Method of determining brand of vulcanised rubber
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting a sample for analysis and analysing its chemical composition, from which the rubber brand is determined. The sample is cut such that it has pre-decomposition zones. Chemical composition is analysed from a fracture in the sample by X-ray spectral technique on a scanning electron microscope with an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The obtained data on chemical composition of the sample are compared with chemical composition of a known rubber brand or a rubber brand used as a reference.
EFFECT: high accuracy and objectivity of determining a rubber brand.
3 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to a method of determining brand vulcanized rubber and can be used in mechanical engineering.
Known way to determine the grade of vulcanized rubber, taken by the authors for similar, comprising heating the analyzed sample in an oven to a temperature of degradation and the study of the products formed spectral method Spectral analysis of technical rubbers. The index of domestic and foreign materials in aviation technology. NIAT, 1988, vol. No. 11, cep.VIII, c.11). Then, given the color of the rubber and the non-combustible residue, as well as its chemical composition, installed brand rubber. The data obtained are compared with the parameters specified in the control table. One of the main disadvantages of this method is that not all elements are determined by the spectral method, for example CL. In addition, the low precision of the analysis results and subjectivity in their decoding are one of the major disadvantages of this method.
The closest to the technical nature of the claimed method is to determine the grade of vulcanized rubber, comprising the cutting of the sample for the study and analysis of its chemical composition, on the basis of which is determined by the brand of vulcanized rubber, prototype (patent RF №2053512, 27.01.1996, G01N 33/44). The essence of this method consists that what is compiled directory curves derivation for well-known brands of vulcanized rubbers. A sample cut from an unknown brand rubber is heated to a temperature of destruction and record the signal with differentsialnoi thermocouple. The obtained curves are compared with the curves of well-known brands of rubber and the results of the analysis of the curves define the brand of vulcanized rubber.
The disadvantage of this method is the low precision of the results: firstly, because of the limited possibilities of spectral analysis (as was mentioned above, CL, and are not defined), second - aging rubber leads to a significant change in the progress curves of derivatograph, and hence to a large degree of error.
The technical result of the claimed method is to improve the accuracy and objectivity determine the grade of rubber.
This technical result is achieved that the way to determine the grade of vulcanized rubber, comprising the cutting of the sample for the study and analysis of its chemical composition, on the basis of which the judge rubber stamp, a sample cut out taking into account the presence of zones of zaratracheny, and chemical composition analysis is carried out with a fracture of the sample x-ray method for scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer, comparing the obtained data khimicheskogo the composition of the sample with the chemical composition of a famous brand of rubber or rubber stamps, adopted as the standard.
Cutting the sample with regard to the presence of zones of zaratracheny (Dol) allows to exclude in the survey area ingress of foreign particles, distorting the results (chemical analysis). The analysis of the chemical composition of the fracture of the sample x-ray method for scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer allows to obtain high precision results due to the possibility of defining a larger number of chemical elements (such as CL, s, and O) of the sample, to exclude the impact of the aging of rubber on the research results. All this, consequently, increases the accuracy and objectivity determine the grade of rubber.
The essence of the claimed invention is illustrated in the following materials:
table 1 - the data directory of the chemical composition of well-known brands of vulcanized rubbers;
figure 1 shows the derivation sample vulcanized rubber obtained by the method of derivatographic analysis;
figure 2 shows a graph of curves derivation of famous brands vulcanized rubber obtained by the method of derivatographic analysis.
The claimed method to determine the grade of vulcanized rubber is defined as follows.
Sample cut out from the workpiece or goto the CSOs products (unknown brand rubber) with the obligatory presence of a zone of zaratracheny (Dol) 2,0 x 3,0 mm It is necessary to exclude in the survey area sample hit a large number of particles, distorting the results of the study. Next, the sample is placed in a sample holder and placed in a column of a scanning electron microscope, for example EVO-50-taken from, with attachment for x-ray microanalysis by energy dispersive spectrometer INCAx-act. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of the investigated sample is compared with the result of the chemical composition of well-known brands of rubber or rubber grade adopted as the standard. The results of the analysis determine the brand of the investigated vulcanized rubber.
