheme of which is shown in figure 2, exergia temperature potential.

Retrospective value of the variable order and control parameters are stored in memory block 4 and determine the optimal values of control parameters. In addition, the memory block are tests the physiological status of plants in the photosynthetic rate. The information stored in the block memory Manager uses logical switch 6 to select the control parameters that are in scope relative minimum, and to compare changes in the exergy of the variable order in the implementation of the control.

The site, designed for operation in hot climates (figure 1), the soil moisture values measured by the soil moisture sensor 1, transform the computing unit exergy soil water potential 2 in the exergy values of soil water potential (variable order), which is recorded in the memory unit 4.

The site, designed for operation in the Northern frigid zone (figure 2), the temperature of air measured by the air temperature sensor 15, transform vychisleniyami values of exergy thermal capacity 16 in the value of the exergy potential temperature (variable order), which is recorded in the memory unit 4.

Produce impact on the plant, changing the value of one of the control parameters (impact on one of the control keys 10, 11, 12, 13 or 14)in the relative minimum in the direction of its increase to a value not greater than 5% of the actual values. At the next step of monitoring the comparator 5 compares the current value of the exergy variable order with a value of exergy variable order, which was received in the previous phase, and stored in the memory unit 4. The control switch 6 evaluates the changes in the actual condition of the plants on the variable order. If the value of the indicator of the functional status increased, the control switch 6 produces effects by modifying the value of the same parameter of the control in the direction of its increase to a value not greater than 5% of its initial value. If the first impact on the control setting value to a variable order declined, carry out a new effect, lowering the value of the control parameter at a value not greater than 5% of its initial value. If the value of the indicator of the functional status increased, managing logical switch 6 produces effects by modifying the value of the same parameter of the control in the direction of decrease the value of big is e 5% of its initial value. Then move to item 5 above sequence of operations. Effects on plants produce before the termination of the change of variable order in the changes of the selected management option. This operation is carried out alternately with all control parameters, and then perform again from the first control setting. All measurements of a variable order and change control settings produce at intervals of not more than 3 hours

It remains only to automate the processes of a field or greenhouses based on physiologically and economically feasible criteria to ensure the highest productivity of plants, and to generate the control signal for the effects of changing environmental factors affecting the process. Method and device implement the steps of measuring the required changes in environmental factors affecting the efficient use and setting values of exergy, their mutual comparison, alarm and control according to the result of the comparison.

1. The method of automatic control of the production process of plants taking into account self-organization, including payment or instrument of the definition of the exergy values of the parameters of irradiation plants, involving a complex multivariate system "plant environmental factors - factors controls from a large number of variables the choice of one - variable order, the most rapidly changing and most strongly influencing processes in the system, and the choice of control parameters, by means of which possible impacts on production processes of plants, the variable order chosen by the inflow to the plant exergy of optical radiation in relation to photosynthesis of plants, and as control parameters - temperature, humidity, soil moisture, concentration of mineral elements root nutrition, characterized in that arid southern areas of agriculture with excess solar optical radiation and lack of moisture as a variable order select soil moisture - exergia soil water potential, and for the Northern frigid zone agriculture as a variable order chosen by the ambient air temperature - exergia potential temperature and total exergia optical radiation in relation to photosynthesis of plants for these areas include agriculture in the number of control parameters.

2. The automatic control device production process of plants taking into account the self that contains a comparator, a timer, a memory unit, the sensor exergy of solar radiation, the sensor ambient temperature, of date the IR temperature of the soil, the soil moisture sensor, managing logical switch with five control keys, wherein the first, second, third, fourth and fifth outputs of the logical switch is connected to the inputs of the control keys, power sensor exergy optical radiation is connected to the fifth input of the logical switch in a site that is designed for operation in conditions of arid southern areas of agriculture with excess solar optical radiation entered the block of calculation of the exergy of soil water potential, the output of which is connected to the first input of the comparator, and a site that is designed for operation in conditions of the North frigid zone, put the block of calculation exergy temperature potential, while the output of the calculation unit exergy temperature potential is connected to the second input of the memory block.



