Method to examine samples of non-consolidated porous media
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sample is previously frozen, a frozen sample under conditions of negative temperature is put in contact with a frozen solution of a radio-opaque agent, upon completion of sample saturation, computer X-ray microtomography of the sample is carried out under negative temperatures, and by means of analysis of the produced computer tomographic image they detect spatial distribution and concentration of ice and/or gas hydrate inclusions of open and closed porosity, distribution of pores by size, specific surface in the sample.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of assessment of characteristics of non-consolidated porous media.
10 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the field of research samples of unconsolidated porous media and can be used to explore an open or closed porosity, distribution of pore size, specific surface area, spatial distribution and concentration of ice and/or gas hydrate inclusions in the pore space of the sample, determine the size of the inclusions, etc.
Most of the methods of investigation of properties of porous structures, in particular the petrophysical properties of rocks, designed for consolidated materials (Vamjobine, Boundaryscan, Daugavpils, Petrophysics (physics of rocks), M: "Oil and gas state oil and gas University. University, 2004. - 368 S. ISBN 5-7246-0295-4; Beep NS, Bogdanovich, N., Martynov, V.G. Determination of physical properties Neftegazgeodeziya breeds, M.: OOO "Nedra-Center", 2007. - 592 S. ISBN 978-5-8365-0298-0). To study weakly cemented rocks requires special equipment and modification of the known methods, so that during the measurements was kept the structure of the pore space and sample volume (US Pat. 4587857, the Method for mounting poorly consolidated core samples). It is often necessary impregnation of the samples with a special solution, which, freezing, cement pore space, however, may be in breach of the original structure and properties change (US Pat. 3941191, Mehod of consolidating unconsolidated or insufficiently consolidated formations). Known and research methods, providing preliminary low-temperature freezing samples of unconsolidated porous media (see, for example, O.Torsaeter, The effect of freezing of slightly consolidated cores, SPE Formation Evaluation, 1987, v.2, N3, p.357-360). Further studies of macro-and microfabrics of organic skeleton frozen samples of unconsolidated porous media subjected to vacuum sublimation. However, it lost the information about the pore fluids, in addition, freeze-dried samples of unconsolidated media can warp and crack, leading to inaccuracies characteristics of the pore space.
For identification of organic and mineral skeleton of the pore space and frozen pore fluids (ice formations, gas hydrates), a method of improving the contrast that allows you to estimate characteristics of a porous material and evaluation of the spatial distribution and concentration of ice and/or gas hydrates in the pore space by analyzing x-ray images.
In accordance with the claimed method research designs unconsolidated sediment sample pre-frozen, in conditions of negative temperatures are put in contact with the frozen solution radiopaque agent, at the end of the feast upon the Deposit of a sample carried out x-ray computer microtomography imaging of the sample at low temperatures and determine petrophysical characteristics and spatial distribution, the concentration of ice and/or gas hydrate inclusions by computer analysis of the obtained tomographic image.
As a radiopaque agent used is a water-soluble compound, which includes a chemical element that has a high degree of attenuation of x-rays.
As a chemical element that has the ability to attenuate x-ray radiation, use an element with a large atomic weight, and a water-soluble compound is a salt or oxide.
As element with a large atomic weight can be used heavy metal from the group of Pb, Ba, Sr, Ra, etc.
Contact of the sample with a frozen solution of radiopaque agent is carried out at a temperature below the phase transition temperature of the ice-water, that is, melting of ice in the sample, preferably from -7°C to -10°C.
Pre-analyzed sample permafrost and frozen solution x-ray contrast agent can be maintained at a temperature of -7°C to -10°C to stabilize the temperature of the sample.
Computerized x-ray microtomography imaging of the sample is carried out in the condition of negative temperature, in order to avoid melting of the ice/hydrate in the pore space, preferably at a temperature of -7°C to -10°C.
The invention is illustrated by figure 1, where is shown a portion of an image of a 2-d slice of the 3-dimensional digital models reconsolidating river sand, cemented by ice. The image obtained through the experiment by x-ray microtomography carried out at a temperature of -10°C. This image obtained with the use of radiopaque agent.
The method is based on x-ray microtomography is the reconstruction of the spatial distribution of the linear attenuation coefficient (LCO) x-ray radiation in a thin layer on the sample by means of computer processing of the projection of x-rays in various directions along the investigated layer.
The value of LCO each material depends on the chemical composition, the density of matter and radiation:
µmmass attenuation coefficient under the influence of x-ray radiation (cm2/g), ρ is the density (g/cm3).
