FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic turbine comprises horizontal shaft 4 with curved vanes 5 fitted thereon. Half of said vanes does not interact with flow because they are located inside large seat 2 while vanes interacting with flow have their bulge directed upward. Wall 6 of larger seat 2 opposite shaft 4 changes into flange 8 varying flow direction 12 toward the side opposite the wall of tube 1. This prevents depositions effluents sediments nearby shaft 4 while peripheral part of vanes 5 is self-cleaned due to centrifugal force, its configuration and that of seat 2.
EFFECT: reliable operation.
The invention relates to hydraulic engineering, in particular to hydraulic turbines that convert the potential energy of wastewater in the sewer system of multi-storey buildings in electric.
Known turbine active actions (water mills), the rotor of which is mounted on a horizontal shaft in the form of a wheel with multiple blades mounted around it (see Twidell J., The Weir A. "Renewable energy sources", Energoatomizdat, 1990, s). The main disadvantage of these turbines is that they are quieter over low volumetric capacity of water flowing on the tray with river dams. Currently, the possibility of construction of such dams have been exhausted, as it flooded increasingly scarce agricultural land.
This disadvantage is partially removed in the turbine, the rotor of which is made of disks placed between the blades forming buckets (RF patent No. 2146336, IPC F03B 1/00). The disadvantage of this design is that it does not solve the problem of shortage of water needed to generate electricity, although it has a higher efficiency. In connection with a broader orientation to the use of secondary energy resources, water heavily polluted with solid particles (in particular, Antialias wastewater energy in multi-storey buildings), use this turbine is ineffective. This is due, in particular, with the deposition inside the buckets of the solid components contained in household wastewater. This can happen unbalance of the turbine and a failure in its work.
The objective of the invention is the efficient use of energy wastewater.
This problem is solved in a hydraulic turbine mounted within the vertical conduit containing a rotor with a horizontal shaft and blades located around it, according to the invention, the conduit is a part of the sewer riser with large and small local pockets located in the plane of rotation of the turbine blades, and half of the blades is located inside a large pocket, with opposite relative to the axis of rotation of the wall of the big pocket is an arc of a circle, passing in the lower part of the inclined straight line, and at the top - in visor with negative angles of inclination of the surface directed to the turbine, the blades of which have a curved profile and oriented outside large pocket bulge upward.
The resistance in extreme conditions the waste collector is ensured by the fact that when interacting with peak flow changes its direction and acts on the blade at an angle, not allowing solid including enum to be deposited on the blades near the axis of rotation and to get inside his pocket. The shape of the blades and the centrifugal force allows the elements of the turbine to self-clean in the process.
Thus, it is the totality of features of the invention, distinguishing it from the prototype, ensures the achievement of the technical result is reliable turbine operation in extreme conditions of the sewer.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows the General layout of the device, figure 2 - design of turbines and pockets, figure 3 - interaction of water flow reflected from the canopy, with the blade of the turbine.
Hydraulic turbine (1, 2) includes sewer pipe 1, in cross section which is made large and small pocket 2 pocket 3. Inside a large pocket 2 is provided with a turbine shaft 4 on which are mounted the blades 5 having a curved shape and is oriented in the working area (inside sewer pipes) by the convexity upwards. Opposite with respect to the shaft 4, the wall of the pocket 6 is made in the form of an arc of a circle and passes into the lower part of the inclined surface 7, the angle of which is greater than a critical angle clutch solids contained in the wastewater, with its material. In the upper part of it goes into the visor 8 outside large pocket 2 inside the pipe 1. Opposed relative to the axis of rotation of the small wall pocket 3 made in the form of the iGO circle. The turbine shaft 4 is connected to the generator 9 (Fig 1).