The chemical composition of the known brands of vulcanized rubber or brand of vulcanized rubber, adopted as the standard is determined in advance (prior to the analysis of the chemical composition of the sample rubber grade) is similar to the claimed method of the image and catalog parameters of their chemical composition.
A catalogue of the chemical composition of the famous brands of rubber (or rubber stamps, accepted for standard) allows you to accelerate the analysis and the procedure to determine the grade of the investigated rubber.
Further, as examples of the results determine the grade of vulcanized rubber by known methods and the claimed method.
In the present who's following examples, it was necessary to match the sample rubber stamp BUT-68-1.
To match the sample rubber stamp BUT-68-1 was used in the claimed method to determine the grade of vulcanized rubber.
Of the finished product was cut sample with the presence of a zone of zaratracheny (Dol) and carried out x-ray microanalysis in the scanning electron microscope EVO-50-taken from energy dispersive spectrometer.
The results of x-ray microanalysis of the sample was obtained following chemical composition:
C=86,47%, O=Is 3.08%, S=0,41%, Cl=7,03%, Zn=1,58%, Mg=0,62% (hydrogen by this method is not defined).
Next, we compared the obtained results with the data directory (see table 1). From table 1 it is seen that the analyzed sample can be attributed only to the brand with the rubber BUT-68-1.
The above example shows that the claimed method to determine the grade of vulcanized rubber enables high accuracy (about 100%) to establish the brand of the investigated rubber based on the obtained data of the chemical composition of the sample.
To match the sample rubber stamp BUT-68-1 was used known way to determine the grade of vulcanized rubber with the help of spectral analysis, which was carried out heating the sample in an oven up to temp the atmospheric temperature degradation and study the resulting products of the spectral method.
The results of the analysis the following data were obtained in the chemical composition of the investigated sample:
Mg=2.6%, and Zn=5,6%, S=2.6% Of (C, O and Cl - is not defined). Color rubber black. Color of dry residue light gray.
The results show that the sample of rubber can be attributed to several brands - possible brand rubber:
BUT-68-1, B14 or B14-1.
From this example it follows that there is a method to determine the grade of vulcanized rubber with the help of spectral analysis is not possible from the data of the chemical composition of the sample to accurately establish the brand of the investigated rubber. The accuracy of this method is 58-60%.
To match the sample rubber stamp BUT-68-1 was used known way to determine the grade of vulcanized rubber using the method derivatographic analysis of rubber, whereby the sample was heated to the temperature of decomposition and the recorded signals with a differential thermocouple. According to the obtained data was constructed derivation of thermocouple signal from the temperature of the furnace (curve derivation).
The comparative analysis of the obtained curve derivation sample (see figure 1) with the curves of the derivations of well-known brands of vulcanized rubber (see figure 2). Comparative analysis showed that the sample of rubber can be attributed to the following grades of rubber:
BUT-68-1, B14 or B14-1.
From the above example it follows that there is a method to determine the grade of vulcanized rubber by the method derivatographic analysis does not allow to determine precisely mark the investigated rubber. The accuracy of this method is 59-61%.
Thus, from the above examples it is seen that in comparison with the known proposed method provides higher accuracy and objectivity of the analysis and can be used for rapid analysis of rubber during conduct of examination rubber products.
|Brand rubber||The content of chemical elements in %|
|BUT-68-1||83,53-90,76||and 2.26-5,03||0,39-0,79||-||6,70 to 10.7||-||1,06-2,65||0,44-0,91||-|
|Ypres 1078||71,88-78,21||scored 8.38-17,58||0,51 was 1.43||2,67-6,25||0,23||0,15-1,10||2,55-of 10.58||-||0,19|
The way to determine the grade of vulcanized rubber, comprising the cutting of the sample for the study and analysis of its chemical composition, on the basis of which the judge rubber stamp, characterized in that the sample cut out taking into account the presence of zones of zaratracheny, and chemical composition analysis is carried out with a fracture of the sample x-ray method for scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer, comparing the obtained data of the chemical composition of the sample with the chemical composition of a famous brand of rubber or rubber grade adopted as the standard.
