Hydraulic engineering boom
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic engineering boom comprises vertical supports fixed in the bottom soil and made of pipes of larger diameter, and a horizontal wave-breaking element connected to them. Vertical supports are arranged at two sides of the horizontal wave-breaking element and are connected to each other. Inner cavities of the vertical supports are filled with lean concrete. The horizontal wave-breaking element is made of a reinforced concrete pipe of larger diameter, ends of which have concrete plugs with a fastening steel bracket. Vertical supports are connected with the horizontal wave-breaking element by steel chains.
EFFECT: increased extent of wave breaking and extended service life of a structure.
The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used in the construction volarovich Wallnerstrasse structures. Famous breakwater containing fixed in the bottom ground vertical support and connected with them submerged horizontal Wallnerstrasse element (Patent RF №2223359, IPC E02B 3/06, publ. 10.02.2004,).
The disadvantage of the breakwater is the low durability of the pipes already worn out, which are the main elements of the invention, the insufficient degree of wave breaking.
An object of the invention is to increase the service life of the device and increasing the degree of wave breaking.
The problem is solved in the bonds of hydraulic containing fixed in the bottom ground vertical supports made of large diameter pipe, and connected with them horizontal Wallnerstrasse element, and the vertical supports are located on two sides of the horizontal Wallnerstrasse element and are connected, characterized in that the internal cavity of the vertical supports are filled with lean concrete, and the horizontal Wallnerstrasse element is made of reinforced concrete pipes, the ends of which have a concrete tube with steel mounting bracket and vertical support is connected to the horizontal valnor Rusaudit element steel chain.
In addition, vertical supports located on two sides of the horizontal Wallnerstrasse element submerged in the bottom of the reservoir perpendicular to it. Horizontal Wallnerstrasse element is made of reinforced concrete pipes of large diameter and has a sealed concrete plugs at the ends with steel straps. Floating in the form of a float Wallnerstrasse element significantly reduces the height of the roll and surge waves on the shore, thereby calming the waters in the area of lay-bys near the shore and preventing the ambrosia and water erosion of the coastal zone. This allows to increase the degree of wave breaking, thereby to protect and to stop the destruction of the shore and to facilitate the mooring of vessels in the area of their sludge.
In Fig. presents the boom hydraulic, General view in the cut. The boom hydraulic contain fixed in the bottom ground vertical support 1 and connected with them horizontal Wallnerstrasse element 2. Vertical support 1 and the horizontal Wallnerstrasse element 2 is made of concrete pipes of large diameter, while the inner cavity of the vertical poles 1 filled with lean concrete. Vertical supports 1 are located on two sides of the horizontal Wallnerstrasse element 2 and connected by a steel chain 3. In the upper surface of the vertical supports 1 in lean concrete embedded steel bracket 4. G the horizontal Wallnerstrasse element 2 has at the ends sealed concrete tube 5 with steel straps 4. The boom hydraulic gather in a chain of alternating vertical poles 1 and horizontal Wallnerstrasse elements 2.
The boom hydraulic work as follows: the effect of increasing the degree of wave breaking is achieved by the number of chains along the coastal protected areas. The greater the width of the waters in the protected zone and, respectively, above the height of the waves, the greater the number of chains of the vertical poles 1 and horizontal Wallnerstrasse element 2 connected by a steel chain 3 with steel brackets 4, the upper surface of the vertical supports and the concrete tubes 5, located at the ends of the horizontal Wallnerstrasse element, it is necessary to mount. At high levels of wave crests freely passes through the boom hydraulic, but clipped the underwater component of the waves to the shore and transferred half the amplitude of the wave. The following chain Bon hydraulic reduces the amplitude of another half, and so on. The result is a suppression of the abrasive and erosive destruction of coast and reduction;wave height in the coastal zone. The boom hydraulic't make environmental violations in the aquatic environment. Wave impact on the protected area is virtually eliminated, expanding the diversity is the diversity of habitats of aquatic vegetation, benthic organisms and plankton, improve habitat conditions for fish spawning habitat fry. For vessels in coastal protected area in chains, Bon hydraulic made breaks of the appropriate size in a checkerboard pattern.
The claimed invention allows to increase the degree of wave breaking and to increase the service life of the structure through the use of concrete pipes.
