Method to recover abandoned pits for construction of cemetery

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separate extraction, movement and piling of soil layer and stripping rocks, mining of a quarry field, filling of the mined space of the pit with construction wastes and further compaction. Then terracing is carried out at one of pit slopes with the help of a bulldozer. Places for burial of remains are arranged on terraces. On the other slope of the pit a vertical wall is arranged for burial of urns with ashes of deceased, where horizontal rows of niches are arranged, being made by means of horizontal pushing of pipe sections of rectangular cross section.

EFFECT: reduced labour inputs and cost of recovery works, rational use of land areas.

3 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the technical reclamation career grooves, remaining after the extraction of building stone and other subsurface minerals.

There is a method of recovery of disturbed lands in open field development [1], selected as a prototype, including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, the development of career fields, mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying drainage layer and the layer of fertile soil.

The disadvantage of this method is the extraction of large volumes of soil to create the fertile soil layer, which in turn leads to the formation of large areas of disturbed land, to the irrational use of land, rising labor costs and a significant increase in the cost of the rehabilitation works.

The proposed solution reduces the effort and costs of rehabilitation activities, and promotes the rational use of land.

This is achieved in that in the method of recovering verbotener, including separate excavation, movement and storage of topsoil and overburden, the development of career fields, mined-out space to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying drainage layer construction waste, of a thickness of not less than 0.6 meter and a particle size fractions of 150-200 mm, and the dumping of overburden on top of the drainage layer with subsequent alignment and seal according to the invention, on one of the available slopes of the quarry produces terracing with bulldozer will first produce a breakdown of the plot and PROPARCO furrows marking the boundaries of the future terraces, then the bulldozer form the fabric of every terraces with opposite transverse inclination of up to two degrees, and the width of the terraces should be 7 meters, then for each terrace, starting with the bottom tier of the terraces around the perimeter of the slope satisfied with retaining walls and paving drainage system, and on the terraces arrange places for burial, and the burial place on the bottom floor of the terrace should be located at a distance of 2.5 meters from the top of the groundwater level. In addition, on the opposite slopes is e career form the vertical wall of the burial urns with ashes of the dead, which have horizontal rows of niches, performed by the horizontal jacking pipe sections of rectangular cross-section, with a step equal to twice the distance between the horizontal rows of niches.

Punching sections of steel tubing of rectangular cross-section is produced from the bottom row after the adoption of the constructive scheme of their location and determine the order of the forcing. With one end of each of the sections of steel pipe concreted at a distance from its beginning, equal to ¼ of the lower side of the rectangular section of steel pipe, and a length of 0.2 m, and its other end is closed with a removable memorial plate.

Implementation of the present invention reduces the labor costs and the cost of repair works due to the use of worked-out quarry, construction waste that is constantly forming as a result of reconstruction, demolition and repair of buildings and structures, and promotes the rational use of land. The proposed method is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 and figure 2 shows the structural diagram of the implementation of this method and view A-A.

The method is as follows.

