Method of combination development of permafrost slimes in active pit
SUBSTANCE: furrows are cut on ice surface adjoining the pit lane that hinders slime processing to feed heat carrier to defrost and to make cutouts in layer body and cavities under ice body bottom surface. Floating hydraulic gun is used to jet lower layers above ice surface edged by cutouts. Then, ice is broken and thawed while exposed underlying soils are jetted by hydraulic gun and sucked by dredger as pulp to using equipment.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, lower costs at low ambient temperatures.
The invention relates to dredging, intended to support the development of technogenic permafrost deposits (for example, the tails from the enrichment of disseminated copper-Nickel ore, pyrrhotite concentrates) horizons (lenses) of ice in the Far North and permafrost and can be used in mining industry and construction at low temperatures.
To ensure high performance in the development of permafrost in particular tailings containing non-ferrous and precious metals, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of their structure. The specific structure of the tailings should be attributed multimeter power (from 1 to 4 m) horizons (lenses) of ice. (Dodin D.A., Izoitko, V.M., and other man-made deposits shows of platinum-metal raw materials of the Norilsk region. Sat. scient. Tr. Platinum Russia. - M, JSC "Geoinformmark", 1994 s) and to develop such tailings is necessary taking into account thermophysical properties of the material from which it is formed (tails, ice). Specific heat capacity of rocks of 0.2 cal/g*°C, ice is 0.5 cal/g*°C (Henochowicz A.S. Handbook of physics and technology. - M.: Education, 1989 s). In the array of permafrost technogenic deposits (tailings, concentrates) in the Extreme North, the temperature decreases the tsya only to minus 6-9°C, with long-term ambient temperatures of minus 45°C or more (Stehen A.I., Konilov V.E., Oleshkevich I. man-made deposits of precious and non-ferrous metals. - Non-ferrous metals. 1995, No. 6, p.30). When surface-defrosting (development of the hydro) at low temperatures almost all the energy of thermal fluid (hot water) is lost into the surrounding space, defrost material and ice is very slow, and consequently, the productivity of the pit. For example, at an ambient temperature of minus 25°C and the distance of the giant 150 m from the lane, where there is a dredger, coolant temperature decreases from 15°C to 0°C, resulting in sharply reduced the number of defrost tails and, as a consequence, decreases the productivity of the pit. The practice of developing frozen tails, with a slope of 5°-10° C in a side lane, with horizons (lenses) of ice at low ambient temperatures, showed that at a point the flow of coolant to the surface of the ice or tails, melting occurs only under the coolant, in the form of slits, with the gradual deepening of the entire power ice or tails to the level of the coolant (warm water) in the main career fields. On the surface of the tailings or ice slit has a width of 10-20 cm, and with the deepening of up to 2 m is gradually expanding to 1 m, which obyasnyau the Xia insulating properties of the walls of the slit and the reduction of heat transfer from the coolant to the surrounding space.
There is a method of developing a dredge soil in the winter time in his career, the United slot with the reservoir, including the designation of the face in the career, setting dredge in the pit, pipe-laying in the slot, closing the slits in the soil and the development of soil in the bottom while maintaining the water level in the quarry below the groundwater level, flow of warm ground water in the quarry by filtering through the soil, feeding system of pipes warm bottom water collected in the bottom area of the reservoir directly in the face (of the Austro. mon. The USSR 987045, CL E02F 3/88, 1983).
The disadvantage of this method development for low temperatures are: the surface of the pond is covered with ice, freezing of the soil in the slots, freezing pipes laid in the slot, the termination of the filtering and termination of the supply of warm ground water in the open pit, low productivity due to the possibility of developing the thawed soil only in the pit, high preparation costs (the device of the reservoir and to maintain the required level, the device slots, installation and maintenance of piping systems), the lack of a defrost horizons of ice. Thus, this method of development of permafrost soils is acceptable only at zero temperature.
Another known method is a method developed by Sims is a long frozen ground, including the development of a career in frozen soil, placement of dredge career, the gasket grooves or trenches on the surface of the developed array of frozen soil, communicating with the water source and the quarry and with a turn in the direction of the quarry, feeding him water by gravity into the quarry to lift the dredge in a career working depth and subsequent development of soil (Noroc GA Technology and design of dredging mining. - M.: Nedra, 1965, 114-115, 366-369). The disadvantage of this method is limited development, limiting the capacity of thawed soil pit, the inability to increase the productivity of frozen soil without the use of additional mechanisms (bulldozer equipment and use of special events - igottawedgie selection array, loosening the energy of the explosion and so on), the necessity of using in the process of development increased amount of warm water and the use of special tools and devices to maintain lane, due to the increasing in the excavation of an open water surface in the career, the lack of means of accelerated defrost horizons or lenses of ice.
