Method of producing hollow stepped parts

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and may be used for production of hollow stepped parts. Preliminary and final two-sided piercing of billet is performed. Preliminary piercing is performed by piercer shaped to truncated cone. Piercer diameter ratio makes 8.0. For final piercing appropriate piercer is used with taper making 5°. Then, pierced billet is machined at appropriate tool.

EFFECT: lower costs.

2 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the field of metal forming, namely for the manufacture of parts with an axial hole using transactions firmware, in particular the preliminary and final bilateral firmware procurement and subsequent mechanical processing on the machine.

A known method of manufacturing a hollow forgings in the form of a truncated cone with the tab on the side surface side of the smaller base of forgings (see, for example, A.S. 963662), including rollers carried out in 2 stages, when 1 phase profiles of prefabricated with the tabs on the end parts, and the 2-stage molded cone forging, rolling one of the ledges in the Central part of the billet.

Known methods of manufacturing parts, workpieces which are speed reducers (see, for example, A.S. 958026)and profile ring received on colceramica mill with items that have the height with different values of the squares of the cross-section. While pipes with different wall thickness at their lower and upper bases are invited to get in wire on the mandrel to cut the strikers, and the wall thickness should not be less than 100 mm according to GOST 7062-90 (see, for example, A.S. 946763) closed by the firmware in the stamp with a conical cavity.

Also known calculation method of selecting an optimal shape of the original zagotovka is (see, for example, Ilachinski and other "Theory of metal forming." 1963, RIS), after which the drawing of the stamp or forging is determined by the ratio Rp/RC, further from the maximum for a given curve Rp/RCfalls perpendicular to the x-axis and is defined by R0from the conditions of constancy of volume (if known volume of the material) is determined by the height of the workpiece, and then, descending from the same point perpendicular to the y-axis, determine the height of the forging, and then determined the height hCat the end of the first stage of forming. To do this, from the point of maximum on the curve Rp/RCis a direct parallel to the x-axis, to the intersection with the corresponding curve R0/RCthe right part of the chart and from the point of intersection falls perpendicular to the x-axis, thus, can be specified all dimensions of the deformed workpiece in the final moment of the first stage of the stamping. In this example, Rpis the radius forgings, RCis the radius of the drift-pin strengthening, hC- height degree of the part of the forging under the drift-pin strengthening (jumpers). However, in selected thus the workpiece does not exclude the possibility of formation of clamps. In theoretical study considered a simplified model of the stamping process axisymmetric forging and so it is impossible to consider all the details of this percent the SSA.

It is also known that in the manufacture of forgings with an axial hole, the main operation is the firmware is open or closed. For the production of thick-walled workpieces used open firmware, and thin - walled closed. Economically preferable open firmware, requiring less effort and cost of the instrument. However, when the open firmware is the distortion of the shapes and sizes of forgings, which is greater, the smaller the ratio of the diameter of the original piece to the diameter of the piercing punch and the greater the ratio of the height of the original piece to the thickness of the jumper removed when flashing. Value : valid when flashing the distortion of the shape of the workpiece is determined by the redistribution of metal by rolling on a mandrel under a hammer or press, or rolling on colceramica the camp. Border application of open firmware shall be determined on the basis of the admissible values of the distortion of the workpiece.

Analysis of the known sources showed that there are currently two methods of calculation of deformation of workpieces with open firmware. The first one uses the formula Csale built on experimental data (see, for example, Semenov E.I. Forging and die forging. 1972. p.95-96). She received when flashing the workpiece cylindrical punch, without regard before kiteley basting, contact friction and the radius of the punch.

According to this method, the greatest diameter of the threaded ring (Dmax) is determined by the formula:

Dmax=1,13{(l,5/H)[V+f(H-h)]-0,5F0}0,5

where f=πd2/4 - the cross-sectional area of the punch; d - diameter of the punch;V=(πD02/4)H0- the volume of the original piece; D0and H0the diameter and height of the original piece; H - height of the workpiece after flashing; h - the height of otters;F0=πD02/4- the cross-sectional area of the original piece.

The second is based on the use of theoretical solution of the problem of open firmware axisymmetric cylindrical workpieces punch in the interval of values of the ratio d/D0from 0.2 to 0.5 (see, for example, Ilachinski and other "Theory of metal forming." 1963, s) with the following assumptions:

1) 1/3 1/4...≤h/H0≤1;

2) the upper outer diameter of the workpiece in the firmware does not change;

3) on the surface of contact with the bottom plate of the annular part with an inner diameter equal to the yameru piercing punch, friction forces are absent;

4) the friction on the side surface of the punch is missing.

However, using these methods, it is impossible to determine the degree of distortion of the shape of the preform, because it calculated maximum and average sizes of workpieces, without regarding the altitude of these sizes are. So, to determine the distribution of the amounts of the metal height difficult.

One of the methods of redistribution of the volume of metal in height forgings is a double-sided firmware using punches of different heights. This process is used in industry (see, for example, data on the press, the power of 40 MN complex equipment calgarycanada mill company "Thyssen"). Currently in the technical literature information about the behavior of the metal in the implementation of this process are missing.