 

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2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. In the method in carrying out biochemical analysis after ripening fruits and berries the fruits and berries storability is determined by determining the quantities of natural weight loss in the control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage during the control period of time. The extreme values of their maximum and minimum are obtained, of which the minimum values correspond to the long-term storability, and the maximum - to the short-term in determining the activities of catalase and peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase, in control fruits and berries. The dependences of amounts of natural weight loss are obtained in control fruits and berries on the activities of catalase and peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase in them, and the anticipatory forecasting is carried out. The activity of catalase and peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase is determined in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops, the dependences of amounts of natural weight loss are obtained in control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage on the activities in the wood tissues of grafts, which are compared, respectively, with the dependences of amounts of natural weight loss in control fruits and berries on the activities of catalase and peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase in these fruits and berries. The comparison is carried out experimentally and on a single occasion. The extreme values of maximum and minimum activity of catalase or peroxidase or polyphenol oxidase in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops are determined. The anticipatory forecasting is carried out by the extreme values of maximum and minimum of their activities. At that the fruits and berries collected from fruit and berry crops which activity of catalase in the wood tissues of grafts, respectively, has extreme values of the maximum, and which activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in the wood tissues of grafts has extreme values of the minimum, are due to long-term storage.

EFFECT: method enables to reduce the time of placement of fruits and berries for storage at the expense of an anticipatory forecasting of storability prior to their ripening, and extend the abilities of the method implementation.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to fruit growing. The method comprises determining the quantities of natural weight loss of control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage during the control time period after ripening and harvesting them in the summer-autumn period. In the method according to the first version the total value of glucose and fructose in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops in the winter-spring period which precedes the summer period of growing fruits and berries, ripening and harvesting in the summer-autumn period, is determined. The dependences of values of natural weight loss in control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage on the total value of glucose and fructose in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops are obtained, in which the minimum quantities of natural weight loss correspond to the maximum values of total glucose and fructose in wood tissues of grafts, corresponding to long-term storability. The maximum values of the natural weight loss correspond to the minimum total values of glucose and fructose in the wood tissues of grafts, correspond to the short-term storability. According to the second version the sucrose content in wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops in the winter-spring period is determined, the dependences of values of natural weight loss in control fruits and berries under conditions of cold storage on the content of sucrose in the wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops are obtained, in which the minimum values of natural weight loss correspond to the maximum sucrose content in wood tissues of grafts, corresponding to long-term storability. The maximum values of natural weight loss correspond to the minimum sucrose content in wood tissues of grafts, corresponding to short-term storability. At that, the subsequent prediction of storage of fruit and berry production is carried out according to determining the total value of glucose and fructose or sucrose content in wood tissues of grafts of fruit and berry crops in the winter-spring periods.

EFFECT: inventions enable to reduce the time of placement of fruit and berries for storage, provide early prediction of storage of fruit and berry products long before the ripening of fruits and berries.

2 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, namely, to selection. The method includes growing of individual plants in the field within a population and their rejection - selection by the ratio of SC/BC (selection criterion/background criterion) with account of the nature of ecological regression. At the same time the selection criterion is mass of plant seeds, and the background criterion is the value of the diameter of the lower internode of the main shoot of the plant in the phase of complete ripening. The value of the lower internode diameter of the main shoot of the plant is measured under field conditions with the help of vernier callipers. The mass of plant seeds is determined by tearing of fruitage from a plant in the field, subsequent threshing of fruitage and weighing of the produced seeds under laboratory conditions.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce duration of background criterion accounting process, to increase accuracy of selection of highly productive forms of soya beans with simultaneous simplification of selection method, and also to expand the list of used background criteria.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and forestry. The method includes soil treatment under trees. At the same time terraces are formed downstream the slope at 1-2 m from the tree crown with length of 4-5 m and height of 15-30 cm depending on slope steepness. Prior to ripening of seeds and their falling the area and the terraces are treated with the biopreparation Baikal EM-5.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase efficiency of common yew seeds preservation.

1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: agricultural production, in particular, plant growing.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has device for measuring area of stem section and working tools. On the basis of measurements, voltage supplied to working tools is adjusted. Optimal conditions are created for plant treatment regardless of diameter of stems. Also, power consumption is reduced owing to employment of end switches adapted for automatic switching-off of power units of working tools in case of "idle stroke".

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced power consumption.

2 dwg

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