Closest to the proposed method on a set of attributes and the achieved result is way develo the TCI dredge frozen ground including the development of a career in the frozen ground, placement of dredge career, the gasket grooves or trenches on the surface of the developed array of frozen soil, communicating with the water source and the quarry and with a turn in the direction of the quarry, feeding him water by gravity into the quarry to lift the dredge in a career working depth and subsequent development of soil, the raising of the water level in the quarry to fill with water furrows or ditches, with the lower density of the pumped slurry dredge, and after thawing and erosion of frozen soil water movement along the furrow or ditch, lower the water level in the quarry for the reverse flow of the slurry thawed soil from the furrows to improve the density of the pumped slurry (patent RU 2204658 C2). The prototype.
In the known method the efficiency of development of frozen soil depends on the area of furrows or ditches outside of the open pit (surface of the developed array)filled with water when the water level in the pit, and thawing of the soil under the water, lowering the water level in career and samotechny transporting soil in the pit to increase the density of the pulp. When reaching the very depths of the pit, where the dredge, and low ambient temperatures requires the construction of new deeper ditches or furrows and correspondingly larger amount of water to fill them, tempera is ur which will decrease to zero at low temperatures, that will lead to a decrease in the rate of thawing of the soil and loss of performance career. This method of mining, quarry can be most effectively used at small depths of cut and the freezing temperatures of the surrounding air. A further disadvantage of the known method, in circular thawing of the soil in the furrow or ditch it gradually deepening to the horizon (or lenses) ice speed heat which in 2-2,5 times lower than that of the soil, there is a sharp decrease in the density of the pulp in the furrow or ditch during the lowering of the water level in the quarry for the reverse flow of the slurry.
The objective of the invention is to increase the efficiency of development of permafrost of the material man-made deposits in current career, at great depths with horizons (lenses) of ice, through the accelerated thawing of ice adjacent to the pit and, as a consequence, the increase in performance career. Loosening horizon (lenses) of ice at full power tooth bulldozer wasted due to very poor performance, because there is no reliable coupling of the tracks of the bulldozer with ice. To solve the problem in the way the combined development of permafrost of tailings material from the bottom and the lateral location of the horizon (lenses) of ice at subzero temperatures the x ambient air, in the current career on the deep horizon, the main of which is placed dredge and floating giant with a movable nozzle, made on the basis of the dredger. The size of the lane (width, length, depth) selected in the extremely minimum version to reduce heat loss-of-coolant (hot water) into the environment at low temperatures and sufficient only to turn on the location of the dredge and floating giant. When developing restapling material there is a gradual deepening of the dredge and floating giant before meeting with the horizon (lens) of the ice and the horizon (lens) ice protivetsa coolant at full capacity so as to lower the level of fluid (water) in the main pit below the horizon (lenses) of ice.
On the upper horizontal surface horizon (lens) ice bulldozer blade laid three adjoining furrow depth of 20-30 cm, with a bias towards the pit lane. The first and second at the beginning and the end of the lane, perpendicular to the boundary of the horizon (lenses) of ice a length of 10-15 m, and the third parallel to the boundary of the horizon (lens) ice connected to the first and second grooves, and maintain a supply of fluid (water) in the middle third of the furrow, which is already gravity of the fluid (water) moves through the grooves in the side of the pit lane. As a result of interaction of Teflon is sites with ice or material is formed gradually uglublyaetsya slot in the horizon (lens) of ice or frozen material tailings. In this embodiment the walls of the narrow cracks in ice work as a heat insulator, the heat carrier limited contact with cold air and gives maximum heat to the thawing of ice or material with minimal losses in the surrounding space. Deepening cracks coolant (hot water) all with greater speed roleplay ice after contact with frozen tails makes them defrost and transportation in the pit lane. In the main career decreases the level of the heat carrier (water) to the lower edge of the horizon (lens) ice and floating giant produces erosion of tailings below the horizon (lens) ice-lined slots, so that the heat carrier (water)passing through the slits, rastall tails below the horizon (lens) of ice. Speed defrost tails greater than the speed defrost ice in 2-2,5 times, and under the lower surface of the ice horizon (lens) forms a closed cavity from the surrounding cold air. The coolant (water) with maximum efficiency transmits heat to defrost the ice in the upper part of the cavity and the defrost tails below the horizon (lens) of ice. As defrost frozen tails under a lens of ice and the ice collapses of ice under its own weight, is again in contact with the coolant (water), until the horizon (lens) ice, framed cuts Ott the et and will be exposed tails, under ice horizon or lens. Thus, it accelerates the process of opening tails from under the horizon (lenses) ice, defrost and development, which together with other essential features improves performance career at low ambient temperatures. Horizons (lenses) of ice in the tailings pond are characterized by lower strength because they contain (by weight) up to 10% of finely divided impurities tails.