First on the area of disturbed land perform planning work, and the layout is performed so that one side of the pit was designed for future terracing, and d is u - for a device of the vertical walls of sorrow for burial urns with ashes of the dead. The mean absolute stamp set with the feasibility study. Then make the filling of the pit 1 to the border of the upper groundwater level 2 construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer. Each layer is compacted by the method of compacting sealing machines and mechanisms. Then make laying drainage layer 3 construction waste, of a thickness of not less than 0.6 meter and a particle size fractions of 150-200 mm, and the filling layer 4 of overburden on top of the drainage layer with its subsequent alignment and sealing. Each stacked layer compacted by the method of compacting sealing machines and mechanisms. On the slope of the pit 1, intended for terracing, proceed to the construction of terraces 5. After laying out the plot and propasti furrows marking the boundaries of the future terraces form the canvas terraces 5. The construction of terraces 5 given width with opposite transverse inclination of up to two degrees is produced by using the universal bulldozer. To which the blade is installed in its working position, pushing forward the right (sermon) side of the blade. For formation of company name to be cut angle right Shoe of Alcatel the bulldozer privertyvajut spherical head down, fixing it in position, so that the knife blade gets the angle in the vertical profile. Then the bulldozer, selecting a relatively flat place to start, goes to the top of the right-of-way land under the terrace, and performing a reciprocating motion on a small stretch of road along the planned terraces, cuts the ground before the formation of the horizontal platform. Cut the ground weakly hurts from shoveling, so a slight turn of the bulldozer have to move it to the left (down the slope), pouring under the left caterpillar and thus replenish the bulk part of the terrace 5. Having finished the work in this period (length of 10-15 meters) bulldozer moves forward to a new area and so on until the end of the terrace. Moreover, the width of the terraces should be seven meters. Then the cycle is repeated with the next terrace. Then, starting from the bottom tier of the terraces around the perimeter of the quarry arrange retaining wall 6 to strengthen terraces 5. Retaining wall 6 prevents the erosion of soil. For the construction of retaining walls 6 use different material (natural stone, concrete, brick, wood). To prevent stagnant waterlogging of the soil laid drainage system (the drawing is not marked). On the terraces 5 arrange places for burial, and acherontia on the bottom floor of the terrace should be located at a distance (a=2.5 m) from the top of the groundwater level. On the opposite slope of the quarry 1 form a vertical wall of sorrow 7 for burial urns with ashes of the dead. What initially producing the collapse of the hanging sides opposite side of the quarry to give it the required verticality. Then, according to the constructive arrangement of niches in a vertical wall of sorrow 7 by horizontal pushing (hammering) have horizontal rows of niches 8, made of sections of steel pipe 9 of rectangular cross-section. Punching (driving) sections of steel pipe 9 of rectangular cross-section produced from step (d=2n), equal to twice the distance (n) between the horizontal rows of niches 8. The sequence of rupture (hammering) and the layout niches due to the presence of the condensed zone of soil around the space of the depressed section of the steel pipe 9, and therefore, with the change of the stress state of the soil, which takes into account the adopted constructive arrangement of niches. To begin the process of horizontal pushing (hammering) one end of each of the sections of steel pipes 9 concreted at a distance (in) from its beginning, equal to ¼ of the lower side of the rectangular section steel tube 9, and the length of c=0.2 m Concrete mixture is allowed a temporary exposure to curing. For concrete use concrete class B3,5 and above. P is after the complete formation of the vertical walls of sorrow 7 concreted, and the other ends of sections of steel pipe 9 is closed with a removable memorial plate 10.

Sources of information

1. Patent of Russia №2274749, CL E21C 41/32, 2005

1. The way of restoration of worked-out quarries for the construction of the cemetery, including separate excavation, movement and storage of topsoil and overburden, the development of career fields, mined-out space of the quarry to the border of the upper level of groundwater construction waste, similar in composition to natural minerals with different particle size fractions, in layers with subsequent compaction of each layer, laying drainage layer construction waste, thickness not less than 0.6 m, and particle size fractions of 150-200 mm and dumping of overburden on top of the drainage layer with its subsequent alignment and seal, characterized in that on one of the available slopes of the quarry produces terracing using a bulldozer, while initially producing a breakdown of the plot and PROPARCO furrows marking the boundaries of the future terraces, then the bulldozer form the fabric of every terraces with opposite transverse inclination of up to two degrees, and the width of the terraces should be 7 m, then for each terrace starting from the bottom tier of the terraces around the perimeter of the slope, arrange the retaining wall and paving drainage of the second system, and on the terraces arrange places for burial, and the burial place on the bottom floor of the terrace should be located at a distance of 2.5 m from the top of the groundwater level, in addition, on the opposite slope of career form the vertical wall of the burial urns with ashes of the dead, which have horizontal rows of niches, performed by the horizontal jacking pipe sections of rectangular cross-section, with a step equal to twice the distance between the horizontal rows of niches.

2. The way of restoration of worked-out quarries for the construction of the cemetery according to claim 1, characterized in that the punching of steel pipes of rectangular cross-section is produced from the bottom row after the adoption of the constructive scheme of their location and determine the order of hammering.

3. The way of restoration of worked-out quarries for the construction of the cemetery according to claim 1, characterized in that one end of each of the sections of steel pipe concreted at a distance from its beginning, is equal to j lower side of the rectangular section of steel pipe, and a length of 0.2 m, and its other end is closed with a removable memorial plate.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: separate excavation of soil layer and overburden rocks, their movement and stocking into individual strip dumps is performed; open-pit field development, laying and levelling of overburden rocks and their compaction is performed to form an impervious screen. Then, backfill material is added, which consists of a mixture of overburden rocks and non-organic wastes - dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production and citrogypsum from production of citric acid in the following ratio (wt %): overburden rocks : dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production : citrogypsum = 2 : (1 - 1.5): (0.2 - 0.3).