The claimed invention is based on the effect of ion diffusion of water-soluble compounds of the elements with the ability to attenuate x-ray radiation (for example, salts of heavy metals), solid phase ice/hydrate in the pore space of rocks at low temperatures, which provides improved contrast when conducting x-ray microtomography at low (negative) temperature of ice/hydrate.
Suitable radiopaque agents are water-soluble compounds, the content is the following elements with high atomic number, for example, salts of heavy metals (Pb, Ba, Sr, Ra, and etc). As heavy metal chosen soluble salt in accordance with the table of solubility of inorganic substances in water. Such salts can be: Pb(NO3)2, BaCl2and other
In the example implementation of the invention to enhance x-ray contrast ice/hydrate in the pore space of the rock was used frozen 1% solution of Pb(NO3)2as a source of lead ions for diffusion in the solid phase of ice/hydrate at low temperatures.
Saturation of ice salt of the metal leads, for example, the temperature of the phase transition of ice-water, which in turn can lead to melting of the sample at temperatures below 0°C (the phase transition of ice-water for distilled water at normal pressure). On the other hand, when the temperature decreases, the speed of difusiy ions in the sample slows down, which leads to an increase in contact time for saturation of the sample ions. In General, the temperature during contact of the sample with frozen solution should be less than the phase transition temperature of the ice-water or hydrate/water in the sample.
Sample unconsolidated porous medium and prepared with 1% solution of Pb(NO3)2frozen at -15°C to -20°C, then frozen solution and frozen fo the EC is transferred into the cooling chamber with a temperature of about -7°C, where they are maintained until temperature stabilization. After that, the sample set on the frozen solution, i.e. they perform their direct contact. The sample in contact with the frozen solution is maintained at isothermal conditions (constant temperature of about -7°C) for 7 days. During this period of diffusion saturation of the sample frozen rock heavy metal ions. After saturation of the contact of the sample with frozen solution should be cleaned and the sample is ready for scanning in the x-ray tomograph at low temperatures.
Survey the sample using a low-temperature attachment (Cooling stage, http://www.skyscan.be/products/stages.htm) on x-ray micro. The sample was scanned at a temperature of about -10°C to avoid melting of the ice.
The result of scanning is a 3-dimensional digital model of the core, the analysis of which allows to determine the petrophysical characteristics of the unconsolidated rocks, and distribution of ice/hydrate in the pore space, etc.
1. The method of examination of samples of unconsolidated porous media, in accordance with which the sample is pre-frozen, the frozen sample in conditions of negative temperatures are put in contact with the frozen solution radiopaque agent, okoncane the saturation of the sample hold x-ray computer microtomography imaging of the sample at low temperatures and by analyzing the obtained CT images to determine the spatial distribution of and the concentration of ice and/or gas hydrate inclusions, open and closed porosity, pore size, specific surface area in the sample.
2. The method according to claim 1, in which the contrast agent used is a water-soluble compound, which includes a chemical element with high x-ray attenuation.
3. The method according to claim 2, in which the chemical element that has a high degree of attenuation of x-rays, use an element with a large atomic weight, and a water-soluble compound is a salt or oxide.
4. The method according to claim 3, in which the element with a large atomic weight use of heavy metal from the group of Pb, Ba, Sr, Ra, etc.
5. The method according to claim 1, in which the contact of the frozen sample unconsolidated porous media with frozen solution radiopaque agent is carried out at a temperature below the melting ice/hydrate in the pore space of the sample.
6. The method according to claim 5, in which the contact of the frozen sample unconsolidated porous media with frozen solution radiopaque agent is carried out at a temperature from -7°C to -10°C.
7. The method according to claim 1, in which a sample of unconsolidated porous media frozen and the frozen solution roentgenocontrast what about the agent previously maintained at a temperature below the melting ice/hydrate in the pore space of the sample to stabilize the temperature.
8. The method according to claim 7, in which a sample of unconsolidated porous media frozen, and the frozen solution radiopaque agent is pre-incubated at temperatures ranging from -7°C to -10°C.
9. The method according to claim 1, in which x-ray computer microtomography imaging of the sample is carried out at a temperature below the melting ice/hydrate in the pore space of the sample.
10. The method according to claim 9, in accordance with which the x-ray computer microtomography imaging of the sample is carried out at temperatures ranging from -7°C to -10°C.