This method of accelerated crevice defrost low temperature used for the development of tails without inclusions horizons (lenses) of ice.
Fig.1 shows the scheme of the tailings in the plan, figure 2 - section a-a, 3 - section In the formed cavity.
The circuit includes an array of tailings 1 frozen tails, pit 2 with ice, floating giant 3 with a movable nozzle, suction dredge 4 with a suction pipe and a cutter Ripper 5, grooves (slits) 6, 7, 8, pipe 9 for feeding the heat carrier (water), pressure pipeline 10 for pumping slurry dredge 4, the horizon of ice 11, the lens of the ice 12, the part of the horizon (lens) ice-lined slots 13 formed cavity 14, a valve for switching and controlling the feed of fluid (water) 15 and 16, lane 17 career.
The method is realized in the following way.
In the current deep quarry 2 hostory Lima 1, works dredge 4 and the floating giant 3, from the dredge slurry under pressure to the pipeline 10 is sent to the consumer. The quarry operates at low ambient temperatures. On the surface of the career, after defrost and mining tailings, opened the horizon of ice 11, which prevents the further elaboration of tailings below the horizon of ice. Horizon ice gradually protivetsa to the lower edge of the ice in the main career coolant (water), served in lane 17 career in the pressure conduit 9, through an open valve 15 and closed valve 16. On the upper surface horizon (lens) ice 11 tooth bulldozer laid three communicating grooves 6, 7, 8 depth of 20-30 cm Furrow 6, 8 are laid out at the beginning and the end of the lane 17 career perpendicular to the ice border, adjacent to the main groove 7 is parallel to the boundary of the horizon of ice. Grooves 6, 8 padded with a bias towards lane 17 for providing a flow of fluid (water) gravity in the pit lane. The coolant (water) through the pressure conduit 9, through an open valve 16 and covered 15, served in the middle of the grooves 7 and by gravity flow along the grooves 6, 8 and gradually thaws (slots) in the ice cracks on the entire thickness of the horizon (lenses) of ice to the underlying frozen tails. On the ice surface of the slit (slot) has a width of 10-20 cm, deepening about the iesi expand up to 1 meter, for example, when the power of the horizon (lenses) of ice is about 2 meters. The icy walls of the slots serve as a heat insulator, and the energy of the heat carrier maximum spent on the expansion and deepening of the slots. The amount of fluid (water) is controlled so that was visually observed deepening of the slits on the entire thickness of the horizon (lenses) of ice to the underlying tailings. Speed defrost frozen underlying tailings in 2-2,5 times higher than that of ice, and below the horizon (lens) ice is formed the cavity 14. Reducing the amount of pumped fluid (slurry) dredge, raise the fluid level in the main 17 pit to the ice edge, and the coolant (water) fills the formed cavity 14 below the horizon (lens) 13 ice that is melting the lower surface horizon (lens) ice 13-lined slots 6, 7, 8, without contact with the cold surrounding air. Floating giant 3 through the suction pipe shall fence fluid (slurry) from the lane 17 and the pump, through the movable nozzle, produces erosion and thawing of the underlying tailings below the horizon (lens) ice-lined slots 6, 7, 8, increasing the cavity 14. As defrost horizon ice-lined slots, it'll break under its own weight, increases its surface, the ice is in contact with tepano what ielem and is melting. Underlying tails are exempt from the horizon of ice-lined slots 6, 7, 8, tails, thawed and dredge works.
An example of the method of development of the combined development dredge frozen tails from the enrichment of disseminated copper-Nickel ores at low ambient temperatures.