Bon hydraulic containing fixed in the bottom ground vertical supports made of large diameter pipe, and connected with them horizontal Wallnerstrasse element, and the vertical supports are located on two sides of the horizontal Wallnerstrasse element and are connected, characterized in that the internal cavity of the vertical supports are filled with lean concrete, and the horizontal Wallnerstrasse element is made of reinforced concrete pipes, the ends of which have a concrete tube with steel mounting bracket and vertical support is connected to the horizontal volmarstein element with steel chains.
SUBSTANCE: retaining wall comprises front piles, anchor piles, at least one anchor bar and units of fixation of anchor bar ends accordingly to front and anchor piles. Each unit of anchor bar fixation to appropriate front or anchor pile is made in the form of a tongue and groove joint made of two locking elements. One of the specified locking elements is fixed on the pile so that its upper end is arranged above the water level in the water area. The second locking element is connected with the help of a hinged joint with one of ends of the anchor bar and is installed as capable of vertical reciprocal motion relative to the tongue and groove locking element, fixed on the pile. Lengths of the specified locking elements of the unit of fixation of at least one end of the anchor bar are arranged such that possibility is provided for a mobile locking element to move together with the joined end of the anchor bar below the water level in the water area for the specified depth and its fixation in the point located above the water level in the water area.
EFFECT: possibility to install and fix anchor bars of a retaining wall from a floating facility with elimination of underwater technical works.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wall comprises a face wall, elements of which are partially submerged into a base soil, and anchor traction rods arranged in a soil fill, every of which is arranged in the form of a flexible tape. Each flexible tape is made of a polymer material and comprises steel wires pulled along the flexible tape from its one end to the other, and the surface of the flexible tape at its both sides is structured with transverse ribs made of polymer, which increase intensity of soil and flexible tape interaction. Each flexible tape is connected to the face wall at its rear side by means of coverage of a cylindrical element on the face wall to form one or two free ends of the flexible tape, every of which with selected weakness is jammed in the stable part of the soil fill. The surface of the steel wire may be structured by irregularities.
EFFECT: reduced volumes of works in manufacturing of anchor traction rods, increased reinforcing effect at soil, which reduces pressure of soil fill at a face wall.
8 cl, 9 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: device is installed on a discharge slope 5 of a sand beach perpendicularly to an arriving wave. The device comprises a cylindrical shell 1 and paired retaining walls. The cylindrical shell 1 is arranged from a fabric material and is filled with water 6. Closed strips 2 of fabric material are put onto the cylindrical shell 1 with the interval along its length. The diametre of the closed strip 2 is selected with account of the possibility to form two retaining walls of the specified height. Paired retaining walls are arranged at the opposite sides of the cylindrical shell 1 on the inner surface of closed strips 2. Retaining walls are made of bags 9 filled with beach soil. Sides of closed strip 2 parts are made with aprons 3. Retaining walls are pressed at sides with the help of aprons 3 and ties 4.
EFFECT: higher reliability of device fixation on a discharge slope of a beach.
SUBSTANCE: protective gasket 1 of a geomembrane 19 comprises a geogrid 2 from a polymer material and geotextile 3 and 4 attached to it at both sides. Cells 5 of the geogrid 2 are formed with imposed crossing bars 6 and 7. Bars 6 and 7 are arranged relative to the thickness δgr of the geogrid 2 in two levels and are fixed in units of crossing with each other 8. The thickness δg of the gasket 1 is determined by height in the cross section of bars 6 and 7 and thickness of geotextile 3 and 4. Cells 5 are filled with a polymer foam 9, which hardens. Cells 5 may also be filled with a polyurethane foam or foam from polyvinyl chloride nanocomposites.
EFFECT: higher reliability of geomembrane protection against piercing.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device is installed on an upstream slope 1 of a sand beach 2, inclined towards the horizon at the angle α. The device comprises a protective shell 3 and two support shells 4 and 5. Shells 3, 4 and 5 are arranged from fabric materials in the form of clinders and are fixed to each other. The protective shell 3 is filled with water 7 and air 8. The support shells 4 and 5 are arranged with a length of circumference equal to half of length of the shell 3 circumference and are filled with water by a half of the cylindrical volume.