As the closest analogue of the claimed invention, it is possible to specify the means of the same purpose, namely, a method of manufacturing a stepped hollow parts, including the firmware of the workpiece (see, for example, patent RF №2291025). However, specified in this patent a method of manufacturing a stepped hollow parts is possible only through the mass production of a stepped hollow parts, for example, on a rotary lines or cold-landing slots. You should have 6 stamps, which are full-time is expensive at cost. In addition, between each stamping must be heat treated to eliminate and reduce the stresses that are made by forging, which generally increases the cost of processing. This method is applicable only for materials that can be subjected to deep drawing. Thus, the use in small-scale production of this method is absolutely inappropriate.

The technical result of the present invention is to obtain the possibility of using more economical method of forging in the manufacture of a stepped hollow parts.

This technical result is reached by the fact that in the method of manufacturing a stepped hollow parts, which includes operations preliminary and final bilateral firmware procurement and subsequent machining of a sewn workpiece on the machine tool, preliminary firmware is realized by means of the drift-pin strengthening preliminary firmware, made in the shape of a truncated cone, the diameter ratio of which is equal to 0.8, and the final firmware via drift - pin strengthening the final firmware made with a taper, pillar 5°.

The dimensions of the workpiece under bilateral firmware, namely, the workpiece diameter D0and the height of the workpiece N0calculated by the drawing figure stepped hollow parts with spare the different paths, which is obtained by direct conversion speed hollow parts with dimensions increased by the amount required for the machining, by smoothing contours, and using the following dependency:

Dmax/d=of 2.51+0,12X1+0,07X2-0,01X1X2

Dbottom/d=2,14+0,17X1+0,H2-0,143-0,H1X2+0,H2X3+0,H1X3-0,H1X2X3

Dtop/d=1,51+0,11X1-0,06X2+0,1X3+0,19X1X2-0,06X2X3-0,09X1X3+0,05X1X2X3

Htop/d=1,36+0,26X1+0,19X2+0,07X1X2+0,01X1X3

whereX1=D0/d-1,50,25;X2=H0/d-2,50,5;X3=h1/d-0,10,02,

D0the workpiece diameter, d is the diameter of proshivka, N0- workpiece height, h1- the height of the drift-pin strengthening the seat reservation firmware Dmax- maximum diameter stitched forgings Dbottomthe lower diameter bound forgings Dtop- upper diameter bound forgings, Ntop- height stitched forgings, and X1, X2and X3must be in the range from minus one to plus one.

Due to the presence of the essential distinguishing features is the possibility of manufacturing the described stepped hollow parts more economical and technological way, reducing the number of stages in the execution of the forge works.

Figure 1 shows the appearance of a sewn workpiece; figure 2 is a stepped portion of the sleeve with a smoothing spline.

When the claimed method of manufacturing a hollow stepped parts, using double-sided preliminary and final firmware choose the instrument with which it is possible to implement the necessary software, then the size under bilateral firmware D0and H0calculated according to the figure, which is obtained by smoothing the drawing of a hollow stepped parts, the size of which is increased by the amount of size required under machining on the lathe, using the above dependence taking into account the fact that d is equal to the diameter of the smaller base of the truncated cones of the drift-pin strengthening pre is sustained fashion firmware and drift-pin strengthening the final firmware the ratio of the diameters of the truncated cone of the drift-pin strengthening pre-firmware must be equal to 0.8, and the taper of the drift-pin strengthening the final firmware should be 5°. X1, X2and X3must be in the range from -1 to +1.

Implementation of the proposed method can be expanded in the example below. For example, you must obtain a stepped portion of the sleeve, presented in figure 2 (inner dashed sleeve).

In this case, first select the desired tool for flashing with values d is the diameter of proshivka, where it is the same diameter of the smaller base of the truncated cones of the drift-pin strengthening the preliminary flashing and the drift-pin strengthening the final firmware, and h1- the height of the drift-pin strengthening preliminary firmware, then on the drawing speed of the workpiece, the size of which include the dimensions of the hollow stepped parts, increased by the amount necessary for machining on the machine, carry out the smoothing of its contours, converting into a figure-spline, measurements determine the data required for registration in the above dependencies, and define D0and H0. With these dimensions, perform preliminary and final firmware using proshivka with the above characteristics, cooled stitched forgings in a natural way by a particular mode depending what brand of steel, then thermoablative, cool and set on the machine tool for machining, while receiving a stepped hollow part.

The resulting workpiece is presented in figure 2, in which the line is a smoothing spline. Got Dmax=502 mm, Dbottom=428 mm, Dtop=302 mm, Htop=272 mm, d=200 mm, h1=32 mm Further from the system dependencies define D0and H0. When the received data, the system dependency satisfy X1=0 and X2=0. Then D0=300 mm and H0=500 mm.

Validation of the obtained solution was produced on clay samples in scale of 1/10 and obtained satisfactory results. The example also shows that the effectiveness of this method and the metal of the workpiece depends on the dimensional ratios of the details.

A method of manufacturing a stepped hollow parts, which includes operations preliminary and final bilateral firmware procurement and subsequent machining of a sewn workpiece on the machine tool, characterized in that the preliminary firmware is realized by means of the drift-pin strengthening preliminary firmware, made in the shape of a truncated cone, the diameter ratio of which is equal to 0.8, and the final firmware via drift - pin strengthening the final firmware made with a taper, pillar 5°.



 

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