Quarry for mining tailings is valid in the Far North, at an ambient temperature of minus 25°C. On the pit wall for erosion tails served coolant (water) temperature of 25°C in the amount of 620 m3/hour. Performance career in the pulp is 660 m3/h at a density of 15% solids or about 110 tons/hour. The quarry 15 meters in thickness array of frozen tails met the horizon ice capacity of 1,0-1,2 m In connection with higher values of thermophysical properties of ice it defrost occurs over a long period of time (up to three days), in the amount of in-pit tailings is reduced and decreases the density of the slurry pumped by the dredge to 9-10% solid at the same capacity on the pulp, and as a consequence, the productivity of the pit is reduced to 60-70 tons/hour. In accordance with the proposed technical solution on the surface layer of ice adjacent to the main pit, tooth bulldozer laid Tr is connected furrow depth of 20-30 cm Two grooves with a length of 15-20 meters are laid out at the beginning and the end of the lane, perpendicular to the ice border, adjacent to the main, and a small bias towards the lane, the third furrow length of 30-40 meters parallel to the ice border and connects with the first and second grooves. In the middle of the third grooves serves the coolant in the amount of 150-200 m3per hour, which moves by gravity furrow in the lane and cuts (thawed) in the horizon of ice under the furrows slit. The crack on the surface layer of ice has a width of 10-20 cm, deepening it extends up to 0.5 m, as wall cracks in the ice are heat insulator and coolant more efficiently transfer heat energy to defrost the ice (the creation of the slits) and as the penetration slit reduces the heat energy of the coolant in cold surroundings. Speed defrost frozen underlying tailings in 2-2,5 times higher than that of ice, and below the horizon of ice-lined slots formed cavity, which is not in contact with the cold surrounding space, and the heat energy of the heat carrier maximum spent on thawing ice. Reducing the amount of pumped fluid (slurry) dredge, raise the fluid level in the main quarry, and the fluid fills the cavity formed below the horizon of ice-lined slots, p is oshodi melting the lower surface horizon of ice-lined slots. The coolant is directly in contact with ice, and further reduces the loss of thermal energy of the heat carrier. Floating giant jet of fluid (pressure 0.6 MPa) produces defrost and erosion of the underlying tailings below the horizon of ice-lined slots, gradually increasing the cavity beneath the ice, and there is a fracture and collapse of ice under its own weight. The collapsed ice increases its surface in contact with the fluid and rapidly melts, resulting in the exposure under the ice of the underlying tails, floating giant jet of fluid thaws and blurs the tailings, dredge pumps them to the consumer. The result is reduced time defrost horizon ice-lined slots, increases the density of the slurry pumped by the dredge to 20%, while the productivity of the pit at the site of occurrence of ice horizon of ice increases to 150 t/h.
In the proposed method, the horizon of ice-lined slots thaws coolant from the bottom of the ice surface, without contact with the cold ambient air having a temperature of minus 25°C, resulting in twice reduced the time of opening of the ice underlying tailings and at the same time 2 times reduces the specific heat consumption per 1 ton of tailings sent to the consumer.
Proposed is a method of combined development of permafrost material tailings (tailings from enrichment normally disseminated ores) were tested in the Extreme North, with the lowest ambient air temperature minus 40°C and can also be used to defrost and testing themselves tails.
The application of this method allowed us to increase the productivity of the pit, to reduce the cost of the coolant and thereby improve the efficiency of development of permafrost tails at low ambient temperatures.
The method combined the development of permafrost soils (e.g., man-made deposits - tails from the enrichment of disseminated copper-Nickel ore, pyrrhotite concentrates containing non-ferrous and precious metals) in deep acting career with horizons-lenses of ice at low ambient temperatures based on thermophysical properties of ice and rocks, including the current deep pit lane pit, chamber connected with a source of coolant - water, dredge and floating giant, characterized in that on the surface of the horizon-lenses of ice adjacent to the main pit and preventing further testing of the ground, paving furrows made with a bias side lane, serves the coolant water to defrost and education slots - slots in the thickness of the horizon-lenses of ice cavities below the bottom surface of the horizon-lenses ice, dilute floating giant subsoil below the horizon-lens ice-lined slots, will brushout horizon-the lens of ice, framed slits, and increase the surface collapsed ice, raise the level of the water in the main quarry to the lower border of the horizon-lenses ice for melting ice and outcrops of underlying soils, thaw and wash them floating giant, soil pumped by the dredge in the form of a pulp to the consumer.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method involves lifting of elements of underwater mineral deposits consisting of flow of transporting medium, transportation of hydraulic fluid in supply airlift pipeline, supply of compressed air to mixer of lifting pipeline, creation of multicomponent mixture after compressed air is supplied to hydraulic fluid mixture and transportation of multicomponent mixture flow in lifting airlift pipeline. At that, first, phantom cross section is chosen in the flow intended for transportation of elements of underwater mineral deposits, and for chosen phantom cross section there specified is the range of change of pressure value. Flows of water and air-and-water mixture are created in supply and lifting pipelines by supplying compressed air with the compressor to mixer of lifting pipeline Value of actual pressure is monitored in the chosen phantom cross section, as well as actual range of change of the monitored value is determined. Compliance of the certain actual range to the specified one is checked, and elements of underwater mineral deposits are supplied to water flow of supply airlift pipeline in case certain actual range belongs to the specified one.