EFFECT: device makes it possible to increase reliability of shell fixation on an upstream beach slope.
SUBSTANCE: shell of large diametre comprises a cylindrical shell ring arranged as capable of placement on an earth foundation and equipped with a support element. The support element is arranged in the form of at least one support ring rigidly fixed with the external surface of the shell above its lower edge. The plane of the support ring is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the shell. The support ring is fixed with stiffening ribs, preferably gussets, perpendicular edges of which are rigidly fixed with the shell surface and the appropriate side of the support ring. The support ring width is determined from the expression m=F/(2π R σ0), where m - support ring width, m; F - vertical rated load onto the earth foundation transferred by the shell, kg; R - external radius of the cylindrical shell; σ0 - bearing capacity of the foundation material, kg/m2. The distance from the support ring to the lower edge of the cylindrical shell depends on properties of soils of the foundation and is determined by the ratio 1/10 H÷1/40 H, where H - height of the shell taken within the limits from 1 to 20 m. The cylindrical shell, support ring and stiffening ribs are made of metal. Stiffening ribs may be arranged both from the side of ring surface, the opposite surface perceiving the earth back pressure and at both sides of the support ring.
EFFECT: invention provides for stability of thin soil-filled shells of large diametre.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes designing anti-tsunami devices, their manufacturing and installation along a shore line at least in 5 rows. The first row with the height of one third of the expected or rated tsunami wave is installed frontally to sea at the distance of water level making 10-15 golden sections from 1 m. Then in 100-150 golden sections from 1 m the second row of these devices is installed with height of 2/3 of the expected or rated tsunami wave. The third row is installed at the distance of 150-180 golden sections from 1 m and height of 1/3 of the expected or rated tsunami wave. Then the fourth row is installed at the distance of 180-200 golden sections from 1 m and height of 2/3 of the expected or rated tsunami wave. The fifth row is installed at the distance of 200-230 golden sections from 1 m relative to the fourth one with height of 1/3 of the expected or rated tsunami wave. Besides, each subsequent row relative to the previous one is arranged in staggered order.
EFFECT: lower shock force of a tsunami wave.
SUBSTANCE: breakwater comprises pneumatic, hydraulic and floating wave absorbers. A floating wave absorber is arranged in the form of a pontoon with an adjacent inclined platform and with a frontal wall permeable from the inside. The frontal wall comprises latticed segments with inner valves. Besides, under impact of waves the floating wave absorber is a supercharger and an accumulator of air and pressure for two other wave absorbers joined by pipelines with the pontoon. Pipelines are equipped with available systems of automatic feed of specified working media to them in volumes depending on wave parameters.
EFFECT: breakwater is self-aligned along with wave passage, efficiency of its wave absorbers is automatically aligned in compliance with parameters of sea disturbance, which provides for operation of a breakwater in optimal mode under preservation of normal conditions for an ecosystem in a protected water of area.
SUBSTANCE: device is arranged in the form of a monolithic structure from reinforced concrete with iron content in the concrete of at least 16.1%. The frontal part of the device is arranged as concave in a curvilinear manner similar to a wave shape, and upper and rear parts - as convex in a curvilinear manner, as a mirror reflection of the concave frontal part. The lower part of the device is arranged in the form of a flat board that is wider than the monolithic structure along the perimetre not less than the "golden section" from 1 m, the height off the ground level from 1 m, the height off the ground level not less than two "golden sections" from 1 m and to the depth of at least three "golden sections" from 1 m. The total height of the device makes at least one third of the expected height or rated height of a tsunami wave in this area. The entire surface of the curvilinear frontal part is perforated evenly with holes of diameter of not more than one fourth of the "golden section" from 1 m at the spanning angle of 120-130 degrees from the horizon. On the base board there are square holes with a square side of at least a half of the "golden section" from 1 m, and they are arranged in a staggered order along the entire base. The areas of front part coupling with the upper one are arranged as smooth. On the lower plane of the base there are teeth arranged, the front and rear planes of which are curvilinear. The teeth are arranged along the base area on sections between square holes. The width and height of each tooth is not less than the "golden section" from 1 m. At the same time the device width as a whole and its length are equal to an integer number not less than 100 for the length and at least 10 for the width of "golden sections" from 1 m.