EFFECT: reduction of adverse effect on the environment owing to avoiding open-area storage of wastes, and production of citric acid, and their use as part of backfill material during recultivation of open pits.

1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: root layer is formed due to removal, loading, transportation and application to the dump surface of overburden rocks from top overburden bench, which consist of fertile soil layer and basement rocks. Then, vegetation cover is formed using the planting material treated with complex biological preparation.

EFFECT: reduction of reclamation periods; increase in durability of cultivated forest and grassy ranges on reclamated lands.

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: separation of tailings into fractions is performed at tailing drain points on inclined surface, on which system of settling trenches with reinforced-concrete trays laid in them is created. Width of the tray bottom is equal to width of bucket of extraction-loading equipment. Then, mechanical cleaning of settling trenches from conditioning tailings is performed.

EFFECT: reduction of impoverishment of tailings and costs for development of useful components.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flooding of worked out peatlands in the restoration of peat bogs. The method is carried out in the autumn-winter period with the establishment of a stable average daily air temperature below the freezing point of water with use of ice blocks made in the form of polyhedra. Near the available source of fresh water the blocks of ice are produced. Then the blocks manufactured using the vehicle are moved to the mapped areas of worked out peatlands and put in few layers in the structure in the form of a polyhedron. At that at each mapped area of worked out peatlands, depending on the area of the site one or more structures from blocks of ice are erected.

EFFECT: increased level of fire safety in the areas of worked out peatlands, reduced level of the risk of emergencies and improved overall environmental situation around the worked out peatlands.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation, in particular, to restoration of disturbed lands located in overmoistened areas. The method is based on stimulating the processes of natural overgrowing and including a complete or partial removal of layer of sand previously applied to the bog to a residual layer above the surface of the bog 1-15 centimetres.

EFFECT: method enables to stimulate the natural overgrowing of disturbed lands, particularly wetland areas with the settlement and development of local wild plant species.

4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes water draining from an open pit, filling of a worked-out area. At the same time the worked-out area is filled with a mineral mass containing metals; water draining from the open pit and worked-out area filling are carried out simultaneously. Besides, the volume of the filled material is comparable to the volume of drained pit water, metals are extracted from the drained pit water by means of electric exchange sorption, technical water produced after sorption is divided into two flows, one of which is sent to process needs of production, and the other is sent via an electric cavitation plant to produce active oxygen, then is sent back to the pit to activate the process of internal pit leaching.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of water-logged pits reclamation.

1 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in removal of water from a drop, giving the specified position to the drop bottom, laying of a water-impermeable geomembrane onto this bottom and covering of a geomembrane and a beach with a protective layer from natural soil. The geomembrane edge is installed above the rated water level in the pond, created in the drop with atmospheric precipitation and put into economic turnover. In plan beyond the geomembrane the protective layer in its base comprises an antifiltration layer coupled with a geomembrane.

EFFECT: reduced scope of planning works and dust generation, increased suitability of area of a preserved pond for further use in a direction previously not characteristic for it.

5 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method of pits conservation, including open-pit field mining, foundation pit with flattening of pit edges and their reinforcement along the periphery and pit flooding with water. Note that edges flattening is done till reaching the angle of safe cut. Along the lower flooded area of the edges along the whole periphery together with flattening of edges from sheared massive there formed is a retaining embankment till the mark corresponding the minimum water level in pit. After that the retaining embankment is covered by protective layer from macrofragmental material till the mark exceeding the maximum water level in pit to the height of wave run-up. Dumping of protective layer from macrofragmental material is done by segregation of consertal rocks as a result of mining-and-transport equipment unloading at the upper edge of the pit, the edges flattening till reaching the angle of natural slope is done above the minimum water level in pit.

