Method of weed control

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to cultivation of rice. The method of weed control comprises obtaining the rice seedling according to the mode of shortened flooding, processing of weeds with the herbicide Nominee in combination with a surface active agent (surfactant). After obtaining the rice seedlings the water level in checks is raised to 7-10 cm to cover the seedlings with a layer of water. Weeds of genus Echinochloa in full tillering phase are located above water, they are treated with herbicide Nominee in a dose of 95-100 ml/ha at a rate of working fluid at aerial treatment of 50 l/ha. Then in two days after the treatment the water layer in the checks are lowered until the appearance of rice leaves over the surface of the water and nitrogen top dressing is carried out, such as with urea to remove the stress load on the rice sprouts.

EFFECT: proposed method enables to increase effectiveness of barnyard grass control in phase of 6-7 leaves, outgrowing in growth and development the rice crops, to prevent their re-occurrence, to eliminate thinning-out of the sprouts and herbicidal burn of young rice seedlings, and hence to keep the rice harvest.

2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of agricultural production, particularly rice, to control annual grass weeds of the genus Echinochloa - ioniki. All kinds of Ionikos (ordinary barnyard grass (millet, chicken), barnyard grass risovidnym (millet macrocarpa), barnyard grass borodaty (millet rice) - annual grass weeds belonging to the group of dank. This is the worst weeds of rice crops. Grow they excessively wet soil, tolerate shallow flooding. On its biology and ecology of ioniki close to rice and difficult to differ from him in appearance. It is especially difficult to distinguish barnyard grass from rice seedlings.

Depending on the degree of contamination of the fields are being developed measures of weed control agrochemical and chemical methods. The use of chemical methods is considered economically feasible if there is more than 20 plants of barnyard grass and Klubnaya 1 m2(see Agronomy journal. Rice cultivation intensive technologies. M: "Rosselchozizdat", 1987, p.33).

There is a method of weed control (ezhovnikami), consisting in the use of herbicide systemic effects of cacciola (70% EC), which is deposited into the soil before planting with incorporation to a depth of 3-5 cm or after sowing of rice is not more than 24 hours (see System protection measures pasivo the rice from pests, diseases and weeds in the Krasnodar region. Normative materials and production schedules. Krasnodar, 2000, p.24).

The disadvantage of this method is that sakima only destroys germinating weeds and has a short period of toxicity, resulting in re-contamination of crops.

There is a method of weed control, which after planting rice seedlings are in moist soil in check, causing the germination of weeds (Ionikos). When forming a seedling weeds no more than 3-4 leaves them handle binary tank mixtures of herbicides facet and cacciola taken in doses of from 0.9 to 4.0 liters per hectare, respectively, the rate of fluid flow to 500 liters per hectare. 48 hours after treatment of weeds pose a constant layer of water in check depth of 5-7 cm (see patent No. 2248699 published 27.03.2005, Bulletin No. 9).

The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency associated with limited period of use of the herbicide in the age of the plants, weeds no more than 3-4 leaves, and it is not acceptable for weed control in late rice crops randomly without seeding in conditions of shortage of irrigation water in dry years, when the weeds growth of rice.

There is a method of weed control, we adopted as proto the IPA, including planting rice, sprouting from under a layer of water, the processing of grass weeds on stage 2 to 4 leaf herbicide, Nomini dose 75-90 ml/ha in combination with surface-active substances (SAS), which acts as an adhesive (see information sheet of the manufacturer).

The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency associated with the time factor to the use of herbicide - no more than 3-4 leaves, and it is not acceptable for weed control in late rice crops randomly without seeding in conditions of shortage of irrigation water in dry years, when the weeds growth of rice.

The present invention is to increase the effectiveness of the fight against ironically in phase 6-7 leaves, outstripping the growth and development of crops of rice.

This object is achieved in that after the sprouted rice regime shortened flooding the water level in receipts increased to 7-10 cm in order to cover the seedlings with a layer of water, and weeds of the genus Echinochloa in the phase of full tillering, which is above water, treated with herbicide, Nomini dose 95-100 ml/ha + surfactant 100 ml with normal flow of the working fluid when avialable 50 l/ha two days after treatment, the layer of water in checks to reduce the appearance of leaves of rice over the surface of the water and carry foliar nitrogen fertilizer, such as urea is La relieve stress in rice seedlings.

Table 1
Analysis of the characteristics of novelty
Prototype methodThe proposed method
sprouting rice regime shortened floodingthe same
the discharge water from receiptcreating a layer of water 7-10 cm, which helps to cover rice seedlings under water
ground processing of the weed in the phase 2-4 leaf herbicide, Nomini dose 75-90 ml/ha in combination with surface-active substance (surfactant) with a flow rate of the working fluid 300-400 l/haaviaprovoda weeds above a layer of water, herbicide, Nomini dose 95-100 ml/ha + surfactant 100 ml fluid flow 50 l/ha
flooding cheque 1-2 days after treatment with the herbicidetwo days after treatment, the lower water layer before the appearance of leaves of rice over the surface of the water and the exercise of nitrogen foliar feeding, for example, urea to relieve stress on the germination of rice.
the cultivation of rice by the conventional technology the same

The analysis of the prior art, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources, and identify sources that contain information about the equivalents of the claimed invention, has allowed to establish that it is not detected similar, characterized by signs, identical with all the essential features of the claimed invention. The definition from the list of identified unique prototype, as the most similar in essential features analogue, has permitted to identify a set of essential towards perceived by the applicant to the technical result of the distinctive features in the proposed method, set forth in the claims.

Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of "novelty".

Comparative analysis with the known solution showed that the use of the herbicide Nominee (information sheet of the manufacturer) is known, but it is used in the phase 2-4 leaves providng weeds of the genus Echinochloa (ezhovnikami) on the rice crops, carried out at the optimum time (end of April - the first decade of may) at a dose of 75-90 ml/ha in combination with surface-active substances (SAS), which acts as an adhesive by land after discharge, receipts, whereas in the proposed method, the processing of the herbicide, Nomini use phase is olego tillering weeds, when their height is 20-25 cm, and the number per 1 m2is 120-150 pieces that exceed the threshold in 6 times. Before treatment, the water level in fields up to 7-10 cm, and two days after treatment, the lower water layer before the appearance of leaves of rice over the surface of the water and the exercise of nitrogen foliar feeding, for example, urea to relieve stress on rice seedlings, whereas in the method prototype in two days after treatment, the water level raised.

This allows to make a conclusion about the relevance of the proposed invention, the criterion of "inventive step".

Validation of the method was performed in LLC "Farmer" tahtamukaysk district Republic of Adygea on the area of 100 ha in three versions (1 - control - the cultivation of rice varieties Flagship without treatment against weeds; 2 - rice cultivation with the destruction of weeds in the method prototype; 3 - rice cultivation with treatment against weeds in the proposed method).

An example of implementation of the proposed method.

After spring tillage on the adopted technology of rice cultivation (see HOWTO. M.: Kolos, 1983) rice seeds were sown randomly method (seeding rate of 270 kg/ha) without termination at a later date (28-30 may), due to the lack of irrigation water. From 15 to 20 June on checks was created by the regime shortened flooding. Inperiod to supply water to checks, weeds were in a comfortable environment and developed intensively.

Rice seedlings (2-3 leaves) received in the first decade of July, ioniki (providenya weeds) by this time was in the phase of full tillering and reached a height of 20-25 cm, the Number of weeds per 1 m was 120-150 plants that exceeds the threshold of damage 6 times.

on 8 July the water level in receipts increased to 7-10 cm to rice seedlings were under water, and the leaves of Ionikos remained above the surface. Then there was Aviapribor crops herbicide, Nomini dose 95-100 ml/ha + surfactant 100 ml with a flow rate of 50 l/ha

Two days after treatment, the water level in check was cut before the appearance of leaves of rice over the surface of the water and held foliar feeding of plants of rice nitrogen fertilizer (urea) the rate of 100 kg/ha in physical weight (which corresponded to 46 kg under current substance) to relieve stress in rice seedlings. On the fifth day after herbicide treatment, Nomini plants weed has poorely, stopped their growth and development. By regulating the water layer the rice plants took the top tier and entered the phase of tillering.

Field test results are presented in the table.

Table 2
Compare what other biological effectiveness of existing and proposed ways of dealing with ezhovnikami.
OptionsDose of herbicide, ml/haThe number of plants of weeds per 1 m2before processingBiological effectiveness (destruction of weeds)% The number of rice plants per 1 m2at the tillering stage of rice
Control(without treatment)-RUB 127.3010
Prototype method75-90RUB 127.367215
The proposed method95-100RUB 127.398269

When planting rice widespread way without seeding.

Late rice crops randomly without seeding, in conditions of water shortage, when the weed has outstripped the development of rice, the threshold of their damage exceeded at times, and lost all calendar time treatment against weeds, our proposed method has allowed to save the crops of rice and get good germination.

As can be seen from the table, the destruction of weeds when they are processed by our proposed method accounted for the sludge 98%, and the number of rice plants when conducting surveys in the tillering stage, 28-29 July - 269 units per 1 m2then how to control weeds in the method prototype 67% and 215 units per 1 m2respectively.

As is known, the conservation of plant stand density of rice has a positive trend to obtain further high sustainable yields.

Thus, the use of the proposed solution on late rice crops randomly without seeding and water provides the following benefits:

- destroy from 70 to 100% of the weeds in crops of rice;

to prevent the reintroduction of providng weeds;

to avoid thinning of shoots and herbicide burn young seedlings of rice. Application of herbicides in the earlier period causes burns and stress in rice plants, especially herbicides contact action to which it relates and Nominee.

- preservation of the rice crop.

Method of weed control, including sprouting rice regime shortened flooding, processing weeds herbicide, Nomini in combination with surface-active substance (surfactant), characterized in that after receiving the seedlings of rice, the water level in receipts increased to 7-10 cm in order to cover the seedlings with a layer of water, and weeds of the genus Echinochloa in the phase of full tillering, which is above water, the handling is up herbicide, Nomini dose 95-100 ml/ha with normal flow of the working fluid when avialable 50 l/ha, then two days after treatment, the layer of water in checks to reduce the appearance of leaves of rice over the surface of the water and carry foliar nitrogen fertilizer, such as urea to relieve stress in rice seedlings.



 

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