We offer hydraulic turbine operates as follows. The flow of wastewater 10, falling on the blade 5, according to the rotational movement of the shaft 4 of the turbine in the direction of arrow 11. The shaft 4 rotates the rotor of the generator 9, the result of which produced electricity. The flow of waste water 10 interacting with the peripheral part of the blade 5, the effect on them at an angle close to 90°. In this regard, the maximum torque on the shaft 4. In addition, minimizes the likelihood of sediment deposition near the shaft 4, since the centrifugal force and gravity contribute to the purification of the blades 5 in the lower part of the trajectory of their movement. Due to the high viscosity of solids included in the composition of wastewater, natural purification of the blades 5 may continue after their entrance into a large pocket 2. While falling from the blades fragments solids fall on the inclined surface 7 of the wall 6 large pockets 2 and slide it to the bottom of the pipe 1. Part of the flow of waste water 12, moving close to diametrically opposite in relation to the thread 10 of the pipe wall 1, interacting with visor 8, changes the direction (along arrow 13, Fig 3). In this regard, the interaction of the flow with the blade 5 is at an acute angle α to the normal 14 held to the top p of the surface of the blade. Therefore, reflected from the blades of the thread 15 is directed to the pipe wall 1 in the area of small pocket 3, the surface of which drains into the lower part of the pipe 1 or interacts again with the blades 5. Thus, the area near the shaft 4 is reliably protected from deposits of solids contained in the wastewater that provides reliable and efficient operation of hydraulic turbines.
Hydraulic turbine mounted within the vertical conduit containing a rotor with a horizontal shaft and blades located around it, wherein the conduit is a part of the sewer riser with large and small local pockets located in the plane of rotation of the turbine blades, and half of the blades is located inside a large pocket, with opposite relative to the axis of rotation of the wall of the big pocket is an arc of a circle, passing in the lower part of the inclined straight line, and at the top in the visor with negative angles of inclination of the surface directed to the turbine, the blades of which have a curved profile and is oriented outside large pocket bulge up.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: main and auxiliary vertical double blades are arranged on a turning cantilever. The axis of the main blade in a central part is connected to a casing on the cantilever end with a return spring, and its planes are fixed asymmetrically on the axis, i.e. with a larger surface area towards the cantilever attachment centre. The auxiliary blade has symmetrical planes and is kinematically connected to the main one through transmission ratio providing a larger turning angle to it. A multiplier is of combined type, and it has additional inner conversion relative to slow back-and-forth movement of the cantilever axis to increased one-way rotation of a multiple-pole generator. In case of an underwater design, axes of blades and cantilevers are equipped with waterproof sliding bearings excluding the need for additional sealing of inner volumes of the blade part of the cantilever and the load-carrying housing.
EFFECT: invention contributes to creation of surface and above-water, noiseless and safe wind driven units, as well as bottom hydraulic units in river, running and sea streams providing simple and compact designs with possibility of their being lifted to the surface for periodic inspection or repair.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: wave power plant comprises a floating body 1, a mechanical converter of sea waves energy made in the form of a horizontally installed carrier 5 at one end connected with a shaft 6 vertically and hingedly installed on the body, and the shaft is connected with a rotor of a power generator 4, the stator of which is connected with a floating body 1, and its other end is equipped with a mass 7. The power plant is equipped with additional floats 2, connected to the body 1 with the help of telescopic sliding mechanisms 3, as capable of adjusting total length of the floating part of the body 1 and floats 2 equal to wave half-length. The carrier 5 is equipped with a telescopic sliding mechanism of mass 7 displacement relative to the shaft 6 of the power generator 4 drive.
EFFECT: expanded range of optimally used waves, increased energy efficiency and capacity.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: wave power plant contains at least one float 1 or several interconnected floats. The float 1 is shaped asymmetrically relative to the waves propagation direction; alternatively, the interconnected floats are positioned asymmetrical relative to the waves propagation direction. The said asymmetrical shape or the said asymmetrical position results in a circular motion of the float 1 or the element linking the interconnected floats in response to the pushing action of a series of waves propagating in the said direction. The power plant additionally contains elements for converting circular movement into rotation for extraction of energy.
EFFECT: conversion of waves reciprocating movement immediately into continuous rotation.
18 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: vacuum hydraulic plant comprises a tight chamber 25, where pressure is pulled below atmospheric one, and where water is delivered. In the tight chamber 25 on one rope 17 there are tight cylinders 19 and 9 as capable in their balanced position to displace or charge water volume and spin hydraulic turbines 4 and 21. Hydraulic turbines 4 and 21 with power generators 5 and 20 are installed in an injection and drain pipelines 3 and 22 and installed above a water reservoir 30. For filtration of water at the ends of pipelines 3 and 22 there are meshy filters 23 and 29 arranged. For desalination of sea water or production of steam with its further condensation the tight chamber 25 via the pipeline with the gate valve is connected to a high-pressure ejector. One end of the ejector is connected with a fresh water load via a heat load. The other end of the ejector is serially connected with a source of high-pressure. At the inlet and outlet of the tight chamber 25 there are valves 28 and 24 installed.