EFFECT: increase of pit edges stability in the area of abrasion.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves filling of the worked-out area to the boundary of upper level of ground water with construction waste close as to its composition to natural minerals with fractions of various size, layer by layer with further compaction of each layer, laying of drainage layer with construction waste with thickness of not less than 0.6 metre and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At that, topographic mapping of the whole pit is performed, and as per its results there made is planning with extraction of sections representing geological natural monument and sections subject to further filling. At that, filling with construction waste is performed while cuts of deposits representing geological natural monument are kept free, and possibility of access to them, monitoring them and arranging the museum of the Earth is provided. The rest sections of the pit according to the planning are broken into zones and filled; at that, overburden rocks are laid on the drainage layer. Hill is formed in one of the zones with its further terracing. Burial places are built on terraces. Columbarium and crematorium rooms are built in the rest zones. Foundation bases of the above buildings are arranged in the following sequence: first, overburden rocks laid on drainage layer are levelled, and piles are driven to the design depth from planning level of the pit. Then, buffer pad from sand of average grain size is made without compaction and binding concrete is provided above buffer pad. Zones are separated from each other by means of artificially created three-dimensional soil shapes, and tracks and access ways are covered with natural or artificial stone.

EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: recovery method of mined-out pits involves filling of the worked-out area to the boundary of upper level of ground waters with construction waste close as to its composition to natural minerals, laying of drainage layer of construction waste with thickness of not less than 0.6 metre and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At that, first, planning is performed and cuts of deposits of average coal age are determined. Filling with construction waste is performed while those cuts of deposits of average coal age are kept free, and access is provided to them in order to monitor them and to arrange the museum of the Earth. Then, in the centre of the pit, on the drainage layer there laid are overburden rocks; at that, a hill is formed; after that, when the hill height reaches average absolute level, terracing of hill slopes is performed by means of a bulldozer; and section is pre-broken and furrows indicating the boundaries of the future terraces, tracks and access ways are ploughed. Bed of each terrace is formed with reverse cross slope to two gradients; at that, width of terrace bed is not less than seven metres. For each terrace, starting from lower tier of terraces, along the whole perimetre of the pit, there built are embankment plate or stone walls and they are bound with cement mortar. Drainage system is routed and burial places are built on terraces.

EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work owing to excluding the necessity of extraction of large volumes of soil for creation of fertile layer.

1 dwg

FIELD: earth recovery during drilling work performing.

SUBSTANCE: method involves waterproofing sump walls and bottom; filling thereof with used drilling mud; pumping-out liquid phase and filling thereof with peat and mineral ground. Liquid phase is previously accumulated in the sump and cleaned. Mineral ground, peat and used drilling mud are mixed one with another and supplied to bank slope or to road slope. Then grass is planted on slopes. Cleaned liquid phase is used for grass watering.

EFFECT: increased quality of earth sump reclamation.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively excavating, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; filling and smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer has particle dimensions of 150-200 mm and thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Draining layer is covered with fertile ground so that fertile ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.3 m is created. Then straw layer in which chemical fertilizers and perennial grass seeds are added is formed over fertile ground layer. The straw layer is smoothed and sprinkled with dispersions containing water-soluble polymeric substances and synthetic water-soluble phosphates, wherein synthetic water-soluble phosphates are taken in amount of 1-4% by ready dispersion weight.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively mining, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer is layer of gravel-sand ground with particle dimensions of not more than 200 mm and has thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Then two parallel spiral channels are excavated along each pit perimeter from slope side. Coil of each channel starts at pit slope top and terminates at bottom thereof at upper ground water level. Both channels are filled with building waste having particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm. After that holes for trees planting are dug out, wherein the holes are arranged between channel coils. Drainage layer is located on hole bottoms so that the drainage layer is connected with building waste of the channels and holes are filled with fertile ground. Then perennial grass, bushes and trees are planted in the reclamated land.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: environment protection, particularly to protect nature against dust blown off with wind from man-made massif surfaces.

SUBSTANCE: method involves contouring dust-forming surface and creating protective structures on dust-forming man-made massif surface in two mutually perpendicular directions, namely transversely to and along prevailing wind action directions; determining wind speed Vlim, m/s which provides maximum permissible dust concentration and maximal prevailing wind speed Vmax, m/s at massif sanitary zone boundary; partitioning man-made massif surface into square areas; installing protective barriers along protective barrier perimeters, wherein the protective barriers are formed of cellular material. Each square area has side length Lar determined from mathematical expression.

EFFECT: reduced dust carryover.

