Method of rice irrigation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes intermittent flooding of rice checks, water supply to rice crops is carried out in the form of asymmetrical triangular impulses regulated in space and time, reducing the bare soil moisture between the impulses is not allowed below 85% of the total water capacity (TWC), the program distribution of water in the irrigation network between the consumers is carried out on schedule by assigning time intervals of water supply to each of them on the parameters of the regulated impulse, which are determined by the following formulas: - The height of the impulse (water layer), hL; hL=σ+Δh, mm, where: σ is mean-square deviation of the roughness on the surface of checks, mm; Δh is a layer of water, ensuring flooding of high areas on the check and creating a favourable thermal regime of the soil, mm, it is assigned equal: in a phase of the "shoots-tillering" - 60 mm, in the phase of formation of the embryonic panicle - 100 mm; - The duration of the water supply to create a given impulse height, t1: t1=(hL/q)·α, day, where: q is a hydromodule of flooding equal to 100 mm/day; α is coefficient taking into account evaporation losses equal to about 1.05; - Duration of drawdown of the water layer in a natural way through evapotranspiration (E) and filtration (F) t2: t2=hL/(E+F), day; - Duration of bare soil between impulses t3: t 3 = 0,15 ( h L + ω ) E + F ,   day , where : ω is humidity at which its water-keeping is close to 0, and the transpiration intensity is not reduced, for loamy soils it was found to be 85% TWC - The amount of strokes of water circulation N on the economic distributor is defined by the formula: N=Ttot/t1 where: Ttot is the total duration of the impulse, day.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of use of water resources.

1 cl, 4 tbl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used for rice irrigation systems.

There is a method of irrigation, called "permanent flooding", in which the layer of water on the pitch, depth from 5 to 20 cm is maintained throughout the growing season from planting to harvesting (See, for example, Aleshin, H.E., Konkova VP Quick reference rice farmers // M: Agropromizdat, 1986. S-91).

The disadvantages of this method are high waste water filtration and forced discharges for the lower layer due to temperature, phase of the development of rice and weeds;

severe thinning of seedlings due to mass mortality of seedlings of rice in flooded anaerobic conditions of the soil.

There is a method of irrigation of rice, called "shortened flooding", in which shoots were obtained when watering watering for short-term aeration of the topsoil, and the flooding of crops with a layer of 12-15 cm is performed with the phase of the sprouts and remove it from the field in stage dough stage of grain (See, for example, Aleshin, H.E., Konkova VP Quick reference rice farmers // M: Agropromizdat, 1986. S-96).

The disadvantages of this method are: a) high non-productive water losses, which are 10-15% higher than at constant flooding associated with forced sbro the AMI water when soaking horizontal surface checks; b) thinned seedlings, due to the fact that some of the rice seeds buried in the soil more than 3 cm, were in anaerobic conditions.

There is a method of irrigation of rice, called "intermittent inundation, when you create a layer of water-specified value, the filing of a check stop, give the layer to absorb and for the soil to dry to a certain moisture content, and then create a layer of water and so on in the same sequence (See, for example, Popov V.A., Alekseenko I.A. Irrigation rate and yield of rice in intermittent flooding of crops /rice, 2006, №8. P.67-69), taken as a prototype.

The disadvantage of this method is the elimination of the possibility of rational software distribution of water in irrigation network due to the lack of a science-based process regulation of irrigation, size of the length of the elements intermittent flooding, which makes rational use of water resources and their savings.

The objective of the proposed method is efficient use of water resources.

The solution of this problem is achieved by the use of intermittent flooding in the form of an asymmetric triangular pulse, regulated in space and time, reducing the moisture content of bare soil between pulses lead up to 85% full VL is Giamatti (RO) software distribution of water in irrigation network between consumers carried out according to the schedule, assigning time intervals to supply water to each of them according to the parameters regulated pulse.