SUBSTANCE: method involves titration of a suspension with a solvent which is soluble in water and dissolves the suspended resin-like substance until reducing light scattering, which is determined either visually or using optical devices which enable to measure the amount of light passing through the liquid.
EFFECT: rapid estimation of the amount of resin-like substance suspended in water.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a clamp mechanism for holding material, an indenter for loading with possibility of measuring its displacement and recording information into a processor. A sensor is built into the indenter, said sensor being sensitive to the spectrum of acoustic emission generated by a sample upon change of deformation characteristics thereof. The clamp mechanism is in form of two coaxially placed cups with built-in heating elements with a controlled temperature range and a sensor for said temperature.
EFFECT: broader technological capabilities of the apparatus and high measurement accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: before testing in a heat chamber, samples of polymer materials are activated with UV radiation in the 248-365 nm wavelength range for 3-30 minutes with radiation power density of 1-15 mW/cm2. Analysis of volatile organic compounds is carried out while comparing the obtained chromatograms of gas samples collected from the heat chamber when testing samples of polymer materials with selected additives based on nanostructured bentonite powder and nanostructured bentonite powder intercalated with metal ions - magnesium (Mg2+ ), scandium (Sc3+), chromium (Cr3+), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), cobalt (Co2+), nickel (Ni2+), copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+), tin (Sn2+), cerium (Ce3+) or a mixture of bentonite powders intercalated with ions of said metals. The results of comparing chromatograms of gas samples are used to evaluate the effect of nanocomponents on the predicted sanitary-chemical properties of the designed polymer materials.
EFFECT: realisation of the present invention widens technological capabilities and increases reliability of results of evaluating the effect of modifying mineral nanocomponents on predicted sanitary-chemical properties based on release of volatile organic compounds from the designed polymer materials.
8 cl, 7 ex, 2 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: at the first stage the organoleptic analysis of tested samples is carried out. At the second stage the microscopic analysis of the material structure is carried out. At the third stage the chemical analysis of the tested samples is carried out by means of their treatment with an organic dissolvent selected from the group: butyl ether of acetic acid, dimethylketone, dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, furfural, cyclohexanol at the ratio of sample-dissolvent equal to 1:(10-15) at the boiling temperature of the selected dissolvent for 20-30 minutes. If a sample has dissolved fully, the conclusion is made that is pertains to leather-like materials, and if a sample has not dissolved, it is identified as leather.
EFFECT: accurate and reliable recognition of leather from leather-like materials.
2 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves pre-activation of surfaces of an article and a film. The article then pressed to the surface of the film made from non-light-stabilised polyethylene and then exposed to UV radiation until a brittle layer forms.
EFFECT: formation of a coating on an article, which is adhesively bonded to the surface of the article.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing a specimen, irradiating the specimen with a predetermined spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, recording the interaction between the specimen and the electromagnetic radiation in a data packet and determining at least one characteristic parameter in the recorded data packet. Radiation intensity values assigned to different areas of the surface of the specimen, where said radiation interacts with said surface areas, are recorded in the data packet. The determined characteristic parameter describes air content in the specimen and/or resin content in the specimen. The assigned intensity values coinciding with a predetermined intensity range are added together to determine the air content and/or the resin content in the specimen. Analysis can also be performed to determine resin distribution and/or air distribution in the sample and homogeneity of distribution of assigned intensity values coinciding with the predetermined intensity range with respect to different areas of the surface.
EFFECT: possibility of analysing specific characteristic parameters.