EFFECT: reduced force of a tsunami wave.
SUBSTANCE: device is arranged on an upstream slope 1 of a sand beach 2, inclined to a horizon at the angle a. The device comprises a protective shell 3 and support elements 4 and 5. The protective shell 3 is made of fabric materials in the form of a light closed cylinder. The fabric protective shell 3 is filled by water 6 and air 7. Support elements 4 and 5 are fixed to each other and made of separate hollow units filled with water 6. Height of units is selected as at least 0.7r, where r is a radius of the protective shell 3. The design of each unit comprises facilities, making it possible to open it, fill the tank with water and close. Side surfaces of each unit are arranged with arc indents to increase the area of the protective shell support as it is rolling.
EFFECT: device makes it possible to increase reliability of shell fixation on an upstream beach slope.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river or channel banks and slopes consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: wall includes gabions formed of net and stones and laid in rows. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders oriented transversely or along flow direction and connected one to another so that gabion ridges of upper layers are offset relative that of lower ones to which they are connected. Parabola in the base of parabolic cylinder is described by the following equation: Y = (4·hg·X2)/Bg , where X and Y are parabola abscissa and ordinate, hg and Bg are correspondingly gabion width and height, here Bg = (2 - 4) hg. In particular cases net may have different shapes of its cross-section, namely trapezoidal with expanded base, stepped with decreasing steps width in upward direction, T-shaped with shoulder oriented downwards and forming foundation or L-shaped.
EFFECT: increased load bearing capacity, reduced cost for foundation building.
5 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river or channel banks and slopes consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: wall includes gabions formed of net and stones and laid in layers. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders oriented transversely or along flow direction and connected one to another so that gabion ridges of upper layers are offset relative that of lower ones to which they are connected. Wall is covered with concrete from one side. Parabola in the base of parabolic cylinder is described by the following equation: Y = (4·hg·X2)/Bg , where X and Y are parabola abscissa and ordinate, hg and Bg are correspondingly gabion width and height, here Bg = (2 - 4) hg. Wall may be reinforced with reinforcing cage from another side. In particular cases net may have cross-section of stepped shape with decreasing steps width in upward direction or L-shaped cross-section.
EFFECT: increased reliability, reduced cost for foundation building, increased service life.
5 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly river and sea structures adapted for artificial change of river flow and to protect river bank against erosion.
SUBSTANCE: device is formed as retaining wall consisting of vertical vessels and filled with ground filling. Wall is formed of vertical reinforced concrete tetrahedral pipes serially arranged in overlapped manner. Pipe diagonal lines are at an angle to flow direction so that broken contour is created in plane. The broken contour restricts river-bed downstream thereof. Lower pipe ends are embedded in ground past the depth of river bottom erosion area.
EFFECT: increased reliability, reduced material consumption and labor inputs for device building and operation.
FIELD: industrial and civil building, particularly to erect retaining and wharfage walls in ground.
SUBSTANCE: sheet piling comprises pile row driven in ground and connected one to another by locks, as well as land ties, metal distribution belt to connect land ties to wall and anchor ground protective panel. Distribution belt is composite and comprises anchor fastening units for land ties fastening located in the piles. Anchor unit is formed in each pile and made as tubular metal frame fixedly secured to each pile and as composite embedded support secured to frame and pile. Embedded support may be installed in front pile part (from water area side) or in rear pile part (from shore side). When embedded support is arranged in front pile part the embedded support is made as traverse and two guiding metal beams forming T-shaped figure in plane. When embedded support is arranged in rear pile part the embedded support is made as figured T-shaped box-like holder. Pile with anchor unit arranged inside the pile is at least partly concreted.
EFFECT: increased strength and stability of sheet piling, increased protection against corrosion and mechanical damage.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic and reclamation construction, particularly bank consolidation structures to protect river banks, dam slopes and other structures.
