Method of disposal of solid household wastes and device to this end
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of soils. Method comprises placing solid household wastes in landfill bowl, disposal of drainage waters to evaporation pool, forcing wastes and air into injection wells arranged in refuse tip, and forming aerobic, transitional and anaerobic zones. Oil-bearing wastes with moisture content of 80-95% are injected into wells in frost-free season at air temperature above 5°C in amount required to allow optimum concentration of oil products in the mix with solid household wastes of 1-2 wt %. Then, air injected. Note here that aeration of refuse tip saturated with oil-bearing wastes is carried out via aforesaid oil-bearing wastes injection wells. Set of placed wastes is defined by the following formula:
EFFECT: faster setting and increased set.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 6 tbl, 1 ex
The invention relates to methods and devices joint disposal of oily and solid waste (MSW).
Known method of sharing storage of oily and solid waste, in which oil-containing waste due to the special physical, biochemical and microbiological properties decompose with the formation of biogas, while MSW density 307-493 kg/m with content of organic substances 203-342 g/kg intensively mixed with waste oil, containing petroleum oils or by-products of oil refining, when the mass ratio (3-4,5):1 and when the oil content in the mixture is not higher than 5 wt.% (see patent USSR No. 1658819 A3, IPC C05F 9/00, B09B 1/00, 1991).
For reasons that impede the achievement of the technical result when using the known method is that in the known method does not assume aeration fragments landfill body, require additional venting equipment for removal of biogas produced during the anaerobic decomposition of waste placed in conjunction with the solid waste reaches the maximum degree of precipitation of waste to be placed.
There is a method of sludge processing and cleaning of oil-contaminated soils-oxidizing microorganisms, animal manure and adsorbents, where n is the who injected portions uniformly in the range from 120 to 500% by volume of the soil, then enter the plaster. Create conditions penetration formed in the compost oxygen, resulting in intensified microbiological process with increasing temperature up to 60°C (RF Patent No. 2250146, IPC B09C 1/10, published. 2005.20.04).
For reasons that impede the achievement of the technical result when using the known method is that in the known method does not provide the use of landfill body polygon as bio-sorptional reactor for the decomposition of waste. In addition, the disadvantage of this method is the use of scarce organic fertilizers to reduce the hazard class of waste with a view to their subsequent placement in landfills.
There is a method of solid waste storage, including their placement on designated sites where disposal of solid household waste produced on specially equipped waterproofing screen sites in layers together with dietary supplements on the basis of a mixture of sewage sludge, excess activated sludge sewage treatment plants and fillers - composting plants for the recycling of solid waste, if the layer-by-layer disposal of solid household waste is mixed with dietary supplements, the colonization of microflora which-reductton is 108-10sup> 10cells/g, when the mass ratio (20-22):1 and when the provision of content dietary supplements in the amount of 5-7 wt.% from the total mass placed solid waste. (Patent RF №2247610, IPC B09B 1/00, published. 28.10.2003).
For reasons that impede the achievement of the technical result when using the known method is that in the known method does not assume the discharge of oily waste into the thickness of the array through a network of injection wells and aeration of the fragments of the landfill body, which does not allow to increase the precipitate formed anthropogenic array and a useful capacity of the disposal facility.
A device of the solid waste landfill that includes a base enclosing structures, membrane screen drainage system collection and treatment of leachate, gas gathering system, the insulating coating of the surface of the polygon (RF Patent No. 2330733, IPC B09B 1/00, published. 2008.08.10).
The disadvantages of devices of the polygon are anaerobic process conditions with the formation of biogas, require additional venting equipment for biogas collection, as well as the high duration of the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste components.
The closest method and device of the same purposes of the claimed invention on set p is Isakov is a method and apparatus for joint waste disposal, including the placement of solid waste in the bowl of the landfill, disposal of drainage water in the evaporation pond, the sequential discharge of waste and air injection wells located in the landfill body array, the formation of aerobic, transition and anaerobic zones, the waste is pumped into the wells, then pump the air, pause for 1-3 days, then repeat the process of injection wells waste and air, and for the implementation of this method used the site for placement of solid waste, including the bowl of the polygon, hidroizoliacine from the surrounding soil developed capacity of the landfill body, a network of injection wells with perforations drainage system, while the polygon additionally has a system of discharge of waste, including horizontal parallel collector combining the pumping wells, switchgear, made in the form of a horizontal slit tubes arranged in parallel to the collectors of the pumping system of precipitation, drainage system, well, and the depth of the location of injection wells is 0.5-0.8 H, where H is the depth of the bowl of the polygon, and switchgear and collectors injection wells are located in the bowl of the polygon below the freezing depth, with the bottom of the Cup of the ground is sloped in the direction to which the SBC (RF Patent No. 2406578, IPC B09B 3/00, published. 20.12.2010).