2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining, construction engineering, possible use during technical reclamation of quarry pits.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting the quarry field, forming paired stopping walls in extracted space of quarry field, filling the space between paired stopping walls by construction wastes, while preserving full height of draining and ventilation channels, and building a ceiling. After extraction of quarry field, present hanging sides of quarry walls are collapsed to impart required verticality to them, flexible longitudinal links are attached to quarry walls with following guniting of quarry walls with solidifying solution across whole perimeter of extracted quarry space. Then, quarry bottom is evened out with following densification by means of rolling with appropriate machines and devices, after that wells are drilled in soil by means of washout and soil is mixed with solidifying solution, then reinforcing cage is mounted therein with simultaneous feeding of concrete mixture for making iron-concrete pile in soil-cement cover, while diameters of soil-cement covers overlap one another, creating a foundation having increased filtration and hardness characteristics, paired stopping walls are built along perimeter of quarry, letting flexible longitudinal links through them with their following attachment inside paired stopping walls, and columns are set up to make a ceiling.

EFFECT: expanded area of possible use of extracted and reclaimed quarries, for example, for further industrial construction.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, possible use for reclamation of damaged lands in agriculture, power-construction industrial branches.

SUBSTANCE: method includes, after extraction of quarry field is finished, closure of each quarry by reinforced structures made in form of sleeves of geo-synthetic material and filled with milled construction wastes, while ends of sleeves are sewn shut. Reinforced structures are placed one after another, closely to each other. On top of reinforced structures, draining layer is filled, then a layer of stripping rocks and finally a layer of potentially fertile soil with following seeding thereof with perennial grasses, brushes and trees.

EFFECT: decreased laboriousness and costs of restorative operations.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of fertile layer during opening of mineral resources and stocking of rock during extraction of same, planning of open mines by backfill with rock and application of fertile layer with restoration of vegetation in accordance to land usage direction. During backfill of rocks into open mines, inclined trench is made from earth surface to open part of exposed formation outlet being left in sides of mine, which provides access and following underground extraction of left deposit resources, and is meant to be a part of payable area.

EFFECT: combination of coal extractive processes with reclamation of lands and preservation of access to concealed resources for their later extraction.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: methods of underground or surface mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas after production of building stone and other surface-sited minerals.

SUBSTANCE: method involves developing open-pit field; caving hanging walls of the pit; forming floor; installing one-sided form and filling the created space with claydite-concrete; arranging heat-insulation and water-proofing screen along pit wall so that the screen extends for the full wall length, wherein the heat-insulation and water-proofing screen includes heat-insulation material combined with waterproofing sheets of surface waterproofing agent; erecting paired support walls provided with natural ventilation system along pit perimeter so that the support walls are spaced predetermined distance from pit wall; covering space between paired support walls and pit wall with surface waterproofing agent and filling the treated space with ice.

EFFECT: extended field of exhausted pit usage, for instance for further freezing facility construction.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining and processing industry, particularly to reclaim soil in agriculture and building and power engineering industries.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing selective mining, conveying and stacking ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; developing pit field; filling exhausted space with building waste in several layers along with rolling of each building waste layer; leveling thereof with overburden and laying ground layer. Pit is filled with building waste up to mid-height pit level, but not under ground water level. After that building waste is rolled and covered with overburden for total pit filling. Then overburden layer is leveled. To prevent ground settlement wells are formed along filled pit surface, wherein the wells are formed up to design depth and are filled with building waste with each building waste portion compaction. Overburden layer, building waste layer, reinforced structure level formed of geo-synthetic sleeves filled with building waste milled to obtain particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm are serially laid on filled pit.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction and mining, particularly reclamation of pit depressions after building stone and other surface mineral production.

SUBSTANCE: method involves working out pit; filling the worked-out space; leveling thereof and laying ground layer thereon. After pit working-out ditch and water-draining trenches are formed along pit perimeter to impart regular geometrical shape to pit along with pit side flattening to obtain pit sides inclination of not more than 30° along with following pit side compaction by rolling thereof with compaction machines and mechanisms; pouring sand on designed pit slopes; laying impervious screen made of high-density polyethylene on sand layer; pouring ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.5 m on the impervious screen; covering pit bottom with clay layer; compacting clay layer and inclining thereof towards collecting well composed of reinforced concrete rings; arranging radial bed drainage of crushed stone and sand on pit bottom so that the drainage is directed towards collecting well; forming water-removal ditch along pit perimeter; filling the pit with compacted building waste briquettes; arranging clay screen having thickness of not less than 0.3 m over building waste briquettes; arranging plant layer on clay screen.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.

Up!