SUBSTANCE: flexible retaining wall has prismatic structure and includes stone, net and trusses of stable triangular shape. Flexible retaining wall cross-section defines triangular trusses composed of spacing members. Each spacing member is formed of protective concrete in which wire is embedded. The spacing members are united in triangle assemblies by twisting spacing member wire ends around transversal reinforcement bars so that triangular prism nodes are created. Triangular prism is provided with one reinforced concrete face formed of net and concrete and located from upstream prism side. Triangular prism interior is filled with stone. The triangular prism is laid in longitudinal river direction and abut river bottom by one face thereof. Upper wall slope may be vertical or extend at an angle to horizon line. Flexible apron is pivotally connected to the wall in upper pool.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of river bank protection against erosion and extended service life of the structure.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to protect sand beaches from washing away by surf. Method to prevent washing away of sand beaches includes placing of obstacles in form of closed cylinder in zone of action of incoming wave which reciprocates by rolling in zone of action of wave, thus compacting the soil. Energy of wave is used for this purpose at uprush and gravity force of obstacle at backrush. Length of closed cylinder corresponds to length of protected section of beach. Method is implanted using device consisting of shell made of cloth in form of cylinder and filled with liquid and air. Shell is made for rolling and is installed in zone of action of incoming wave.
EFFECT: protection of sand beach from washing away using energy of surf.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly to erect embankments, piers, retaining walls and similar structures, preferably in distant northern territories.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic structure comprises blocks mounted on previously prepared base. The blocks are grouped in row and placed one upon another to form face wall composed of several block layers. Each block comprises face wall member and anchoring unloading device connected with each other. The anchoring unloading device reinforces backfill ground and is made of container previously used for shipping purposes. The container comprises box-like metal case with framed bottom, two side walls, end wall closing the first container end and door connected to the second container end. Face wall member is fastened to one container end. The container is filled with backfill ground. Face wall member has height equal to that of container and width equal to that of container or exceeding container width so that side cantilever parts projecting out of container end are created. In the case of erection of pier structure including two face walls one container end is fastened to one face wall member and another container end is connected to another face wall member.
EFFECT: reduced material consumption, labor inputs and simplified hydraulic structure erection, as well as decreased hydraulic structure influence on water pool ecology during structure usage.
6 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, industrial and civil water-resources and land development.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises buried cantilever retaining wall arranged along outer boundary of territory to be protected at design depth below normal water level. Device also has deep-laid gravity drain system located from the side of territory to be protected in parallel to cantilever retaining wall. Retaining wall top is on maximal water level determined with taking into consideration wave height. Gravity drain system comprises deep-laid fissure drainage and vertical drain wells. Each drain well is connected to corresponding well, which diverts drain water. Gravity drain system may be also formed as deep-laid fissure drainage and perforated vertical inverted drain wells.
EFFECT: reduced ground water level and hydrostatic pressure acting to cantilever retaining wall from the side of territory to be protected, provision of drain flow removal, improved ecological conditions and increased seismic stability of shore protection devices.
FIELD: building of constructions in hydraulic engineering, in particular, of dike-type shore-protecting constructions.
SUBSTANCE: dike head block has lower and upper horizontal faces, rear vertical face, front and lateral inclined faces. Stair-type permeable-design wave suppressor is positioned at front face of dike head block, said suppressor being made in the form of flight of stairs with flared cells between stairs. Head block of dike may be also used for going down into water and for climbing of swimmers onto dike at health resorts.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and improved wave suppressing properties of dike head block.
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly to erect berths, wharfs and retaining walls used for shore consolidation.
SUBSTANCE: wall includes wall members of groove-and-tongue type. The wall members are to be connected by means of interlock means. Each interlock means consists of male and female members made of rolled-steel channel profiles. The male and female members are provided with extensions having round cross-sections. Male member flanges face wall member carrying the male member. Female member flanges face from wall member carrying the female member. The extensions are rigidly connected to inner side surfaces of female member flanges and to outer side surfaces of male member flanges. The extensions have cross-sectional diameters equal to 0.6-0.9 of average space between female member flange surface and outer side surface of male member flange opposite thereto in plan view. Summary clear opening defined by male member and extensions formed on outer side surfaces of both flanges thereof is less than distance between inner surfaces of female member flanges in plan view and is greater than minimal distance between confronting outer surfaces of extensions formed on inner female member surfaces.
EFFECT: increased simplicity and reduced costs of wall erection, improved wall reliability due to wall member unification and due to provision of interlock means impermeability to ground.
20 cl, 8 dwg