SUBSTANCE: immunological and ray examinations of intramammary lymph nodes of bronchopulmonary group are conducted. It is combined with Diaskin-test integrated with advanced tuberculin diagnosing and determination of a specific antibody titre. If observing positive results and the absence of X-ray pattern changes, multispiral computed tomography (MSCT) is conducted. A disturbed structure of the root of lungs requires MSCT with angiography. A size gain of the intramammary lymph nodes more than 0.5 cm at density more than +0.25 HU, tuberculosis of the intramammary lymph nodes of bronchopulmonary group is diagnosed.
EFFECT: diagnosing tuberculosis of the intramammary lymph nodes of bronchopulmonary group in children.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises phase grating to pass X-rays from X-ray source to form distribution of interference intensity by Talbot effect, absorption grating partially screening interferences intensity distribution formed by said phase grating, detector to detect data on distribution of moire intensity formed by absorption grating, and arithmetic unit to calculate data on differential phase image of object by making Fourier transform for data on moire intensity distribution detected by aforesaid detector.
EFFECT: higher quality.
12 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: when obtaining images of an object, the principle of arrangement of objects, associated with measurement, which is carried out when photographing, is observed. The photograph obtained using X-rays simultaneously includes a certain number of reference points whose positions are known in a three-dimensional coordinate system. The method involves use of coordinates of the reference points in both the Cartesian coordinate system, associated with reconstruction of the three-dimensional image, and in a coordinate system associated with digital photographing, which is required to establish the relationship which enables to perform transformations between these two coordinate systems. The path and the position of each X-ray beam are determined using said relationship. Also, all three-dimensional elements associated with each of those X-ray beams passing through the object of interest are determined.
EFFECT: high resolution and shorter duration of exposure to X-rays, as well as simple design of the device, low power consumption and less rigid conditions for facilities where the device is used.
3 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, namely to X-ray apparatuses. An apparatus comprises X-ray emitters, X-ray image recorders, a first fastener for keeping the X-ray emitter facing the X-ray image recorder, a second fastener for keeping the first fastener rotating about a first axis, a first drive, a third seat for keeping the second fastener rotating about a second axis perpendicular to the second axis, a second drive for make the second fastener rotating about the second fastener and a drive control for drive speed adjustment of the first drive and the second drive. The drive control is integrated to control the drives so that to observe the following conditions: (A) one of the fasteners rotates in a specified mode at angular speed a·sin(t), while the other fastener rotates at angular speed b·cos(t), the X-ray emitters and image recorders moves in a circular or elliptical orbit, wherein a and b is peak angular speed of the matched fastener in the specified mode, t is time, and (B) one of the fasteners is found in a period of start-up for a period of time ΔT1, from a position at an initial angle φ1 and at angular speed f(t), while the other fastener is found in a period of start-up for a period of time ΔT2, from a position at an initial angle φ2 and at angular speed g(t) with performing an equation system, wherein ΔT2 is a rotation length from a position at an angle φ1, φ2 to a position at an angle to achieve the specified mode at rotation at angular speed a·sin(t) and b·cos(t) respectively.
EFFECT: use of the invention enables higher safety and speed of precessional motion, lower vibration accompanying system transfer into the specified mode and following achievement of the specified mode.
2 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes steps of recording at least two absorption X-ray images of an object to be inspected at different energies, mathematically modelling the object by a number of layers assuming a particular material for each layer, wherein an absorption coefficient describes the absorption capacity of a layer, the number of layers is less than or equal to the number of X-ray images and at least one layer is assumed to be a material to be recognised during the inspection, decomposing the absorption coefficient of each layer into a path-dependent factor and an energy-dependent factor, calculating the path-dependent factors for all layers from the absorption X-ray images using the absorption equation, calculating at least one synthetic image from the sum of all layers of the product of the absorption coefficients and the weighting factors and evaluating the synthetic image.
EFFECT: improved ability to recognise material using an X-ray inspection system.
7 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: surface model, having a group of surface points indicating the height of the surface, is formed; wave pulses are transmitted from a first measuring transducer to one or more second measuring transducers, wherein the first measuring transducer and each second measuring transducer determine the corresponding path on the surface; the time taken by the wave pulses to travel each path is measured; the travelling time is calculated based on the surface model; the surface model is adjusted if there are any differences between the measured travelling time and the calculated travelling time; and the transmission, measurement, calculation and adjustment steps are repeated until said differences drop below a given threshold, wherein the step for calculating the travelling time involves an intermediate step for interpolating a group of surface points to obtain an extended group of surface points, and the travelling time is calculated using said extended group.
EFFECT: ensuring higher level of detail of the surface using a limited number of measuring transducers.
13 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, namely to combined system of obtaining images. Hybrid system of obtaining images includes magnetic resonance scanner and system of obtaining images of the second method of impact, separated from magnetic resonance scanner with some space. In the first version of implementation, said space is less than four metres. In the second version magnetic resonance scanner and system of obtaining images of the second method of impact are located in a room with radio-frequency insulation. Bed for patient is located, at least, partially, in the space between magnetic resonance scanner and system of obtaining images of the second method of impact and includes base, located between magnetic resonance scanner and system of obtaining images of the second method of impact, movable linearly table for supporting patient, installed for selected travel in the area of examination by magnetic resonance scanner and in the area of examination of system of obtaining images of the second method of impact. In the first version of implementation, area of linear table travel constitutes less than five-fold length of table for supporting patient in direction of linear travel. In the second version table is provided with radio-frequency device or port of device, radio-frequency cable being connected to them. In the third version of implementation table for supporting patient moves in the first direction in the area of magnetic resonance scanner examination for obtaining magnetic resonance images, and in the second direction, in the area of system of obtaining images of the second method of impact examination. Method of hybrid system modification lies in placement of system of obtaining images of the second method of impact in a room with radio-frequency insulation, which contains magnetic resonance scanner together with system of obtaining images of the second method of impact, separated from magnetic resonance scanner by some space smaller than seven metres and with areas of examination of respective systems of magnetic resonance scanner and obtaining images of the second method of impact.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce total size of hybrid system of image obtaining and increase efficiency of scanning.
31 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is a method of generating deceleration radiation with pulse-by-pulse energy switching and a radiation source for an inspection system with a pulse-by-pulse energy switching system between two controlled values, with independent control of the dose rate for each energy. The source has local radiation protection, provides for each energy small beam diameter on the deceleration target, high percentage of particles captured in the acceleration mode and small width of the energy spectrum. The source is based on an accelerating structure with a standing wave, which is powered by a compact multibeam klystron with low beam voltage and focused by permanent magnets. Pulse-by-pulse switching of the value of the energy of the accelerated electron beam between two values at the same frequency is achieved by switching the value of input power of the klystron from pulse to pulse and, consequently, the output power of the klystron and amplitude of the field in the accelerating structure. The required dose rate is ensured by switching from pulse to pulse voltage of the control electrode of the electron gun and, consequently, the value of the current of the beam injected into the accelerating structure.
EFFECT: simple system, reduced dimensions and high reliability of the radiation source.
20 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: nano-resolution x-ray microscope on a tube assembly has an electron gun with an electron lens system, deflecting systems, a target made from a thin metal layer on an X-ray transparent base, a coordinate-sensitive X-ray detector, wherein the objective lens further includes an isolated electrode across which a positive drawing potential is applied, and in the space between the last two lenses there is a secondary electron detector consisting of a deflecting grid, a scintillator and a photomultiplier.
EFFECT: high resolution of the X-ray microscope, high efficiency, and further possibility of analysing objects in secondary and reflected electrons with high resolution.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for protecting x-ray diagnostic system from damage in experiments with liner magnetic implosion, having an x-ray source placed in a protective box and, lying along its radiation axis, a ponderomotive module, having coaxially arranged central measuring unit, liner and return current lead, as well as cassette with an x-ray film placed in a protective container. Between the protective box with the x-ray source and the return current lead, as well as between the return current lead and the protective container with the film in the angular sector of the x-ray beam from the source to the ponderomotive module, which coincides with the wedge-like "shadow" cast by the central measuring unit, there is an element with a cutting edge lying parallel to the axis of the ponderomotive module in the direction towards the surface of the return current lead.
EFFECT: ensuring integrity of both the x-ray tube and the cassette with the x-ray film in an experiment with liner magnetic implosion with simultaneous elimination of the active element for protecting the film, which is an explosive valve.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: test specimen representing a smooth cylinder with the base diameter of 6 mm and height of 8 mm, turned from the test brick piece, is dried in a drying oven for 24 hours at 110°C. Within 72 hours after drying the specimens are impregnated with a magnetic fluid of 10-15% concentration. To impregnate the specimen, a magnetic fluid is used, which represents a colloid solution of magnetite nanoparticles in kerosene with volume share of magnetite 10-15%. This time is sufficient for the sample to be fully impregnated with the magnetic fluid. Further they measure curves of magnetisation of the cylinder impregnated with magnetic fluid, as well as of a sample of magnetic fluid with the same volume and shape as the cylinder, with the help of a vibratory magnetometer. Based on the produced magnetisation curves, they identify the magnetic moment of saturation of the cylinder impregnated with the magnetic fluid, and the sample of magnetic fluid of the same volume and shape as the cylinder. Further using the following formula the porosity P of the material, from which the cylinder is made, is defined: where msam - magnetic moment of sample (brick cylinder) saturation, where the sample is impregnated with magnetic fluid, mmf - magnetic moment of saturation of the magnetic fluid sample of the same volume and the same shape as the impregnated sample.
EFFECT: reduced material and time costs, labour intensiveness of measurement process and results processing, production of highly accurate measurement results.
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: frozen rock specimen is brought in contact with frozen solution of X-ray contrast agent under negative temperature conditions. After saturation of the specimen is completed, computer-aided microtomography of the specimen under negative temperatures is performed, and using the analysis of the obtained computer-aided tomographic image, spatial distribution and concentration of ice and/or gas hydrate inclusions, as well as open and closed porosity is determined.
EFFECT: providing visualisation of ice or hydrate formations in porous space of frozen rocks due to improving their contrast ratio, which allows carrying out evaluations of spatial distribution and concentration of ice and gas hydrates in porous space of rocks, as well as evaluation of open and closed porosity by means of analysis of X-ray images.
11 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves several well hydrodynamic survey (WHS) cycles at early development stage of oil wells at forced creation in the formation of differently directed two-phase filtrations. Representative reference sample collection of wells is determined. WHS surveys are performed in each of the wells, on the basis of which evaluation of current phase permeabilities as to oil ko_rel and water kw_rel, and initial water saturation Kw_initial.is performed. Values ko_rel, kw_rel and Kw_initial are compared, and relationships of the change between phase permeabilities and water saturation are determined. The corresponding general curves of phase permeabilities as to the unit are calculated. And during the operating period characterised by the change of average water cutting of well production of not less than 30% in comparison to the initial one, current water cutting of well production φw is determined simultaneously with WHS.
EFFECT: improving reliable and objective reproduction of relative phase permeabilities by providing the possibility of spreading relative phase permeabilities obtained for a certain well to other sections of the formation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining the coating continuity consists in the fact that the item with the coating is put into the chamber with test medium, conditions are created for diffusion process of the test medium into the item with further measurement of the amount of the test medium diffused into the item, and the diagnosis is established. Amount of the test medium diffused into the item without the coating is determined by means of a calculation, with parameters of action, which correspond to pre-set parameters of action on the item with the coating. The diagnosis is evaluated as per the ratio of amount of the test medium determined by means of an experiment to the amount of the test medium determined by means of a calculation.
EFFECT: providing measurement accuracy, simple and prompt determination of the coating continuity of large-sized items and items of complex configuration from metals.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining oil saturation as to core is characterised by the fact that from oil-saturated core of transient zone (TZ) of the deposit and limit oil saturation zone (LOSZ) of the deposit, which are characterised by different oil and water saturation, there made are standard cylindrical specimens. Then, manufactured specimens are extracted from oil contained in them, and porosity and permeability of each specimen is determined. After that, 100% formation water saturation of extracted specimens is performed. Then, using capillarimetry method at various drain pressures in specimens there simulated is water saturation that is similar to water saturation of various levels in TZ and LOSZ of the deposit. As per the capillarimetry data of each specimen, there built are capillary pressure Pc vs. water saturation curves. As per the obtained capillary pressure vs. water saturation curves of each specimen, there determined are heights h"пл" of various water saturation levels in the range of TZ and LOSZ of the deposit both above water surface (WS) of the deposit, which is characterised with 100% water saturation, and above level of water-oil contact (WOC) of the deposit. Then, relationship between residual water saturation Krw and complex structural parameter is built for LOSZ as per the data of each of the specimens. After that, differential distributions of porosity are built for all specimens of LOSZ and TZ of the deposit, and namely separately for each of those zones. As per Kolmogorov-Smirnov criterion, there evaluated is similarity of integral porosity distributions of LOSZ and TZ of the deposit with probability value of 0.99. Considering the similarity of porosity of TZ and LOSZ of the deposit for the deposit as a whole, generalised distribution of porosity f(Kp) is built, which is determined as general totality reflecting in reliable manner the collecting properties of oil-saturated part of the deposit as a whole and at any of its levels above WS and above WOC.