6 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: when boiling collagen, linear dimensions of leather tissue are measured before and after collagen boiling. The structure-to-structure distance is determined using difference of the sample thickness after boiling and the rated thickness of the sample before boiling, which is produced as a product of the sample thickness before boiling and a coefficient of layers number defined as a quotient from division of a lengthy sample length into the length of the sample after boiling. Invention makes it possible to realise the specified method objective.
EFFECT: method improvement.
4 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: sorption of pharmacy drug derinate, representing sodium deoxyribonucleate in micropanel holes is carried out. After that analysed sample, which contains component C1q with unknown activity, is introduced into holes. Incubation is carried out and after washing and drying of panel into holes introduced are conjugate of enzyme with antibodies against component C1q and substrate of said enzyme. Activity of component C1q is calculated by amount of formed product of enzymatic reaction. Set contains flat-bottom micropanel with sorbed derinate, conjugate of enzyme with antibodies to human complement component C1q, substrate buffer and standard with known C1q activity.
EFFECT: method application makes it possible to increase reliability of determination C1q component with application as activator of available and stable preparation derinate.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves filling the surface of soot with a polymer and determining the polymer adsorption value of the soot, where the polymer used is rubber. Soot dispersion is mixed with a rubber solution. Sieve diametres of the soot aggregates are determined. The specific surface of the soot is determined and relative wear resistance of the rubber is calculated from the given relationship.
EFFECT: faster and high information content of analysis.
2 cl, 5 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: medicine, rescue facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to evaluation of protective properties of materials of facial parts of gas masks with respect to β,β'-dichlorethylsulfide by application of its simulator - butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide. Method includes application on one side of material of gas mask facial part of simulator - butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide drops with further analytic determination of the moment of accumulation in sample of limiting amount of simulator. Butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide in tested sample is caught by sorption substrate Quantitative determination of simulator is carried out with application of photocolorimetric method of analysis Limit of sensitivity of detecting butyl-β-chlorethylsulfide constitutes 1·10-3 mg/ml with inaccuracy not exceeding 15%.
EFFECT: technical result lies in possibility to carry out evaluation of protective properties of not only rubberised fabric, but also materials of facial parts of gas masks (rubbers) of various thickness, with increase of evaluation method safety
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.
EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: methods and devices for determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions (versions) and a device for its realization (versions). The first version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measuring and introduction into the memory of the computation unit of intensity of the light absorption by the reference solutions, measuring of the intensity of the light absorption of radiation of the investigated solution, processing the data of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers. Simultaneously with the measurement of the light absorption by the investigated solution measure the concentration of alcohol in it. In compliance with the received values determine a concentration of alcohol in the investigated solution. The second version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference solutions and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measurement and introduction into the memory of the calculation device of intensity of the light absorption of radiation by the investigated solution, processing of the received values of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers, measure the values of density of the reference solutions and the investigated solution, using which determine the concentrations of alcohol and sugar in the investigated solution. The device for the first version contains a computation unit, a conjunction unit, optically coupled a radiating unit, a bath for solution, a measuring photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit and the input of which is optically connected through the bath with the radiating unit. The device for measurement of a concentration of sugar in a solution consists of a beam splitter plate and an additional photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The input of which is optically connected through the beam splitter plate mounted at Brewster's angle to a axis of radiation and the bath with by a radiation unit. And the radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range of 1250-1350 nanometers. The device for determination of a concentration of alcohol in the solutions consists of the computation unit, the conjugation unit, the optically connected radiation unit, the bath for solution, the measuring photoreceiving device, output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit, the density gage connected with the bath by means of the pipe duct. The output of the density gage is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range from 1250 to 1350 nanometers. The invention allows to improve accuracy of measurements.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved accuracy of measurements.