EFFECT: invention provides for capability of desalination, filtration, heating or cooling of water.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: driving mechanism comprises a symmetric wing 1 arranged in an uneven flow of water with side walls 2, the axis 3 of which is installed in hinged supports 4 at rear ends of cross beams 5, connected by front ends through hinged joints 6 to a support structure 7, and also an actuating mechanism 9 connected with the axis of the wing 1 by means of a gear 8. The mechanism 9 is equipped with an elastic air cushion 11 arranged in the upper part of the wing 1 above water 10 filling its lower part 10, a lever 12, fixed on the wing 1, and vertical traction rods 13. Traction rods 13 are connected by lower ends with bearings 14 installed on the axis 3 and are attached by upper ends by means of springs 15 to the structure 7. Between the structure 7 and the lever 12 there are the following components installed in series - an elastic element 16 and a controller 17 of wing 1 position. In walls 2 there are holes 18. The top of the holes 18 is arranged below the upper point of the wing 1 profile and matches the level 19 of its filling water 10 and the lower border of the cushion 11, which is arranged in the form of an elastic shell 20, filled with air 21.
EFFECT: higher efficiency due to parametric amplification of rotary oscillations of a driving mechanism wing.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device using energy of sea waves comprises a floating body (1), connected by means of a flexible connecting facility (3) with a converter (6), moving reciprocally in a linear generator (2). The floating body (1) is suited for floating on sea, and a stator (8) of the generator is suited for anchoring at sea bottom. A guide device (9) is installed at the inlet of the connecting facility (3) into a jacket (4) of the generator (2) and comprises a hollow body (12), having lower and upper holes (17, 18). The upper hole (18) is larger than the lower hole (17). The connecting facility (3) is suited for passage through the lower hole (17) and the upper hole (18) of the guide device, besides, a part of the connecting facility momentarily arranged between the specified holes, is determined as a guide part, at the same time the lower hole (17) is arranged so that the guide part next to the lower hole is at one straight line with the specified central axis, and the upper hole (18) is arranged so that the guide part next to the upper hole may form an angle with the central axis. The invention also relates to the method for power generation and to application of the device using energy of sea waves for power generation.
EFFECT: generation of power from potential sources of energy without regard to relative side position of a floating body.
24 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises a floating body partially filled with liquid, a flat float arranged in it, the central part of which is arranged by means of a flexible element with the body bottom. Along the line of the diameter of the upper surface of the float at the identical distance from its centre there are two stands fixed as perpendicular to the float surface. The upper end of one stand is equipped with an upper flexible element, which is tightened, wound in direction of hour hand motion onto the upper part of the coil, and the end of the wound section is fixed on it. The upper end of the other stand is equipped with a lower flexible element, which is tightened, wound in direction opposite to the hour hand motion onto the lower part of the coil, and the end of the wound section is fixed on it, besides, lengths of flexible elements are equal to each other. The coil is tightly placed onto a shaft of a vertically arranged electric generator. The middle part of the coil, the upper end of the upper part, the lower end of the lower part of the coil are equipped with flanges. In the plane of stands arrangement on the lower surface of the float with displacement from its centre there is a fin fixed.
EFFECT: higher reliability of a plant in case of wave movement direction change.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: inshore hydraulic wind-powered plant comprises a platform with a slot, fixed on sea surface in its coastal strip, a rotor plant arranged in the platform slot with location of its part under water and comprising two rotors, which are arranged in a mirror-like manner on a common shaft, mechanically connected with a power generator shaft, every of which is arranged in the form of a disc with blades in the form of aerodynamic wings, arranged with a gap relative to the common shaft, two fairings, each of which is installed on the common shaft in front of the appropriate rotor and covers the gap between the inner edges of blades, and two confusors, and an additional sunk platform fixed in front of the platform at the side of the sea. Ends of rotor blades are arranged as truncated to the axis of the common shaft. Confusors are installed at peripheral parts of ends of rotor blades to form a gap with an appropriate fairing.
EFFECT: increased fullness of joint usage of energy of swash, ebbs and air flow, and also simplified design of an inshore hydraulic wind-powered plant and its operation.