For reasons that impede the achievement of the technical result when using the known method, taken as a prototype, is that in the known method does not determine the end time of the process of compaction of solid waste that does not allow you to choose a rational way of organizing construction and other economic activities on postnegotiation space of the disposal site, there is no justification for choosing the optimal concentration of the injected mixture, which does not ensure the achievement of maximum possible precipitation of the array, resulting in the increase of the effective capacity and lifetime of the disposal facility.
The drawback of the device of the polygon, taken as a prototype, is the complexity of the organization insulation screen and system for filtering drainage water landfill body in terms of the existing waste disposal facility, which significantly limits the scope of the present invention, furthermore, the placement of wells at a depth of 0.5-0.8 H, where H is the depth of the bowl of the polygon, when the depth of modern sites of 15 m or more, it is not possible to pump waste in aerobic and transitional zones, which are most preferred for injection and biodegradation of waste in view of the high values of p is ristori, as well as the natural availability of oxygen from the surface.
The objective of the invention is to reduce the duration of the precipitation process of the array of waste co-disposal of municipal solid and oily wastes.
The technical result is to reduce the duration and increase in precipitation array with optimal concentrations of oil mixed with municipal solid waste, resulting in the increase of the effective capacity and lifetime of the disposal facility, the definition of the end of the precipitation process, as well as simplifying the device and the intensification of the process of biodegradation of oily wastes.
This technical result in the exercise of invention the object of the method is achieved in that in the known method, including the placement of solid waste in the bowl of the landfill, disposal of drainage water in the evaporation pond, the sequential discharge of waste and air injection wells located in the landfill body, the formation of aerobic, transition and anaerobic zones, the peculiarity lies in the fact that oily waste humidity of 80-95% of the pump in the well in the warmer months when the air temperature is above 5°C in an amount necessary to ensure that oil concentrations in a mixture with solid waste in the range is the area 1-2 wt.%, which is optimal, then pump the air, with aeration rich oily waste column of the array are carried out through the same network of injection wells through which produce the injection of oily waste, and the amount of precipitation
waste to be placed is determined by the formula:
where HOS- the magnitude of precipitation layers of waste to be placed in metres;
h is the initial height of waste to be placed in metres;
τ - current time deposits layers of waste to be placed in the day;
T is the time constant of the precipitation process layers of waste to be placed in the day,
and the time of maximum precipitation of waste is determined by the formula: t=3·T, where T is the time at which the precipitation process is in the area of 5% of the steady-state values of precipitation layers of waste to be placed, i.e. t is the end time of the precipitation process.
This technical result in the exercise of invention the device object is achieved by the fact that the landfill site includes the bowl of the polygon, hidroizoliacine from the surrounding soil developed capacity of the landfill body, a network of injection wells with perforate the th, drainage system, evaporative pond, pumping station for feeding waste into horizontal parallel collector combining the pumping wells, compressor, characterized in that as pumping stations and compressor for discharge of oily waste into the thickness of the array and its aeration device is a mobile boiler, equipped with a compressor that provides simplification of the device of the polygon, and the depth of the location of injection wells is 2-6 m, which allows to pump oily waste in aerobic and transitional zones of the polygon.
Information confirming the possibility of implementation of each object of the claimed group of inventions is to provide the above technical result obtained during testing of the method of disposal and utilization of solid domestic and oily waste on experimental ground disposal of solid waste Togliatti Samara region.
Within the boundaries of the waste disposal facility, allocate experienced and checklists on a dedicated card place of municipal solid waste from residential areas). On the edges of the selected cards are a reference point for technical leveling for level and precipitation is disposed wastes. Measurement of elevations implementing tsetse level H-3, passed metrological verification. On the experimental map Figure 1 there are 5 pilot sites with dimensions in plan 30×30 m each, arranged in a checkerboard pattern to prevent overflow of oil products to the borders of neighboring pilot sites, achieving this improvement of the accuracy of the experiment.
From June to October 2009 in different horizons of the array on each of the five pilot sites through a network of injection wells 1 through mobile boiler, equipped with a compressor, the injection of oily waste in an amount necessary to provide mass concentration of oil mixed with municipal solid waste in the range from 1 to 5%.
For biodegradation pumped into the process of the experience of the oil in the array system provides high-pressure aeration. Aeration rich oil column of the array is carried out from a mobile compressor through the same network of injection wells through which is the injection of oily waste. The pressure developed by the compressor in the wellhead, is 7·105PA. The flow rate of air required for oxidation of organics petroleum products, theoretically determined by taheometricheskoy oxygen demand. In practice, the total maximum flow of air is and, necessary for the complete decomposition of organic matter, is 6.8 liters per 1 gram. The range of concentrations of petroleum products in mixtures of oily and solid waste being composted, is in the range from 10000 to 50000 mg/kg, i.e. the maximum concentration of organic matter exposed to oxidation, is from 1 to 5% wt. These values are selected as limiting to determine the required air flow. The most intensively were blowing anaerobic zone, beginning from a depth of 6.0 m and below, for intensification of processes of organic matter decomposition. It is in this area difficult natural oxygen from the surface.
Aeration of the transition zone is recommended in fractional mode - no more than 3-5 times during processing.
Blowing aerobic zone can not take in mind the natural availability of oxygen from the surface.
The study of the transformation of the array of solid waste with the control of its precipitation is in the boundary of the sample card on experimental grounds, and for comparison on the territory of the control card, where the discharge of oily waste and aeration was absent.
During the experiment were investigated temperature, structural-filtration and biochemical characteristics of the landfill body, necessary to assess the extent and nature of bioradio is of oily waste in the column.
As an example, in tables 1-3 contain the digital matrix of one of the investigated profiles polygon: temperature matrix, matrix porosity and matrix permeability.
|Temperature matrix substances array|
|73.50||-3.00||34,9||34,1||30,2||of 31.4||30,9||34,7||34,5||33,1||to 33.8||30,2|
|At 70.50||-6.00||17,9||16,8||17,1||19,8||the 17.3||20,4||a 21.5||16,1||16,3||to 19.9|
|63.50||-13.00||the 5.7||6,0||5,6||6,2||5,8||5,8||5,9||5,6||5,8||the 5.7|
|62.50||-14.00||the 5.7||5,9||5,3||6,0||5,6||the 5.7||5,9||5,6||5,6||of 5.4|
|The matrix porosity of the substance of the array|
|The matrix permeability of the substance of the array|
|74.50||- 2.00||10,2||10,8||10,4||12,5||11,7||10,4||11,8||11,9||11,9||the 10.1|
|73.50||-3.00||9,9||the 10.1||10,2||11,4||10,9||10,7||10,5||the 10.1||10,8||10,2|
|72.50||-4.00||9,8||9,6||9,3||10,5||the 10.1||9,3||9,4||the 10.1||10,2||9,5|
|71.50||-5.00||9,1||9,6||9,2||the 10.1||9,4||the 9.7||9,4||9,3||9,1||9,2|
|-13.00||the 4.7||5,0||5,6||of 5.4||5,8||5,8||5,9||5,6||5,8||the 5.7|
|62.50||-14.00||the 4.7||a 3.9||5,3||5,0||5,5||the 5.7||a 4.9||5,1||5,2||5,5|
The data using the method of principal components [Mikhailov E.V. Improvement of technology co-location of sewage sludge and solid waste. Abstract of thesis for obtaining the academic degree of Ph.D. - Ufa, 2008], we were able to construct three-dimensional geometric model of the studied fragment of the polygon of figure 2. The study of the geometric model allowed to differentiate in his body three uniform depth and degree of decomposition of oily waste zone: aerobic 2 at depths of up to 3.0 m; transition 3 - from 3.0 to 6.0 m and anaerobic 4 - more than 6 meters
In the experiment, was investigated des is the instruction of oily waste in the thickness of the array. Table 4 presents data on the dependence of the efficiency degradation of oily waste from the depth of the array on the experimental sites.
|The destruction efficiency, %|
|The depth of the array, m||With ex. n/a 1%||With ex. n/a 2%||With ex. n/a 3%||With ex. n/a 4%||With ex. n/a 5%|
|6||79,4||to 66.3||54,9||48,7||of 45.7|
The efficiency of degradation of the oil was determined by the formula:
where e is the efficiency is strukli oil %
Sign/p - initial mass concentration of oil mixed with solid waste, % wt.
SCN/R - final mass concentration of oil mixed with solid waste, % wt.
From table 4 it follows that the most favorable for biodegradation are aerobic to 3 m and the transition from 3 to 6 m zone of the array with depth of wells 2-6 m, and maximum destruction efficiency significantly decreases with increasing initial mass concentration of oil mixed with municipal solid waste more than 2%.
Special attention in the course of the experiment was devoted to the study of the precipitation of the array, which occurs due to the filtration consolidation landfill body and help increase the usable capacity of the quarry landfill placed on municipal solid waste. The results obtained during the technical level, are shown in tables 5 and 6.
|The degree of precipitation δ [n],%||of 5.29||12,4||14,19||14,78||14,99|
|Time t, d||The amount of precipitation, m|
|control card. Sesh. n/a=0% wt.||site No. 1 Sign/p=1% wt.||site # 2 Sign/p-2% wt.||site No. 3 Sign/p=3% wt.||site No. 4 Sign/p-4% wt.||site No. 5 Sign/n=5% wt.|
Dynamics of consolidation (compaction) of the array are presented in figure 3. From the graph it is seen that during the period of observation of the same size, the composition of landfill bodies and modes sludge thickening fragments solid waste landfill occurred on average 3 times faster than on the control card (post Anna time process precipitation T the experimental sites on average 3 times less than on the control card). This is due to intense aerobic decomposition of organic matter with gaseous decay products, the formation and collapse of the pores and, as a consequence, the acceleration of the seal.
Sludge array was accompanied by decomposition of the oil in the strata under the influence of the indigenous microflora MSW, gradually adapted to the degradation of hydrocarbons. Here are ranges of initial concentrations of petroleum products in the conglomerates landfill soil Figure 4. The experimental data allowed us to establish the optimal concentration of the hydrocarbon part of the oily waste is mixed with municipal solid waste, lying in the range of 1-2 wt.%. The discharge of oily waste in quantities that provide the content of the oil mixed with municipal solid waste more than 2%, does not result in substantial changes to precipitation of waste to be placed in comparison with sites 1 and 2, where he provided the concentration of hydrocarbons 1 and 2%, respectively, and has a negative effect on the efficiency of degradation of oil in the array, which leads to a significant increase in the duration of the process of destruction in time. The discharge of oily waste in the number of the function, providing the content of hydrocarbons in the mixture with the solid waste less than 1%, does not result in substantial changes to precipitation of waste to be placed in comparison with the control card which had no discharge of oily waste and aeration of the array.
Thus, from the obtained experimental data it follows that the specified technical result is achieved by the discharge of oily waste in quantities that provide the content of the oil mixed with municipal solid waste 1-2%, while the time at which the precipitation process is in the area of 5% of the maximum precipitation posted solid waste, is determined by the formula:
T is the time constant of the precipitation process placed solid waste in the day.
1. The method of disposal of solid waste, including disposal of solid waste in the bowl of the landfill, disposal of drainage water in the evaporation pond, the sequential discharge of waste and air injection wells located in the landfill body, the formation of aerobic, transition and anaerobic zones, characterized in that the oily waste humidity of 80-95% of the pump in the well in the warmer months when the air temperature is above 5°C in an amount necessary to ensure that oil concentrations in a mixture with solid household environment, the DAMI in the range of 1-2 wt.%,
which is optimal, then pump the air, with aeration rich oily waste column of the array are carried out through the same network of injection wells through which produce the injection of oily waste, and the amount of precipitation of waste to be placed is determined by the formula:
where Hoc- the magnitude of precipitation layers of waste to be placed, m;
h is the initial height of waste to be placed, m;
τ - current time deposits layers of waste to be placed in the day;
T - time constant of the precipitation process layers of waste to be placed in the day,
and the time of maximum precipitation of waste is determined by the formula: t=3·T, t is the time at which the precipitation process is in the area of 5% of the steady-state values of precipitation layers of waste to be placed, i.e. t is the end time of the precipitation process.
2. The device for implementing the method, including the bowl of the polygon, hidroizoliacine from the surrounding soil developed capacity of the landfill body, the network of injection wells perforation, drainage system, evaporative pond, pumping station for feeding waste into horizontal parallel collector, uniting forcing is quaini, the compressor, characterized in that as pumping stations and compressor for discharge of oily waste into the thickness of the array and its aeration device is a mobile boiler, equipped with a compressor that provides simplification of the device of the polygon, and the depth of the location of injection wells is 2-6 m, which allows to pump oily waste in aerobic and transitional zones of the polygon.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of proppants for use in oil extraction industry as proppants, and specifically to recycling off-grade ceramic proppants. In the method of recycling off-grade polymer-coated ceramic proppants, said proppant is added to starting material for producing a proppant of similar chemical composition, with the following ratio of components, wt %: starting material 90-99, polymer-coated proppant 1-10, wherein the off-grade polymer-coated proppant is pre-ground to particle size of 5 mm or less, and then fed for mixed grinding with the starting material; also at the grinding step, 0.05-0.15 wt % of powdered phenol binder is added to the mixture, after which the ground material is granulated, dried and fired. In another version of the method of recycling off-grade polymer-coated ceramic proppants, said proppant with particle size of 5 mm or less is fed into a furnace during preliminary firing of the starting material of similar chemical composition, with the following ratio of components, wt %: starting material 90-99, polymer-coated proppant 1-10; the obtained mixture is then ground, granulated, dried and fired. Said proppant is fed into a revolving furnace immediately in the firing zone through the hot end of the furnace.
EFFECT: high efficiency of recycling proppant.
3 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to detoxication of solid wastes and may be used for detoxication pesticides and similar chemicals. Propose method comprises feeding pesticides into kiln, pyrolysis of organic fraction of pesticides in kiln liquid bed from alkaline reagents melt, discharge of slag into slag chamber, afterburning of flue gases in afterburning chamber, cleaning of flue gases from acidic components, cleaning of flue gases of unburnt organic toxins and carbon dioxide in catalytic reactor, feeding flue gases in recuperator for heating combustion air, fuel gas cooling in gas cooler, fine cleaning of flue gases from fine particles in bag filter, additional cleaning in adsorber and feeding glue gases into chimney. Pyrolysis of pesticide organic fraction is carried out in continuously swinging kiln with molten pool of alkaline reagents with periodical discharge of slag in slag chamber. Feed of pesticides and alkaline reagents into kiln is performed after regular discharge of slag. Flue gas cleaning in catalytical reactor is carried out after fine flue gas cleaning of dust in bag filter and heating by flue gas heat in heat exchange mounted downstream of afterburning chamber.
EFFECT: higher rate and efficiency of decomposition in pyrolysis.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to complex wasteless treatment of toxic wastes. Hydrochloric acid formed in pyrolysis is fed into intake tanks and processed by (2HCl2+2FeCl2+3MgO+O) to obtain bischofite (MgCl2*6H2O) and iron oxide pigments (Fe2O3). Fire gas formed in pyrolysis is fed, after dry and wet treatment, to thermal electric station for combustion to form off-gases. Said gases are directed for complex treatment. Slags, salts and silicon-bearing dust trapped in complex treatment system are combusted at 1100-1250°C to form hydrochloric acid. Said components are fed into intake tanks for production of construction materials and treated by (2FeSO4+H2SO4+3MgO) to obrain magnesium sulfate (MgSO4*7H2O) and iron oxide pigments (Fe2O3). Aforesaid ground and separated slag and silicon-bearing dust are processed by (SiO2+2NaOH) to obtain liquid glass (Na2SiO3) to be fed to dispensers to make binders for production of solid-propellant pellets.
EFFECT: ruled out harmful emissions.
1 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry and agriculture to disinfect, decontaminate and restore soil fertility, production of humic fertilisers, obtaining artificial biological soil and artificial dispersed soil. The method is realised by dehydrating waste water sludge and treating the sludge with reagents. The reagents used are a composition of 0.3-8% hydrate of potassium or sodium oxide in dry form, 3-15% zinc sulphate salt and 15-30% lowland peat with respect to the weight of the obtained mixture. The obtained mixture is treated in a high-speed dissolver to obtain humic fertilisers. Before treatment with reagents, the dehydrated sludge is subjected to high-speed disintegration with impeller-type heads which are fitted with discharge electrodes of electro-plasma apparatus with voltage of 3-7 kV and discharge frequency of 0.2-2 Hz. In the preferred version, the obtained humic fertilisers are mixed with soil from stripping works, which is contaminated with heavy metals and oil-products, in ratio ranging from 1:3 to 1:10 to form artificial biological soil, which is then mixed with ground construction and demolition wastes in ratio ranging from 1:1 to 1:5 to form artificial dispersed soil.
EFFECT: method enables disinfection of waste water sludge, decontamination thereof from oil products and heavy metals, obtaining water-insoluble humic fertilisers, artificial biological soil and artificial dispersed soil.
3 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to disposal of solid toxic wastes by thermal treatment. Solid toxic ashy wastes are fed into worm reactor mounted inside incinerator above fore-grates behind combustion zone. Said wastes are carried by worm reactor conveyor simultaneously with feeding of inert gas in said reactor at pressure exceeding that of saturation of ash chlorine-bearing components to prevent desorption of said components from the surface of ashy toxic wastes. Toxic ashy wastes are heated on conveyor to temperature of detoxication and formation of nontoxic stable natural minerals. Obtained minerals are directed to further recovery.
EFFECT: higher ecological safety.
3 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of recycling solid domestic wastes (SDW) into fuel for furnaces of high-temperature synthesis of a cement clinker, including sorting of initial SDW so that at first such incombustible fractions such as batteries, stones, fragments of glass and faience, then secondary materials are extracted, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals. The remaining mass is previously ground to the fraction of 50-100 mm, dried to humidity of 5-10%, and then ground to the fraction of 8-10 mm. The ground raw materials are heated to 160-200°C and exposed to thermoplastic extrusion to produce fuel pellets.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase physical and mechanical strength of RDF fuel, to eliminate water absorption due to capsulation of granules in process of their manufacturing, to prevent possibility of rotting and self-ignition, to reduce costs during storage and transportation, to reduce energy intensity of its production, to improve environment, also to reduce volume of SDW removed to SDW landfills, to eliminate capital costs for construction of plants for wastes management in connection with usage of equipment of existing cement production facilities.
1 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a pyrolytic energy recovery system for pyrolysis of wastes to obtain pyrolysis oil. The pyrolytic energy recovery system for pyrolysis of wastes to obtain oil comprises: a recovery furnace formed from multiple walls on the front, the back, sides, the ceiling and floor including insulating layers; a heat plate for dividing the inner space of the recovery furnace into upper and lower parts and having a height lowered from a centre part to both sides thereof and formed with at least one ridge and valley in a longitudinal direction thereof; a heating chamber disposed under the heat plate and heated by a burner installed aside the recovery furnace; a pyrolysis chamber disposed over the heat plate and pyrolysing the wastes fed through a recyclable material inlet port installed in the upper part of the front or rear surface of the recovery furnace using a large amount of transferred circulating heat; a heating pipeline installed inside between the front and rear surfaces of the recovery furnace in a maze shape such that the heat coming from the heating chamber flows from a lower side to an upper side along inner surfaces of front and rear walls of the recovery furnace in a zigzag manner, and then, returns into the heating chamber at a pressure lower than a predetermined pressure and is discharged to the exterior at a pressure higher than the predetermined pressure; rotary means consisting of a plurality of rotating components installed in the pyrolysis chamber under the recyclable material inlet port in a longitudinal direction to evenly distribute recyclable materials fed through the recyclable material inlet port; residue discharge means having primary residue conveyance screws longitudinally installed along the valley of the heat plate and rotated to convey the residue toward the centre part from both sides, a residue hopper installed in a separate space in the heating chamber such that the residue conveyed to the centre part of the heat plate through the primary conveyance screws is lowered to be gathered, and a secondary residue conveyance screw installed from the residue hopper to the exterior of the recovery furnace and discharging the residue accumulated in the residue hopper to the exterior of the recovery furnace; and condensing means separately installed at the exterior of the recovery furnace and receiving vaporised extracts generated through pyrolysis of the recyclable material in the pyrolysis chamber to exchange heat with the extracts to extract liquefied recovery oil.
EFFECT: reduced heat loss, more efficient heat transfer in the pyrolysis region.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of lands contaminated in oil-and-gas production, particularly, those occupied by slime pits. Proposed method comprises introducing thickener into oil-and-production wastes and mixing it over entire volume thereof to homogeneous state. Said thickener represents a bentonitic clay and is taken in amount of 50% of total volume of pit wastes. Thickening and mixing over, peat-sand mix is filled in pit to make it surface level with surrounding terrain relief. Then, second layer of peat-sand mix premixed with ammonium nitrate in amount of 180-220 kg/hec and potassium salt in amount of 130-170 kg/hec is placed onto said surface area. Now, seed of permanent cultures are sown taken in amount of 120-150 kg/hec.
EFFECT: better ecological compatibility of lands and water-physical properties.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to luminous tube disposal system. Proposed system consists of two units. First unit comprises tube disintegrator including loader, pneumatic vibration separator with crusher and cyclone, bin for collection of tube ground glass, container for tube bases and phosphor collection. Second unit comprises multistage offgas cleaning system composed of combined air filter including casing, first and second cleaning stages, regeneration system and dist separation bit. Filter casing consists of three box-like sections. Note here that first section represents the first cleaning stage, second section makes second cleaning stage with web arranged there between, while third section is system of filter regeneration of compressed air with nozzles arranged inside filtration elements. Said system is divided by web into two chambers, one for dirt air and another one for clean air, to make intermediate channel to communicate first cleaning stage composed of bag filter with second stage composed of cartridge filter. Bins of bag filter and cartridge filter are arranged at bottom of every stage while dust level pickup is located in bag filter bin.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to luminous tube disposal system. Proposed system consists of two units. First unit comprises tube disintegrator including loader, pneumatic vibration separator with crusher and cyclone, bin for collection of tube ground glass, container for tube bases and phosphor collection. Second unit is composed of multistage gas cleaning system and comprises dust separator, adsorber and suction device communicated via through channel feeding cleaning air fed after phosphor annealing in furnace and provided with inlet and discharge pipes, and fitted at separate section of moving platform that allow interaction of said components. Besides it is provided with additional section of said moving platform with locks for connection with main sections and air fine cleaner mounted thereat downstream of adsorber and composed of a housing accommodating meshes with layers of chemical absorbers arranged there between to trap mercury vapors.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: insulating material contains clay and additionally a powdered composition of waste "non-contaminated dust of ferrous metals" from metallurgical production and dolomite flour, mixed in ratio of 1:3. To enhance biocidal action of the waste "non-contaminated dust of ferrous metals" from metallurgical production, a highly efficient preparation Bio Z is added.
EFFECT: material enables to reduce flammability of components of solid household wastes.
SUBSTANCE: method involves depositing a protective layer of air-permeable material onto the surface of solid household wastes, said air-permeable material being a powdered composition of waste "non-contaminated dust of ferrous metals" from metallurgical production and dolomite flour, mixed in ratio of 1:3. To enhance biocidal action of the wastes, a highly efficient preparation Bio Z is added. Primary methods of depositing the protective layer of air-permeable material are a float out method and a push method.
EFFECT: method cuts treatment time.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to community services, particularly, to sanitary purification. Municipal wastes are collected by trucks equipped with compacting facilities. Note here that unified container to carry wastes is fitted on the truck. Wastes are compacted by mounted compacting appliance. Said filled unified containers are delivered in territories of railway or water terminals for storage. Said containers are delivered from said territories on railway or water transport facilities and carried to stations of sorting, processing and recovery.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability, better environmental protection.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: storage comprises regional confining layer, said layer there above, at least one layer of loam and/or clay sediments making sorption (filtration) shield above sand layer, system of horizontal tubular drains fitted in sand layer along storage edges to extend to pits for possible feed of filtrate to surface. Proposed method comprises selecting regional confining layer proceeding from hydrogeological data on estimates of flows over refining layer, analysing engineering survey of soil stratum section town to refining layer to reveal shielding and filtering layers at future storage bed and excavating soil to reach, at least, one pillar of loan and/or clay beds making a natural sorption and/or filtration shield. Note here that, additionally, cuts in pillar are exposed along pit edges down to sand layer under lower filtration layers for laying horizontal drains along pit edges and mounting pumps therein.
EFFECT: decreased costs.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and utility plants and may be used for non-polluting stockpiling of various wastes. Horizontal piezometer is arranged at accumulator foundation. Then, dam is dumped. Cell-like forms are arranged on foundation surface to be filled with ash concrete. Thus, anti-filtration ash concrete shield of foundation is produced. Ash concrete shields are made on inner slopes of said dam by laying ash concrete bulk in layers. Then, gas-escape drainage is installed on anti-filtration shield to be built up as accumulator comes filled layer by layer. After dumping next layer of wastes, intermediate ash concrete layer is dumped thereon. Waterproof shield made from ash concrete is created on the surface of filled accumulator to be covered by soil reclamation layer.