EFFECT: increasing development efficiency of underwater mineral deposits at big marine depths due to shortening the total start-up time of airlift plant; avoiding the disturbance of transportation of solid material and gumming of pipelines during airlift start-up.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: complex comprises a floating facility, the following components installed on it: a receiving accessory, a lifting single-drum and double-drum scraper hoists, diverting units, head and tail traction ropes, a perforated vessel of rectangular cross section with cutting edges, bottom anchors with buoys. At the same time the head rope is kinematically linked with a longitudinal traction rod and ropes hingedly joined with levers of cutting planes as capable of their rotation to close a vessel base in the form of a spatial frame of square cross section with their closure by side edges, forming faces of a rectangular pyramid aligned with the top outside along the longitudinal axis of the device, the cutting plane of which is arranged in the form of isosceless triangles adjoining hingedly with their bases to bases of the specified frame bases, inside of which there is a screening drum of cylindrical shape, which rests with its circular bands with flanges onto rollers fixed in the inner corners of the frame faces, the cylindrical surface of the screening drum screening is formed by longitudinal bars installed along the cylinder generatrix and fixed on circular bands to form longitudinal slots between them, the cylindrical surface of the screening drum is embraced with ropes fixed on the drum and wound along the helical line, at one side in the right direction, and at the other side - in the left direction, and coming off the drum along the tangent to the cylinder circumference, the device is equipped with a polyspast with a fixed shell of units fixed on the frame, and a movable shell capable of its displacement along the frame face, and the angle of rotation of the screening drum by 360 degrees is provided with the length of the rod travel with the traction rope.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and environmental capability of works in mining of solid minerals from a sea bottom.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creation of the main and additional water flows, obtaining of hydraulic fluid flow after addition of elements of natural resources of underwater deposits as part of rock mass to the main water flow and transportation of hydraulic fluid flow. Besides, increase in operation efficiency of transportation process of mineral resources of underground deposits is provided from high depths in process chain of development of underwater deposits of mineral resources due to stabilisation of concentration value of solid particles in hydraulic fluid flow that is transported from multi-purpose system for continuous collection of mineral resources of underwater deposits to base floating means located on water reservoir surface, at rational configuration of technical means.
EFFECT: stabilisation of concentration value of solid particles in hydraulic fluid flow.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes underwater vessel with atmospheric pressure, trolley, pulp line, operating element in composition of a catcher, hydraulic motor with shaft, shroud and ripper. Operating element is connected to the trolley via bracket, and pulp line is hydraulically connected to vessel with atmospheric pressure. The shroud has cylindrical shape and is mounted vertically and rigidly connected to pulp line via upper face end and to catcher via lower face end, the catcher is done in a form of confuser with circular input. Hydraulic motor of bottom-hole type is concentrically built-in the shroud cavity and rigidly connected to it via radial ribs with formation of annular through channel, and ripper is attached to the shaft of this hydraulic motor. The bracket is equipped with two joints and two hydraulic cylinders capable of moving the operating element in vertical and horizontal plains. There is a cab on the trolley that is equipped with oil pump with hydraulic rotary mechanism working on pressure drop, viewport and lamp with isolated power source. Bottom-hole motor of operating element is done with pressure and drainage channels in the housing and swinging spring-loaded dampers.