The parameters of the pulses is determined by the formula:

1. Pulse height (water layer), hSL

hSL=σ+ ∆ H, mm

where σ is the standard deviation of the roughness on the surface of checks, mm;

Δh - water layer, providing high flooding areas on the receipt and favorable thermal regime of the soil, mm is Assigned equal in phase "shoots - tillering" - 60 mm, in the phase of formation of the embryonic panicle - 100 mm

2. The duration of water flow to create the desired height of the pulse, t1:

t1=(hSL/q)·α,sut,

where q is the water ratio flooding equal to 100 mm/day;

α - coefficient taking into account losses to evaporation, approximately equal to 1.05.

3. Duration sabotai water layer in a natural way by evapotranspiration (e) and filter (f) t2:

t2=hSL/(E+f), d.

4. The duration of bare soil between pulses t3:

t3=0,15(hwith al+ω)E+F,d ,

where ω is the humidity where it woodenjewelry close to 0. the intensity of transpiration is not reduced. For loamy soils it was equal to 85% duty cycle (Fig.1).

5. The number of cycles of rotation N, the commercial distributor is determined by the formula:

N=Ttotal/t1,

where Ttotal- the total duration of the pulse d.

A specific example of the method

Tests of the new method of irrigation were carried out on rice irrigation system LTD ESP "Red" Krasnoarmeysky district of Krasnodar Krai in 2009 on 8 fields with a total area of 48 hectares Experimental checks were served one fill and one waterer, agrotechnics the same on all checks.

All checks were fixed at seven fixed sites 1×1 m to monitor the dynamics of growth, drainage, soil moisture and other

During the irrigation period was conducted gauging, biometric and hydrochemical observations and surveys. Humidity the surface of bare soil between pulses varied from 100 to 85% duty cycle.

A record harvest of rice was performed in two ways: 1) biometric analysis of sheaves of stationary platforms, and 2) a solid combine harvesting.

Biometric analysis of the structure of the crop showed that its value was almost the same (table 1).

However, Shearer records indicated a significant difference: in the experimental map, it was found to be 4 kg/ha higher (73,05 C/ha against 69,75 kg/ha). This is due to the following: on the map with the constant flooding, there was a noticeable lodging of crops, while on the pulse flooding it almost was not observed at all. And as you know, when cleaning polegshey rice losses increase by 3-4 kg/ha, and under adverse conditions reach 16-18 kg/ha

As shown by the results of observations, pulse irrigation had no negative impact on the contamination of crops, the chemical composition of irrigation water and yield of rice.

Table 2
The content of mineral substances in the soil water, mg/l
CO32-NO3-PO43-Fe2+O2pHNO2-NT4+
map 10 (control)107,10,7,15 0,022,857,00,020,1
map 12(start pulse)133,880,950,10,024,37,00,020,1
map 10 (control)107,10,950,20,02a 4.97,00,020,1
map 12 (mid-start)196,350,150,150,023,357,00,020,1

The average yield on experimental receipts were $ 73.5 kg/ha, for control - 69,75 kg/ha, and creating aerobic conditions in the soil, increases the resistance of crops to lodging, prevents diseases of the roots of plants, reduces water consumption for rice cultivation.

Water saving primulinum rice irrigation and petititon circulation compared with the control amounted to 4 thousand m 3/ha.

Analysis of the characteristics of novelty
The proposed methodPrototype method
Intermittent flooding in the form of an asymmetric triangular pulse, regulated in space and time.Intermittent flooding without preset pulse parameters.
Reducing the moisture content of bare soil between pulses do not allow below 85% of full capacity (PV).Science-based humidity is not installed.
Software distribution of water between users perform on schedule, assigning time intervals to supply water to each of them according to the parameters regulated pulsePreparation of scheme water allocation is not feasible

Analysis of the essential features of the proposed solutions
Signs offer solutionsNew properties acquired through the use of technical solutionsAchieved by ogically effect
Intermittent flooding In the form of an asymmetric triangular pulse, regulated in space and time.You can design the software distribution.Rational use of water resources.
Reducing the moisture content of bare soil between pulses do not allow below 85% of full capacity (PV).Science-based parameter humidity between pulses.Rice yield is not reduced.
Software distribution of water in irrigation network between consumers carried out according to the schedule, assigning time intervals to supply water to each of them according to the parameters regulated pulse.You receive the most efficient distribution of irrigation water.Reduced irrigation rates on 4 thousand m3/ha.