7 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: wave energy converter includes platform 22 submerged into water space. Platform 22 is supported in water by means of fully buried float and retained by means of halyard 28, such as chain, rope or cable wire, which attaches the platform to bottom of water space. Pump assembly is fixed on platform and includes double-acting pump 9 performing back-and-forth movement and surface float 2. Float 2 can float on surface of water space. Floatability of surface float 2 creates upward stroke of double-acting pump 9 when wave height increases, and weight of surface float 9 creates downward stroke of double-acting pump when wave height decreases. Displacement of fully sunken float is larger than displacement of combined sunken weight of platform 22, pump assembly and halyard 28 so that halyard 28 remains stretched during downward stroke of double-acting pump 9.
EFFECT: creation of efficient wave energy converter.
16 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ocean-wave generator. Proposed generator comprises float 2, rotary shaft 1, generator 3, multiple turbine wheels 4 and water flow wheel 5. Generator 3 is locked on float 2 accommodating accelerator 5. Shaft 1 runs in sync with float 2 and accelerator 5 and is arranged there between. Top end of shaft 1 extends through float 2 to get jointed with generator rotor 3. Shaft bottom end extends through accelerator 5 to be locked with turbine wheel 4. Water flow channel 51 is arranged in accelerator 5 to produce high-speed water flow to drive turbine wheels 4 in one direction. Channel 51 features scroll shape. Internal diameter of channel 541 gradually decreases from its inlet to outlet.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
8 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has metallic hubs of stator and rotor, wherein crowns of stator and rotor are concentrically pressed. Crowns of stator and rotor are made of durable ceramics and are additionally equipped with connections, allowing to exclude non-controlled turning of crowns in hubs and spontaneous axial displacement thereof.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.
FIELD: turbines using kinetic energy of liquid flow.
SUBSTANCE: proposed turbine has turbine case , stay ring with cascade of stay vanes, wicket-gate mechanism with cascade of adjustable vanes, operating element with cascade of flange-mounted blades and drive shaft coupled with electric generator step-up gear, operating element chamber, and draft tube. It is also provided with straightening mechanism that has cascade of vanes, chain transmission that has sprockets and shafts; external and internal rims are made in cross-sectional areas in the form of ovals. Cascade of blades is made in the form of caterpillar cascade. Operating element blades are cylindrical in shape and hinge-joined through chain transmission whose drive sprocket is coupled with drive shaft. Flanges of operating element blades are provided with supporting rollers mounted in fixed supports and joined with chain transmission shafts at distances of two adjacent operating-mechanism blades; guides are made in the form of oval junctions joined with turbine internal rim in vicinity of their abutting against butt-ends of flanges carrying operating element blades.
EFFECT: enhanced turbine efficiency.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mobile generator plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator plant has frame that mounts power unit, foot-operated air pump, and compressed-air cylinders whose air lines communicate with generator plant. Control panel is electrically connected to output of electric generator vertically installed on generator plant housing and mechanically coupled with exciter and power unit made in the form of vertical-shaft pneumostatic motor. The latter has sealed case with inlet, outlet, and safety valves closed with cover that accommodates vertical rotor mounted in case and cover bearings and made in the form of shaft with two power drives attached thereto by means of U-shaped frames. Power drives are installed on either side of vertical shaft and spaced 180 deg. apart in horizontal plane. Each of them has a number of similar members symmetrically mounted one on top of other, their quantity being dependent of desired power. Each member is essentially rhombic plate made of light-mass and high-strength metal whose longitudinal axis is longest diagonal parallel to that of other power drive. Through ducts are provided on front ends of rhomb and L-shaped blind ducts, on its rear butt-ends. All these ducts are closed with covers kinematically coupled with drive cylinder piston. Compressed air fed to sealed housing opens covers, and unbalanced forces are built up on each member which set power unit in rotary motion. Air evacuation from sealed housing closes covers with the result that no forces are built up on drive members.
EFFECT: enhanced power output and torque.
2 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of free flow of water into electric energy. Proposed microhydroelectric station contains hydraulic turbine with horizontal axle of rotation connected with submersed sealed electric generator. Station is provided with carrying frame consisting of sections on ends of which shields are installed to form confuser at inlet of water flow, and diffuser at outlet. Slow speed generator is used as electric generator whose shaft is directly connected with shaft of hydraulic turbine consisting of separate sections mounted on bearing supports. Each section contains one or more blade propulsors displaced through equal angle relative to each other. Each propulsor has two blades pointed in opposite directions being essentially NASA section modified by provision of cavity on lower plane, maximum depth of which being from 10 to 14% of maximum height of section and installed on posts secured on shaft of hydraulic turbine for fixed displacement of blades in radial and angular directions.