EFFECT: increase of device productivity and reliability, reduction of risk of water body contamination by ripping products.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: complex comprises a basic vessel, which is kinematically connected to a production tool, comprising a rolling capture device installed on skis, a transportation device, which connects a production tool with basic vessel. The rolling capture device of the production set is made in the form of a drum equipped with blades, fixed on a horizontal axis kinematically connected to a drive. Blades are arranged with minimum gaps relative to an inner surface of a cylindrical shape jacket. The upper cylindrical part of the jacket is made with an opening. The axis is installed with the possibility of its rotation in a central part of side walls of the jacket, which in its lower part is equipped with a cut of rectangular form in plan with the possibility of displacement of blades in it and their introduction in thickness of the mineral. Blades are made forked and with flexures. Flexures of blades during their location in the lower part of a jacket are aligned towards the side opposite to direction of production tool displacement. At the same time the distance between forks of the blades is adopted as less than the minimum cross size of produced nodules. The cut in the jacket is made so that its edges are placed above useful thickness of a mineral. The jacket with the help of a receiving tray of narrowing cross section is connected to a suction nozzle of a soil pump. The soil pump is installed on cross beams of skis at the side of the jacket opposite to direction of production set displacement. The injection nozzle of the soil pump is connected to a perforated section of a pipeline fixed on a jacket and arranged above it, with the possibility of connection with a flexible discharge pipeline. The discharge pipeline is aligned in plan coaxially with an injection nozzle of a soil pump along a longitudinal axis of jacket symmetry. The production set is balanced in a transverse direction. Skis are fixed at two sides on side walls of the jacket and are made as V-shaped in cross section. The flexible pipeline is made from a combination of rigid rectilinear pipes and flexible inserts from elastic material with connection of adjacent pipes arranged along the perimetre of each pipe with round-link chains that perceive stretching forces.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a complex, its simplified design, reduced material intensity, power intensity and cost, increased reliability of complex operation.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in destruction of the bottom layer with sharp edges of buckets fixed on vertical conveyor belt; conveyor moves along the reservoir bottom by means of caterpillar drive relative to which the conveyor belt moves vertically with possibility of penetration into the bottom. At that, gaseous hydrate is lifted to the zone isolated from water with surface of turned-over funnel, where it is heated, and evolved gas subject to additional heating is transported to the surface by means of the hose fixed on the funnel top. Also, device for the method's implementation is proposed.
EFFECT: increase in production of gaseous hydrated hydrocarbons.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for underwater development of mineral deposits involves transporting reservoir which is hinged to rope by means of rod, gas generator, flexible gas cavity with limit pressure valve, and rope with ballast and float. Transporting reservoir is made in the form of bucket grab with flexible links and connected through gas generator equipped with startup sensor and load-carrying rope to flexible cavity.
EFFECT: excavation of mineral deposits from water area bottom and their lifting to surface irrespective of visibility conditions, with minimum power consumption for loading.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed complex comprises base ship articulated with mining plant that comprises rolling gripping device mounted on skis, and transport device that joints mining plant with base ship. Rolling gripping device is made up of vaned drum running on horizontal axle articulated with the drive. Drum vanes are arranged with minimum clearance with respect to cylindrical casing inner surface. Casing perforated surface holes feature diametre smaller than minimum crosswise size of mined concretion. Forked vanes have deflections. Said casing communicates via intake chute of narrowing cross section with ground pump suction branch pipe. Said pump is arranged in skis crosswise girders on the side of casing, opposite the mining plant travel direction. Ground pump delivery branch pipe communicates with perforated pipeline arranged on the casing and secured thereto, that can be connected with flexible delivery pipeline. Said delivery pipeline is arranged coaxially with ground pump pressure branch pipe and directed along casing lengthwise axis of symmetry.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, simplified design, reduced costs.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for underwater development of rocks comprises frame, actuating element in the form of chain-and-bucket, discharge coal slurry pipeline, hopper. Device is additionally equipped with platform having walker, with the possibility of longitudinal and transverse motion, arranged in the form of skis installed on eccentric shafts. Chain-and-bucket is fixed on frame at side of device.