12 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, dairy farming.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining tightening of teat cup liner before it is inserted into teat cup; acting upon teat cup liner by suspending weight for determining tightening of teat cup liner; providing expansion by introducing internal gauge into teat cup liner which is positioned within teat cup casing. Method allows extent of teat cup liner tightening to be visually detected at any time of machine milking process. Tightening of teat cup liner manufactured integral with milk pipe as well as separately therefrom is determined during operation of milking units.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced milking time.
FIELD: technologies for researching durability properties of packing washer materials for collapsible oil pipelines.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for determining remaining resource of rubber compacting curves utilized in oil pipeline junctions, preparation of samples of given geometrical shape is performed, measurement of source hardness conditions for stretching, relative elongation during tearing, Shore hardness, temperature fragility limit, comparison of aforementioned values to given values, culling of washers, sample coefficients of which do not correspond to given values. Remaining samples are exposed to oil product after extraction from oil product samples are thermostatted, cooled down to normal room temperature, and then the same physical-mechanical coefficients are measured again with limit values. Before preparation of samples with given geometrical shape, washers are organized in batches of same manufacturing plant and production year, additionally measured are external d1 and internal d2 washer diameters for each batch, relative compression Ecp deformation of same washers. Their deviation from standard is calculated and culling of aforementioned washer batches is performed on basis of allowed values Δd1, Δd2 and Ecp, while as allowed values Δd1, Δd2 ≤ 3%; 25% ≤ Ecp ≤ 70%. After that remaining rings with least values of relative compression deformation Ecp are utilized to prepare geometrical samples of given geometrical shape. Remaining resource ΔT is determined from following formula: years, where ki - coefficient, characterizing alteration of remaining resource ΔT dependently on climatic zone input of operation of rubber packing washers, is taken as i - climatic zones I1 - II12, additional information, T - average lifetime of rubber packing washers until removal from operation in accordance to technological characteristics provided by manufacturing plant and/or operation instructions, in years, Tn - period of operation of rubber packing washers since production year - marking of manufacturing plant, until moment of determining ΔT, years, fpδ=9,4 MPa - minimally allowed value of conditional hardness for stretching after thermostatting of sample, MPa.
EFFECT: reliable trustworthiness of results of estimation of remaining resource under dynamic conditions of rubber packing washers in oil pipeline junctions with simultaneous increase of ecological safety due to decreased risk of emergency spilling of oil products.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing specimens of polymeric materials of specified mass, exposing the specimens to the hostile fluid at a given temperature, and determining informative characteristic from a formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
2 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: weighing equipment; chemical mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measuring content of binder in reel-up composite material produced by preliminary soaked thread. Method is based upon weighing. The constant values are determined according to the method as length of thread for specific type of items and value of linear density averaged for any reel before and after soaking by binder and reeling it up onto frame. Weighing is performed for item before reeling it up with soaked thread and after reeling-up and final polymerization of composite material to determine mass of composite. Basing upon the data received, content of thread is determined which value is subsequently used for finding mass content of binder in composite from relation of C=(M-LxT/M)x100%, where C is content of binder in composite, in mass percent; M is mass of composite, g; L is length of thread consumed for item, km; T is average arithmetic meaning of values of linear density of thread and its rests at any reel before and after impregnation, g/km.
EFFECT: higher stability of performance measures.
FIELD: light industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording response of the material to be tested that represents an amplitude-frequency characteristic, calculating deformation characteristics, and determining the value of distributed mass of the vibrating part of the material. The response representing two amplitude-frequency characteristics is recorded for the same part of the material to be tested for various masses of two bodies that cause deformation. The deformation characteristics are calculated from equations of vibration theory for viscoelastic bodies.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises investigating threshold capabilities of the multi-layer polymeric material and determining maximum permeability of oil product and time period required for reaching the maximum permeability.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary conditioning of rubber specimens in paraffin hydrocarbon with 12-16 atoms of carbon in the atmosphere of neutral gas and in the fuel to be tested at a temperature of 130-150°C for 3-5 hours.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex