Method of combination development of permafrost slimes in active pit

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: furrows are cut on ice surface adjoining the pit lane that hinders slime processing to feed heat carrier to defrost and to make cutouts in layer body and cavities under ice body bottom surface. Floating hydraulic gun is used to jet lower layers above ice surface edged by cutouts. Then, ice is broken and thawed while exposed underlying soils are jetted by hydraulic gun and sucked by dredger as pulp to using equipment.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, lower costs at low ambient temperatures.

3 dwg


The invention relates to dredging, intended to support the development of technogenic permafrost deposits (for example, the tails from the enrichment of disseminated copper-Nickel ore, pyrrhotite concentrates) horizons (lenses) of ice in the Far North and permafrost and can be used in mining industry and construction at low temperatures.

To ensure high performance in the development of permafrost in particular tailings containing non-ferrous and precious metals, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of their structure. The specific structure of the tailings should be attributed multimeter power (from 1 to 4 m) horizons (lenses) of ice. (Dodin D.A., Izoitko, V.M., and other man-made deposits shows of platinum-metal raw materials of the Norilsk region. Sat. scient. Tr. Platinum Russia. - M, JSC "Geoinformmark", 1994 s) and to develop such tailings is necessary taking into account thermophysical properties of the material from which it is formed (tails, ice). Specific heat capacity of rocks of 0.2 cal/g*C, ice is 0.5 cal/g*C (Henochowicz A.S. Handbook of physics and technology. - M.: Education, 1989 s). In the array of permafrost technogenic deposits (tailings, concentrates) in the Extreme North, the temperature decreases the tsya only to minus 6-9C, with long-term ambient temperatures of minus 45C or more (Stehen A.I., Konilov V.E., Oleshkevich I. man-made deposits of precious and non-ferrous metals. - Non-ferrous metals. 1995, No. 6, p.30). When surface-defrosting (development of the hydro) at low temperatures almost all the energy of thermal fluid (hot water) is lost into the surrounding space, defrost material and ice is very slow, and consequently, the productivity of the pit. For example, at an ambient temperature of minus 25C and the distance of the giant 150 m from the lane, where there is a dredger, coolant temperature decreases from 15C to 0C, resulting in sharply reduced the number of defrost tails and, as a consequence, decreases the productivity of the pit. The practice of developing frozen tails, with a slope of 5-10 C in a side lane, with horizons (lenses) of ice at low ambient temperatures, showed that at a point the flow of coolant to the surface of the ice or tails, melting occurs only under the coolant, in the form of slits, with the gradual deepening of the entire power ice or tails to the level of the coolant (warm water) in the main career fields. On the surface of the tailings or ice slit has a width of 10-20 cm, and with the deepening of up to 2 m is gradually expanding to 1 m, which obyasnyau the Xia insulating properties of the walls of the slit and the reduction of heat transfer from the coolant to the surrounding space.

There is a method of developing a dredge soil in the winter time in his career, the United slot with the reservoir, including the designation of the face in the career, setting dredge in the pit, pipe-laying in the slot, closing the slits in the soil and the development of soil in the bottom while maintaining the water level in the quarry below the groundwater level, flow of warm ground water in the quarry by filtering through the soil, feeding system of pipes warm bottom water collected in the bottom area of the reservoir directly in the face (of the Austro. mon. The USSR 987045, CL E02F 3/88, 1983).

The disadvantage of this method development for low temperatures are: the surface of the pond is covered with ice, freezing of the soil in the slots, freezing pipes laid in the slot, the termination of the filtering and termination of the supply of warm ground water in the open pit, low productivity due to the possibility of developing the thawed soil only in the pit, high preparation costs (the device of the reservoir and to maintain the required level, the device slots, installation and maintenance of piping systems), the lack of a defrost horizons of ice. Thus, this method of development of permafrost soils is acceptable only at zero temperature.

Another known method is a method developed by Sims is a long frozen ground, including the development of a career in frozen soil, placement of dredge career, the gasket grooves or trenches on the surface of the developed array of frozen soil, communicating with the water source and the quarry and with a turn in the direction of the quarry, feeding him water by gravity into the quarry to lift the dredge in a career working depth and subsequent development of soil (Noroc GA Technology and design of dredging mining. - M.: Nedra, 1965, 114-115, 366-369). The disadvantage of this method is limited development, limiting the capacity of thawed soil pit, the inability to increase the productivity of frozen soil without the use of additional mechanisms (bulldozer equipment and use of special events - igottawedgie selection array, loosening the energy of the explosion and so on), the necessity of using in the process of development increased amount of warm water and the use of special tools and devices to maintain lane, due to the increasing in the excavation of an open water surface in the career, the lack of means of accelerated defrost horizons or lenses of ice.

Closest to the proposed method on a set of attributes and the achieved result is way develo the TCI dredge frozen ground including the development of a career in the frozen ground, placement of dredge career, the gasket grooves or trenches on the surface of the developed array of frozen soil, communicating with the water source and the quarry and with a turn in the direction of the quarry, feeding him water by gravity into the quarry to lift the dredge in a career working depth and subsequent development of soil, the raising of the water level in the quarry to fill with water furrows or ditches, with the lower density of the pumped slurry dredge, and after thawing and erosion of frozen soil water movement along the furrow or ditch, lower the water level in the quarry for the reverse flow of the slurry thawed soil from the furrows to improve the density of the pumped slurry (patent RU 2204658 C2). The prototype.

In the known method the efficiency of development of frozen soil depends on the area of furrows or ditches outside of the open pit (surface of the developed array)filled with water when the water level in the pit, and thawing of the soil under the water, lowering the water level in career and samotechny transporting soil in the pit to increase the density of the pulp. When reaching the very depths of the pit, where the dredge, and low ambient temperatures requires the construction of new deeper ditches or furrows and correspondingly larger amount of water to fill them, tempera is ur which will decrease to zero at low temperatures, that will lead to a decrease in the rate of thawing of the soil and loss of performance career. This method of mining, quarry can be most effectively used at small depths of cut and the freezing temperatures of the surrounding air. A further disadvantage of the known method, in circular thawing of the soil in the furrow or ditch it gradually deepening to the horizon (or lenses) ice speed heat which in 2-2,5 times lower than that of the soil, there is a sharp decrease in the density of the pulp in the furrow or ditch during the lowering of the water level in the quarry for the reverse flow of the slurry.

The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency of development of permafrost of the material man-made deposits in current career, at great depths with horizons (lenses) of ice, through the accelerated thawing of ice adjacent to the pit and, as a consequence, the increase in performance career. Loosening horizon (lenses) of ice at full power tooth bulldozer wasted due to very poor performance, because there is no reliable coupling of the tracks of the bulldozer with ice. To solve the problem in the way the combined development of permafrost of tailings material from the bottom and the lateral location of the horizon (lenses) of ice at subzero temperatures the x ambient air, in the current career on the deep horizon, the main of which is placed dredge and floating giant with a movable nozzle, made on the basis of the dredger. The size of the lane (width, length, depth) selected in the extremely minimum version to reduce heat loss-of-coolant (hot water) into the environment at low temperatures and sufficient only to turn on the location of the dredge and floating giant. When developing restapling material there is a gradual deepening of the dredge and floating giant before meeting with the horizon (lens) of the ice and the horizon (lens) ice protivetsa coolant at full capacity so as to lower the level of fluid (water) in the main pit below the horizon (lenses) of ice.

On the upper horizontal surface horizon (lens) ice bulldozer blade laid three adjoining furrow depth of 20-30 cm, with a bias towards the pit lane. The first and second at the beginning and the end of the lane, perpendicular to the boundary of the horizon (lenses) of ice a length of 10-15 m, and the third parallel to the boundary of the horizon (lens) ice connected to the first and second grooves, and maintain a supply of fluid (water) in the middle third of the furrow, which is already gravity of the fluid (water) moves through the grooves in the side of the pit lane. As a result of interaction of Teflon is sites with ice or material is formed gradually uglublyaetsya slot in the horizon (lens) of ice or frozen material tailings. In this embodiment the walls of the narrow cracks in ice work as a heat insulator, the heat carrier limited contact with cold air and gives maximum heat to the thawing of ice or material with minimal losses in the surrounding space. Deepening cracks coolant (hot water) all with greater speed roleplay ice after contact with frozen tails makes them defrost and transportation in the pit lane. In the main career decreases the level of the heat carrier (water) to the lower edge of the horizon (lens) ice and floating giant produces erosion of tailings below the horizon (lens) ice-lined slots, so that the heat carrier (water)passing through the slits, rastall tails below the horizon (lens) of ice. Speed defrost tails greater than the speed defrost ice in 2-2,5 times, and under the lower surface of the ice horizon (lens) forms a closed cavity from the surrounding cold air. The coolant (water) with maximum efficiency transmits heat to defrost the ice in the upper part of the cavity and the defrost tails below the horizon (lens) of ice. As defrost frozen tails under a lens of ice and the ice collapses of ice under its own weight, is again in contact with the coolant (water), until the horizon (lens) ice, framed cuts Ott the et and will be exposed tails, under ice horizon or lens. Thus, it accelerates the process of opening tails from under the horizon (lenses) ice, defrost and development, which together with other essential features improves performance career at low ambient temperatures. Horizons (lenses) of ice in the tailings pond are characterized by lower strength because they contain (by weight) up to 10% of finely divided impurities tails.

This method of accelerated crevice defrost low temperature used for the development of tails without inclusions horizons (lenses) of ice.

Fig.1 shows the scheme of the tailings in the plan, figure 2 - section a-a, 3 - section In the formed cavity.

The circuit includes an array of tailings 1 frozen tails, pit 2 with ice, floating giant 3 with a movable nozzle, suction dredge 4 with a suction pipe and a cutter Ripper 5, grooves (slits) 6, 7, 8, pipe 9 for feeding the heat carrier (water), pressure pipeline 10 for pumping slurry dredge 4, the horizon of ice 11, the lens of the ice 12, the part of the horizon (lens) ice-lined slots 13 formed cavity 14, a valve for switching and controlling the feed of fluid (water) 15 and 16, lane 17 career.

The method is realized in the following way.

In the current deep quarry 2 hostory Lima 1, works dredge 4 and the floating giant 3, from the dredge slurry under pressure to the pipeline 10 is sent to the consumer. The quarry operates at low ambient temperatures. On the surface of the career, after defrost and mining tailings, opened the horizon of ice 11, which prevents the further elaboration of tailings below the horizon of ice. Horizon ice gradually protivetsa to the lower edge of the ice in the main career coolant (water), served in lane 17 career in the pressure conduit 9, through an open valve 15 and closed valve 16. On the upper surface horizon (lens) ice 11 tooth bulldozer laid three communicating grooves 6, 7, 8 depth of 20-30 cm Furrow 6, 8 are laid out at the beginning and the end of the lane 17 career perpendicular to the ice border, adjacent to the main groove 7 is parallel to the boundary of the horizon of ice. Grooves 6, 8 padded with a bias towards lane 17 for providing a flow of fluid (water) gravity in the pit lane. The coolant (water) through the pressure conduit 9, through an open valve 16 and covered 15, served in the middle of the grooves 7 and by gravity flow along the grooves 6, 8 and gradually thaws (slots) in the ice cracks on the entire thickness of the horizon (lenses) of ice to the underlying frozen tails. On the ice surface of the slit (slot) has a width of 10-20 cm, deepening about the iesi expand up to 1 meter, for example, when the power of the horizon (lenses) of ice is about 2 meters. The icy walls of the slots serve as a heat insulator, and the energy of the heat carrier maximum spent on the expansion and deepening of the slots. The amount of fluid (water) is controlled so that was visually observed deepening of the slits on the entire thickness of the horizon (lenses) of ice to the underlying tailings. Speed defrost frozen underlying tailings in 2-2,5 times higher than that of ice, and below the horizon (lens) ice is formed the cavity 14. Reducing the amount of pumped fluid (slurry) dredge, raise the fluid level in the main 17 pit to the ice edge, and the coolant (water) fills the formed cavity 14 below the horizon (lens) 13 ice that is melting the lower surface horizon (lens) ice 13-lined slots 6, 7, 8, without contact with the cold surrounding air. Floating giant 3 through the suction pipe shall fence fluid (slurry) from the lane 17 and the pump, through the movable nozzle, produces erosion and thawing of the underlying tailings below the horizon (lens) ice-lined slots 6, 7, 8, increasing the cavity 14. As defrost horizon ice-lined slots, it'll break under its own weight, increases its surface, the ice is in contact with tepano what ielem and is melting. Underlying tails are exempt from the horizon of ice-lined slots 6, 7, 8, tails, thawed and dredge works.

An example of the method of development of the combined development dredge frozen tails from the enrichment of disseminated copper-Nickel ores at low ambient temperatures.

Quarry for mining tailings is valid in the Far North, at an ambient temperature of minus 25C. On the pit wall for erosion tails served coolant (water) temperature of 25C in the amount of 620 m3/hour. Performance career in the pulp is 660 m3/h at a density of 15% solids or about 110 tons/hour. The quarry 15 meters in thickness array of frozen tails met the horizon ice capacity of 1,0-1,2 m In connection with higher values of thermophysical properties of ice it defrost occurs over a long period of time (up to three days), in the amount of in-pit tailings is reduced and decreases the density of the slurry pumped by the dredge to 9-10% solid at the same capacity on the pulp, and as a consequence, the productivity of the pit is reduced to 60-70 tons/hour. In accordance with the proposed technical solution on the surface layer of ice adjacent to the main pit, tooth bulldozer laid Tr is connected furrow depth of 20-30 cm Two grooves with a length of 15-20 meters are laid out at the beginning and the end of the lane, perpendicular to the ice border, adjacent to the main, and a small bias towards the lane, the third furrow length of 30-40 meters parallel to the ice border and connects with the first and second grooves. In the middle of the third grooves serves the coolant in the amount of 150-200 m3per hour, which moves by gravity furrow in the lane and cuts (thawed) in the horizon of ice under the furrows slit. The crack on the surface layer of ice has a width of 10-20 cm, deepening it extends up to 0.5 m, as wall cracks in the ice are heat insulator and coolant more efficiently transfer heat energy to defrost the ice (the creation of the slits) and as the penetration slit reduces the heat energy of the coolant in cold surroundings. Speed defrost frozen underlying tailings in 2-2,5 times higher than that of ice, and below the horizon of ice-lined slots formed cavity, which is not in contact with the cold surrounding space, and the heat energy of the heat carrier maximum spent on thawing ice. Reducing the amount of pumped fluid (slurry) dredge, raise the fluid level in the main quarry, and the fluid fills the cavity formed below the horizon of ice-lined slots, p is oshodi melting the lower surface horizon of ice-lined slots. The coolant is directly in contact with ice, and further reduces the loss of thermal energy of the heat carrier. Floating giant jet of fluid (pressure 0.6 MPa) produces defrost and erosion of the underlying tailings below the horizon of ice-lined slots, gradually increasing the cavity beneath the ice, and there is a fracture and collapse of ice under its own weight. The collapsed ice increases its surface in contact with the fluid and rapidly melts, resulting in the exposure under the ice of the underlying tails, floating giant jet of fluid thaws and blurs the tailings, dredge pumps them to the consumer. The result is reduced time defrost horizon ice-lined slots, increases the density of the slurry pumped by the dredge to 20%, while the productivity of the pit at the site of occurrence of ice horizon of ice increases to 150 t/h.

In the proposed method, the horizon of ice-lined slots thaws coolant from the bottom of the ice surface, without contact with the cold ambient air having a temperature of minus 25C, resulting in twice reduced the time of opening of the ice underlying tailings and at the same time 2 times reduces the specific heat consumption per 1 ton of tailings sent to the consumer.

Proposed is a method of combined development of permafrost material tailings (tailings from enrichment normally disseminated ores) were tested in the Extreme North, with the lowest ambient air temperature minus 40C and can also be used to defrost and testing themselves tails.

The application of this method allowed us to increase the productivity of the pit, to reduce the cost of the coolant and thereby improve the efficiency of development of permafrost tails at low ambient temperatures.

The method combined the development of permafrost soils (e.g., man-made deposits - tails from the enrichment of disseminated copper-Nickel ore, pyrrhotite concentrates containing non-ferrous and precious metals) in deep acting career with horizons-lenses of ice at low ambient temperatures based on thermophysical properties of ice and rocks, including the current deep pit lane pit, chamber connected with a source of coolant - water, dredge and floating giant, characterized in that on the surface of the horizon-lenses of ice adjacent to the main pit and preventing further testing of the ground, paving furrows made with a bias side lane, serves the coolant water to defrost and education slots - slots in the thickness of the horizon-lenses of ice cavities below the bottom surface of the horizon-lenses ice, dilute floating giant subsoil below the horizon-lens ice-lined slots, will brushout horizon-the lens of ice, framed slits, and increase the surface collapsed ice, raise the level of the water in the main quarry to the lower border of the horizon-lenses ice for melting ice and outcrops of underlying soils, thaw and wash them floating giant, soil pumped by the dredge in the form of a pulp to the consumer.


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13 dwg

FIELD: technologies for extracting concretions from sea bottom.

SUBSTANCE: complex has watercraft, extracting machine with take-in device and pulp-pump, supporting pipeline, perforated branch pipe with sizes of apertures less than minimal size of extracted concretions. Perforated branch pipe is positioned at portion of force pipeline adjacent to extracting machine, and is provided with flanges. Apertures of perforated branch pipe are made in form of multi-drive slit channels along whole length of perforated branch pipe, provided with bandages. Slit channels can be made in form of constant width and directed along generatrix lines of perforated branch pipe, and bandages are positioned in direction perpendicular relatively to perorated branch pipe. Slit channels can be made in form of portions serially positioned behind one another and expanding towards movement of hydraulic mixture. Slit channels can be made of spiral shape, an bandages - in form of longitudinal rods.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: technologies for extracting concretions from sea bottom.

SUBSTANCE: device has watercraft, extracting device with collecting means and pulp-pump, force pipeline, perforated branch pipe with sizes of opening less than minimal size of extracted concretions. Perforated branch pipe is positioned in portion of force pipeline adjacent to extracting device and is provided with flanges, and diameter of perforated branch pipe decreases away from extracting machine. Extracting machine is provided with additional pump with latch, mounted in parallel with pulp-pump of extracting machine, and between perforated branch pipe and force pipeline check valve is positioned.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, particularly for obtaining minerals from underwater.

SUBSTANCE: plant comprises frame carried by catamaran, drum reels secured to frame at different levels and provided with driving means. Arranged in lower frame base is vessel having chute in which auger is installed. The auger is provided with drive. Frame drums are connected to truck through endless chains to which buckets are hinged. Load cavities of the buckets have orifice arranged from end side thereof and adapted to remove water when buckets move over water surface. Lower bases of the buckets are connected with chains through flexible rods and maintain vertical positions of loads arranged on chains when chain inclination varies. Plant also has compressor connected to float chambers of the buckets by flexible armored tube secured to electric winch rope and by spring. Electric winch is linked with microswitches by electric circuit. Microswitches are adapted to automatically bring electric winch into electric circuit during bucket movement. Catamaran is connected to truck platform through ropes of the winch connected to ship and adapted to lower or lift the truck from ocean bottom. Electric drives of the winches are linked with switch buttons of control panel, which provides remote winch control. Installed in catamaran body are devices to separate concretion mass into fraction and to dehydrate thereof. The devices are made as rotary netted drums with different orifice diameters. The drums are coaxial and spaced apart one from another. Each drum is provided with receiving chamber, drive and fraction outlet. Each fraction outlet is connected to centrifugal means having drive. In accordance to the second embodiment plant has case including three or more frames arranged in staggered order in two rows and centrifugal means. The plant is made as trailed unit and may be unitized with ship. The case is provided with floating pontoon supports. Each pontoon support is connected to compressor and has electromagnetic valve so that the support may immerse the case at proper depth in stormy conditions and emerge thereof after storm termination. Two longitudinal vessels provided with chutes are connected to each frame. Installed in chutes are augers with drives. Shafts with drum reels and drives are secured from both vessel sides at different levels thereof. The drums are provided with endless chains to which buckets are hinged. In accordance with the third embodiment the plant comprises case having three or more frames. The frames are arranged in one or two rows and connected one to another. One longitudinal vessel in secured to each frame. The vessel is provided with chute in which auger with drive is installed. The plant also has case installed on truck, which is mounted on ocean bottom. Conveying wedge-like mechanism is fixedly secured in front of conveyers under truck platform. The wedge-like mechanism is movably installed between drum reels to shift concretion layer from two sides towards bunker bucket loading means.