EFFECT: invention provides for autonomous operation in complicated mining and hydraulic-geological conditions and extraction of burs with minimum losses and disturbed condition of bottom deposits.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining and can be implemented at complex industrial development of mineral resources of world ocean. The package consists of a transport floating sea-based station in kind of a semi-submersible floating platform with an underwater hydraulic support-container. On the platform there is made a through vertical shaft and above-surface decks. The following is arranged on the station: a hydraulically hoisted installation consisting of a hoisted pipeline of interconnected pipes installed in the shaft of the hydraulic support-container. In its upper part the pipeline communicates with an unloading hopper and with a receiving chamber also connected with a cavity of the hydraulic support-container by means of the pipeline. In its lower part the pipeline is coupled with a collector. The installation also consists of an evaporating system connected to a condenser via a steam line and to the unloading hopper via an evacuating pipeline. The evaporating system is equipped with a heating battery and a brine chamber coupled with the unloading hopper by means of the pipeline. Further, the installation consists of a thermo-siphon of a nuclear plant connected with the heating battery of the evaporating system through the steam line. The thermo-siphon is connected with its own condenser by means of the steam line and pressure line. The condenser of the thermo-siphon is installed under the condenser of the evaporating system and coupled with the latter by means of a down-take pipeline. Also the installation consists of bottom excavating devices tied with the collector of the hoisted pipeline by means of slurry lines. The novelty of the invention is like follows: additional through shafts are made in the hydraulic support container. The additional shafts have inter-shaft through slit apertures communicating the additional shafts and the shaft of the hoisted pipeline. Also there are the thermo-siphon of the nuclear plant and bottom excavating devices installed in these shafts. Under water the excavating devices automatically retract from the shafts and enter into them together with connected pipelines, steam lines, slurry lines and other communications freely arranged in the inter-shaft through slit apertures. Notably, to eliminate clogging, equipped with valves branches of blow-off main are connected to hinged facilities. Novelty of the procedure of package operation and transport condition consists in retracting equipment, including the hoisted pipeline, from the shafts and under water lowering, in hoisting it back and receiving it into shafts together with communications coupled and connected to equipment. Thus, submerged floating stations are attributed with controlled, correspondingly, negative or positive buoyancy.
EFFECT: raised efficiency and reliability of package operation due to reduced time and labour for lowering-hoisting operations and due to eliminating assembly and disassembly operations at excavating site.
7 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has bottom power assembly, connected to base watercraft by force pipeline with conical perforated portion, adjacent to bottom power assembly, conical perforated portion of force pipeline is made of sheet of elastic material and provided with rigid branch pipes with flanges on both ends. Flanges of branch pipes are interconnected by round-link chains placed along flanges perimeter, which are connected to flanges of power assembly and force pipeline branch pipe.
EFFECT: simplified construction, lower costs, higher efficiency.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: mining combine has extraction means, on which a body is mounted, having at least one first liquid outlet, for supplying liquid to material. Pipeline, through which liquid is fed to first liquid outlet, contains means for measuring flow and/or pressure of liquid in pipeline, for determining, in which of to layers outlet is positioned. Combine can have at least one second liquid outlet, placed in such a way, that first liquid outlet is in lower layer, and second liquid outlet is placed in upper layer. First liquid outlet can have one of multiple first liquid outlets spaced from each other, and second liquid outlet - one of multiple spaced from each other second liquid outlets. Efficiency of liquid flow through multiple spaced first outlets can surpass those of multiple spaced from each other second liquid outlets. Placement of second liquid outlet in separate body cover is possible. First and second liquid outlets can be directed downwardly relatively to direction of mining combine displacement. Method for controlling depth of position of mining combine extraction means includes placing two liquid outlets, interacting with material extraction means, in a material, while second liquid outlet is placed above first liquid outlet, liquid is fed to first and second liquid outlets and flow and/or pressure of liquid is measured. Layer, wherein liquid outlet lies, is detected, and first liquid outlet is placed in lower layer and second liquid outlet is placed in upper layer, to determine depth of position of extraction means relatively to two layers.
EFFECT: higher precision.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: means for organic and chemical fertilizers obtaining, particularly to extract sapropel silt from lake and lagoon bottom and for water ponds cleaning.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises water-craft with executive tool and with extraction tool of suction type, transportation mechanism and optional equipment. Executive tool comprises turbofan, bell-shaped case with serrated lower edge and at least two pipelines mounted in the case and used for feeding compressed air and driving extraction tool. Optional equipment includes hoisting means and seriously connected accumulator vessel, bin, sump, evaporator, disperser, pelletizer, drying chamber, metering device and transportation mechanism.
EFFECT: reduced sapropel mass losses, reduced time of sapropel preparation to use.
FIELD: technologies for extracting concretions from sea bottom.
SUBSTANCE: complex has watercraft, extracting machine with take-in device and pulp-pump, supporting pipeline, perforated branch pipe with sizes of apertures less than minimal size of extracted concretions. Perforated branch pipe is positioned at portion of force pipeline adjacent to extracting machine, and is provided with flanges. Apertures of perforated branch pipe are made in form of multi-drive slit channels along whole length of perforated branch pipe, provided with bandages. Slit channels can be made in form of constant width and directed along generatrix lines of perforated branch pipe, and bandages are positioned in direction perpendicular relatively to perorated branch pipe. Slit channels can be made in form of portions serially positioned behind one another and expanding towards movement of hydraulic mixture. Slit channels can be made of spiral shape, an bandages - in form of longitudinal rods.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: technologies for extracting concretions from sea bottom.