EFFECT: providing reliable determination of oil saturation of transient zone of the deposit and maximum oil-saturated zone of the deposit.
3 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining the diffusion coefficient of liquid in a capillary-porous body based on analogy with a steady-state thermal conditions technique. To find the rate of the steady-state moisture transfer conditions, the capillary-porous body is immersed in water and its change of mass over time is recorded. The experimental results are used to plot a curve of the natural logarithm of excess mass versus time, characterised by that experimental points on the curve are grouped near the straight line and the tangent of the angle of inclination of this straight line to the abscissa axis on the curve is numerically equal to the value of the rate of the steady-state moisture transfer conditions.
EFFECT: determining the diffusion coefficient of liquid in a capillary-porous body, needed to optimise and increase energy efficiency of technological processes of drying materials having a capillary-porous structure.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling of rock samples, extraction, drying and saturation of samples with gas-condensate mixture, and simulation of condensate deposition process in samples. At that, formation rock simulator (FRS) is made of the above samples in the form of bulk model with porosity and permeability values, which are typical for the developed deposit, and recombined sample of formation gas, which includes fixed water, fixed oil, crude gas and separator gas, is prepared. Initial water saturation is created in FRS, some part of threshold space of FRS is filled with buffer gas; after that, buffer gas is replaced with hydrocarbon component of recombined sample until the amount of fixed oil, which corresponds to the content of fixed oil in threshold space of the developed deposit, is pumped to FRS.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining the value of process parameters of the developed deposit by means of experiments.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: when realising the method, a weight is placed on the top surface of the sample; the soil sample is converted to a pseudoliquid state; the beginning of sinking of the weight is recorded; further, the cross-section and length of the sample, pressure and volume of the stream of water over a defined period of time are measured; soil permeability is calculated from the measured values.
EFFECT: possibility of determining permeability of running soil in pseudo-liquid state by placing a weight on the top surface of the soil sample and recording the beginning of the sinking of the weight.
SUBSTANCE: method of measuring permeability for a gas sample through a container or a sealing element, having an outer face, a thickness and an inner face. Said thickness contains a measured starting concentration of the gas sample. The method involves a first step for exposing the outer face to a stream of said gas sample which is mixed with another gas with a defined and fixed concentration. At the second step, the inner face is exposed to a stream of a carrier gas with a defined and fixed concentration. At the third step, the inner face is brought into contact with said carrier gas while measuring the gas sample almost penetrating and carried by said carrier gas. The fourth step expects a stable state of the measured value of the almost penetrating gas, said measured value being considered as the value of permeability of the container or sealing element for the gas sample. Said measured and fixed concentration of the gas sample which is fed onto said outer face is selected such that the difference between concentration of the gas sample which is fed onto said outer face and said starting concentration of the gas sample in said thickness is virtually equal to the difference between the starting concentration of the gas sample in said thickness and the expected concentration of the gas sample which is fed onto said outer face. The starting concentration of the gas sample in said thickness is calculated using solubility coefficient close to 1.
EFFECT: method of measuring gas permeability of a container or sealing elements which requires much shorter measuring time compared to conventional methods, and which also does not require use of very sensitive and expensive sensors.
6 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of measuring permeability of a gas sample through a thin film or a wall comprises several steps. A step for placing said thin film or wall as a membrane between a first chamber and a second chamber in a sealed way. Said membrane separates and seals said first and second chambers. A step for causing said gas sample to flow into said first chamber and causing a carrier gas to flow in and out of said second chamber. An amount of said gas sample permeates into said second chamber through said membrane and is conveyed away by said gaseous carrier. The rate at which said gas sample permeated into said second chamber and was present in the flow of said carrier exiting from said second chamber is then determined. Further, said steps for causing said gas sample and said carrier gas to flow are carried out at a total pressure of said gas sample and said carrier gas in said first and second chambers at a predetermined value which is considerably higher than ambient pressure. The total pressure difference between said first and second chambers remains virtually equal to zero. Said total pressure predetermined value of the gas is set between 2 and 15 bar, preferably between 3 and 7 bar. The disclosed method also comprises a step for reducing said total pressure in said first and second chambers to a value less than said predetermined value.
EFFECT: high accuracy of measurements owing to high output of scattered laser light.
14 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: stand has device for pumping liquid and detachable shell, wherein model of filtering environment is placed. Detachable shell is connected to liquid forcing plant and has replaceable impenetrable elements for adjusting value of contact area of outer surface of filtering environment to liquid, made in form of inserts and ring isolators.
EFFECT: higher precision.