EFFECT: increased capacity, reliability and durability, improved technical means, workmanship and extended technological capabilities.

3 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: obtaining minerals from underwater, particularly hydro-mechanized devices for concretion production from seabed.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises movable seabed unit with pulp pump and outlet pipe, pressure pipeline with perforated part, basic ship and connection flanges. The perforated part is formed of parallel pipes connected with outlet pipe of the pulp pump and with pressure pipeline by distribution pipes. Number of pipes and pipe diameter are determined from where D1 is diameter of outlet pulp pump pipe, D2 and n - diameter and number of pipes composing perforated part of pressure pipeline.

EFFECT: increased productivity.

5 dwg

FIELD: rock mining, particularly to develop gravel-sand deposits.

SUBSTANCE: rid comprises body made as U-shaped pontoon and having docking mechanism, which provides connection of similar pontoon sections to maintain floatability thereof in the case of suction head weight increasing. The rig also has suction head made as downhole hydraulic mining tool and having ground receiving means and portal crane for ground receiver lifting and lowering arranged in front pontoon part. The ground receiver is lifted and lowered by suction head rotation about axle arranged in central pontoon part. The rig also has sludge line connected to suction head.

EFFECT: possibility of mining work performing at variable development depth.

4 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly to produce ore and rock materials, for instance building materials.

SUBSTANCE: mining rig comprises pontoon with suction head having sludge receiving means, as well as crane for sludge receiving means lifting and lowering installed in front pontoon part. Sludge receiving means is lifted and lowered by suction head rotation about axle connected to pontoon. Rig comprises sludge line connected to sludge channel of suction head. The pontoon has U-shaped cross-section and is provided with additional crane arranged in rear part thereof. The suction head is made as downhole hydraulic tool having string composed of two parts in length direction. The parts are pivotally connected one to another. The string is arranged on pontoon so that the parts may be lowered in series. The cranes are portal. The axle is located in rear or front pontoon part.

EFFECT: possibility of mining work performing at variable development depth.

2 dwg

FIELD: methods to develop underwater and flooded ferromanganesian concretion and phosphate shelf concretion deposits, as well as similar flooded and marine deposits mainly including horizontal and flat thin seams located on bed surface.

SUBSTANCE: draghead comprises frame body with upper, lower, side and rear walls, suction pipe of suction dredge, blades secured to intermediate bottom, which may rotate in vertical plane. The draghead is also provided with hydraulic abrasing unit having pressure pipe transversal to upper frame body wall. The pressure pipe is provided with hydraulic heads. The draghead comprises ball-and-socket hinge arranged in upper frame body orifice. Upper horizontal edge of rounded side wall is connected to inner surface of upper wall. Side wall flat part height and rounded part height thereof are related as 1:0.5. Ball-and-socket hinge and rounded part of side frame body have curvature radii in plane view equal to active suction dredge suction radius. Intermediate bottom is installed inside rounded side wall of frame body and may rotate with the use of two hydraulic cylinders about horizontal pin secured to rounded part of side frame body wall.

EFFECT: simplified structure and reduced losses in sludge lines.

7 dwg