EFFECT: improved environmental conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for burial of harmful and toxic wastes, in particular, chrome-containing ones. The method to bury chrome-containing wastes includes combination and layerwise refinement of a waste massif onto an upper insulation layer, a working layer, a protective adsorption layer, a lower insulation layer. The protective adsorption layer is represented by non-toxic industrial vegetable wastes, such as lignin, husks or chips. Insulation layers are industrial wastes of mineral origin, for instance, a lime cake (a mineral waste of sugar production) or slag of a waste incineration plant with an adsorption capacity by a chrome ion of at least 0.56 mg/g and low filtration coefficient. The ratio between the height of adsorption layer and the height of the lower insulation layer must make from 3:1 to 4:1.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to minimise carryover of toxic chrome ions from a massif of a chrome-containing waste, their negative impact to environment and a landfill body, to eliminate the necessity to use containers and warehouses for preliminary stacking and accumulation of huge masses of non-toxic wastes in areas of their occurrence, to increase duration of landfill operation.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 25 ex, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to processing and storing of solid domestic wastes and may be used in communal services for disposal, transportation and burial of solid domestic wastes. Proposed method comprises briquetting of solid wastes, their transportation to location of burial, filling underground cavities via borehole extending to surface and bridging said borehole by backfill material. Casing is fitted in borehole. Briquetting is carried out with the help of device wherein solid domestic wastes are compacted and arranged in metal container made up of two hinged thin-wall semi-cylinders to be carried to location of burial Filled borehole is bridged by backfill material to drill new borehole above underfilled underground cavity whereto frame with mechanisms and lift crane for described cycle to be repeated unless exhausted gas deposit is completely filled.
EFFECT: expanded operating performances due to reuse of briquette containers.
8 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biological reclamation of refuse tips and to methods of environmental protection against contamination by solid household wastes and may be used for afforestation. Refuse tip is inspected, cleaned of detected metal subjects, tip surface is leveled and 20 cm-thick layer of humus is applied on garbage. Then, 10 cm-thick layers of potentially fertile soil is applied thereon. Soil is compacted, disked, harrowed, herbaceous and lignosa vegetation are sown and filtrate collection channel is arranged along site perimetre.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and lower labor input.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to oil industry, particularly, to method of hydrocarbons-containing wastes disposal and recovery of mineral resources as well as to device to this end. In compliance with proposed method, packing material is fed via stowing oriented well into free subsurface space. After filling, said space is shut down. Proposed device comprises unit for grinding of fed packing material, mixer of ground packing material with water, pump station and pipeline with gate valve for feeding pulp into free subsurface space.
EFFECT: neutralisation of industrial and household wastes, better ecology.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: planting method involves formation of the substrate from decomposing wastes at the surface of the wetlands and bedding plants. Planting stocks is carried out on the surface of substrate layer of solid domestic wastes. Root system of stocks is powdered with fertile soil, and an elevation is formed. Alternatively, planting stocks can be carried out in deepenings made in a layer of the substrate for the stock root system of 15-30 cm tall. After that, the root system of plants is powdered with fertile soil. Layer of the substrate of domestic wastes is formed on the selected area of surface of wetlands with height of 0.5-2.5 m which is sufficient for passage of track machines on the layer of wastes. For penetration of the roots of plants stocks into the layer of wastes and moisture supply to the roots of stocks at least one hole is made at a depth of 0.5-1.5 m in a layer of waste. After that, part of the roots of the stock is placed in the hole made in the layer of household wastes.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the survival rate of stocks on wetlands that can improve ecological purity of landscapes and effectiveness of domestic wastes disposal.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: treatment and stacking of domestic solid wastes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to the field of treatment and stacking of domestic solid wastes, in particular, to joint stacking of domestic solid waste products and the bioadditives produced on the basis of the settling sewage, the surplus active sludge of sewage treatment plants and the filling agents - composts from the factories for the domestic solid wastes processing. The technical result is an increased sedimentation of the placed domestic solid wastes at the optimal values of concentration of introduced bioadditives, decreased required useful area to process the domestic solid wastes and increased accuracy of determination of a time of the sedimentation process termination. The method includes introduction of the bioadditives produced on the base of a mix of sludge of waste waters of the sewage treatment plants and composts from a factory on processing of the domestic solid wastes. At introduction of bioadditives in amount of 5-7 % of the total mass of the placed waste products, the contamination of which by microflora - decomposer makes 108 - 1010 cells/g. Intensification of the process of decomposition of organic components of placed waste products takes place and due to that increased their sedimentation. At that the value of sedimentation of the layers of the placed waste products is determined by formula: , where Hsed - a value of sedimentation of layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, in meters; h - initial value of height of the placed domestic solid wastes, in meters; τ - time of sedimentation of layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, in day; Т - time constant of the process of sedimentation of the layers of the placed solid domestic solid wastes, in days. The time of a maximum sedimentation is determined by the formula: t = 3 ·T, where t - time during which the sedimentation process falls into a zone of 5 % from the value of maximum sedimentation of the layers of the placed domestic solid wastes, that is the time of termination of the process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased sedimentation of the placed domestic solid wastes at the optimal values of concentration of the introduced bioadditives, decreased required useful area to process the domestic solid wastes, increased accuracy of determination of a time of the sedimentation process termination.