The irrigation of rice, including intermittent flooding of rice paddies, characterized in that the water supply to the rice crops is carried out in the form of an asymmetric triangular pulse, regulated in space and time, reducing the moisture content of bare soil between pulses is not to the will escaut below 85% of full capacity (PV), software distribution of water in irrigation network between consumers carried out according to the schedule, assigning time intervals to supply water to each of them according to the parameters regulated pulse, which is determined by the formula:
pulse height (water layer), hSL:
hSL=σ+ ∆ H, mm
where σ is the standard deviation of the roughness on the surface of checks, mm;
Δh - water layer, providing high flooding areas on the receipt and favorable thermal regime of the soil, mm, is assigned equal in phase "shoots-tillering" - 60 mm, in the phase of formation of the embryonic panicle - 100 mm;
the duration of water flow to create the desired height of the pulse, t1:
t1=(hSL/q)·α, sut,
where q is the water ratio flooding equal to 100 mm/day;
α - coefficient taking into account losses to evaporation, approximately equal to 1.05;
the duration of the drawdown of the water layer in a natural way by evapotranspiration (e) and filter (f), t2:
t2=hSL/(E+f), d;
the duration of bare soil between pulses, t3:
t3=0,15(hwith al+ω)E+F,d,
where ω is the humidity is ü, when her woodenjewelry close to 0, and the intensity of transpiration is not reduced, for loamy soils it was equal to 85% RO;
the number of cycles of rotation N, the commercial distributor is determined by the formula:
N=Ttotal/t1,
where Ttotal- the total duration of the pulse, days.



 

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes an autumn tillage by disking, harrowing, sowing of winter crops and wintering intercrops, their harvesting and planting rice. After harvesting of winter crops and wintering intercrops a general planning of checks planes with simultaneous repair of water-inlet and water-outlet irrigation network, restoring check rollers and roads. Then, on the checks surface a maximum layer of water is created and supported until the end of the irrigation season. Thereat the soil is maintained in a condition of maximum water capacity for the entire winter period, after which the density of the plow layer reaches 1.05-1.1 t/m3.

EFFECT: method enables to save energy capacity and reduce the labour intensity of melioration measures carried out; it does not require a spring presowing processing and agro-technical measures; to improve the quality of control of weeds, to increase yields, to reduce the cost of produced grain of rice, to improve the ecological situation in the rice irrigation system.

3 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes sowing rice seeds with their placement in soil at the depth 2.5-3 cm. After that fields are flooded with water for 3-5 days for seed soaking. Then water is drained for period of seed germination. After that re-flooding of fields with water is carried out.

EFFECT: method insures dense shoots and reduces decree of rice layering, which allows to increase rice yield and its harvesting.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes preplanting treatment of seeds with a plant growth regulator. In order to enhance capacity of survival of rice, aqueous solution of Melaphen at strength of 1·10-6-1·10-9 g/l is applied as a plant growth regulator.

EFFECT: efficient increase of viability and germinating ability of the seeds, enhancement of survival capacity of rice, increase in productivity and positive impact upon technological characteristics of the products.

5 tbl

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, controlling of weedage in rice growing.

SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing rice crop to obtain young crops through wetting of soil in checks and provoking germination of weeds (barnyard grass); treating weed sprouts having no more than 3-4 leaves with binary bacteriological mixture of two kinds of herbicides used in doses of 0.9-4.0 l/hectare, respectively, at flow rate of up to 500 l/hectare; creating constant water track in check of 5-7 cm depth 48 hours after treatment of weeds.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in controlling of weeds, such as barnyard grass, and increased rice yield.

1 tbl, 1 ex

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