EFFECT: reduced cost of manufacture and mounting.
FIELD: engine manufacturing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of operation of self-contained power station powered by diesel-generator set. According to proposed method of operation of self-contained power station powered by diesel generator set equipped with additional flywheel and disconnect clutch with automatic control members, additional flywheel is mounted on separate shaft which is connected with diesel-generator set by means of disconnect clutch. Preparatory operation is carried out to set power station into operation with subsequent overcoming of short-time starting resistances from consumer. Additional flywheel is connected to shut down diesel generator set by means of disconnect clutch. Power station is started under no load, and its coming to rated speed is detected by readings of generator shaft speed pickups. Load is connected and intensity of generator shaft speed drop is checked. Information is automatically transmitted to controller wherefrom, at termination of generator speed drop, signal is transmitted to disconnect clutch, and rotating additional flywheel is disconnected from diesel generator set, thus changing the set for accelerated mode of restoration of initial rated speed.
EFFECT: provision of power saving operation at stable conditions for overcoming designed resistance torque and short-time overloads exceeding capabilities of chosen supply source.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.
EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant is designed for generating electric energy and pumping of water. Proposed device contains floating base in form of catamaran with channel between housing of catamaran in which water wheel with blades on its outer surface is mounted, and electric generator mechanically coupled with shaft of water wheel. Diameter of water wheel is less than its length. End faces of water wheel are covered, and front profile of water wheel blades is made to logarithmic spiral. Moreover, plant is furnished with water pump, and drive of electric generator is made in form of step-up harmonic gearing whose flexible gear is coupled with end face of water pump. Output shaft of step-up gearing is aligned with shafts of water wheel and electric generator, being coupled with water pump by step-up belt drive. Drive sheave of step-up belt drive is installed on shaft of electric generator. Controllable clutches are installed on shafts of belt drive.
EFFECT: improved reliability and enlarged operating capabilities of plant.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machines or engines for liquids.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises converter for converting flow power into kinetic energy of rotation and hydraulic turbines connected in series. The hydraulic turbine is made of hollow load-bearing shaft-cylinder with conical deflectors on the bases. The semi-cylindrical blades are secured to the shaft-cylinder along the generatrix of the cylinder or at an angle to the generatrix. The load-bearing shaft-cylinder is inscribed into the inner ends of the semi-cylindrical blades, and their outer ends tightened by means of rings define multi-blade cylinder provided with variable buoyancy that is controlled by ballast in the hollow section of the shaft-cylinder. The hydraulic turbine can be submerged into water completely or partially and interposed between the bearings and connected with the actuating mechanism through flexible links, clutches, and gearings. The actuating mechanism comprise one or several massive inertia flywheels made of disk or drum or cylinder connected through clutches and gears with the consumer.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: electromechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator primarily designed to supply with power borehole instrument of face telemetering system in the course of boring has internal stator and rotor; the latter mounts turbine in its front part that has casing carrying rectangular- or trapezoidal-section helical blades. These blades are free to vary their angle of lift depending on conditions of borehole washing with drilling fluid. Blades may be made of flexible material and have two parts of which one part is joined with turbine casing and other (loose) part is free to bend in transverse plane. In addition, blades may have variable stiffness in cross-sectional area and variable height of cross-section profile; loose parts of blades may be joined with ring. Blade turn limiter responding to maximal discharge of drilling fluid may be provided on the turbine casing.
EFFECT: enhanced operating reliability and extended variation range of drilling fluid discharge through generator turbine.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic turbine generators are designed for creating stationary and portable hydraulic plants of modular type. Generators have rotor with central shaft non-rotating around horizontal axis or vertical axis (as version) on which chain drive gears are rigidly fitted, each being coupled through independent chain drive with planet pinion members arranged radially and uniformly around central shaft. Each member has blade reduction gear consisting of gear of chain drive and of large and small cylindrical gears, the latter being coaxial and rigidly coupled with gear of chain drive of blade reduction gear, and large cylindrical gear is rigidly secured on axle of blade installed horizontally for generator (or vertically, as version). Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation on brackets secured on hubs by bases. Hubs are installed on both ends of shaft for rotation and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims being drive wheels connected with energy converters by flexible drive.
EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable operation.
3 cl, 4 dwg