SUBSTANCE: device has watercraft, extracting device with collecting means and pulp-pump, force pipeline, perforated branch pipe with sizes of opening less than minimal size of extracted concretions. Perforated branch pipe is positioned in portion of force pipeline adjacent to extracting device and is provided with flanges, and diameter of perforated branch pipe decreases away from extracting machine. Extracting machine is provided with additional pump with latch, mounted in parallel with pulp-pump of extracting machine, and between perforated branch pipe and force pipeline check valve is positioned.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly for obtaining minerals from underwater.
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises frame carried by catamaran, drum reels secured to frame at different levels and provided with driving means. Arranged in lower frame base is vessel having chute in which auger is installed. The auger is provided with drive. Frame drums are connected to truck through endless chains to which buckets are hinged. Load cavities of the buckets have orifice arranged from end side thereof and adapted to remove water when buckets move over water surface. Lower bases of the buckets are connected with chains through flexible rods and maintain vertical positions of loads arranged on chains when chain inclination varies. Plant also has compressor connected to float chambers of the buckets by flexible armored tube secured to electric winch rope and by spring. Electric winch is linked with microswitches by electric circuit. Microswitches are adapted to automatically bring electric winch into electric circuit during bucket movement. Catamaran is connected to truck platform through ropes of the winch connected to ship and adapted to lower or lift the truck from ocean bottom. Electric drives of the winches are linked with switch buttons of control panel, which provides remote winch control. Installed in catamaran body are devices to separate concretion mass into fraction and to dehydrate thereof. The devices are made as rotary netted drums with different orifice diameters. The drums are coaxial and spaced apart one from another. Each drum is provided with receiving chamber, drive and fraction outlet. Each fraction outlet is connected to centrifugal means having drive. In accordance to the second embodiment plant has case including three or more frames arranged in staggered order in two rows and centrifugal means. The plant is made as trailed unit and may be unitized with ship. The case is provided with floating pontoon supports. Each pontoon support is connected to compressor and has electromagnetic valve so that the support may immerse the case at proper depth in stormy conditions and emerge thereof after storm termination. Two longitudinal vessels provided with chutes are connected to each frame. Installed in chutes are augers with drives. Shafts with drum reels and drives are secured from both vessel sides at different levels thereof. The drums are provided with endless chains to which buckets are hinged. In accordance with the third embodiment the plant comprises case having three or more frames. The frames are arranged in one or two rows and connected one to another. One longitudinal vessel in secured to each frame. The vessel is provided with chute in which auger with drive is installed. The plant also has case installed on truck, which is mounted on ocean bottom. Conveying wedge-like mechanism is fixedly secured in front of conveyers under truck platform. The wedge-like mechanism is movably installed between drum reels to shift concretion layer from two sides towards bunker bucket loading means.
EFFECT: increased capacity, reliability and durability, improved technical means, workmanship and extended technological capabilities.
3 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: obtaining minerals from underwater, particularly hydro-mechanized devices for concretion production from seabed.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises movable seabed unit with pulp pump and outlet pipe, pressure pipeline with perforated part, basic ship and connection flanges. The perforated part is formed of parallel pipes connected with outlet pipe of the pulp pump and with pressure pipeline by distribution pipes. Number of pipes and pipe diameter are determined from where D1 is diameter of outlet pulp pump pipe, D2 and n - diameter and number of pipes composing perforated part of pressure pipeline.
EFFECT: increased productivity.
FIELD: rock mining, particularly to develop gravel-sand deposits.
SUBSTANCE: rid comprises body made as U-shaped pontoon and having docking mechanism, which provides connection of similar pontoon sections to maintain floatability thereof in the case of suction head weight increasing. The rig also has suction head made as downhole hydraulic mining tool and having ground receiving means and portal crane for ground receiver lifting and lowering arranged in front pontoon part. The ground receiver is lifted and lowered by suction head rotation about axle arranged in central pontoon part. The rig also has sludge line connected to suction head.
EFFECT: possibility of mining work performing at variable development depth.
FIELD: mining, particularly to produce ore and rock materials, for instance building materials.
SUBSTANCE: mining rig comprises pontoon with suction head having sludge receiving means, as well as crane for sludge receiving means lifting and lowering installed in front pontoon part. Sludge receiving means is lifted and lowered by suction head rotation about axle connected to pontoon. Rig comprises sludge line connected to sludge channel of suction head. The pontoon has U-shaped cross-section and is provided with additional crane arranged in rear part thereof. The suction head is made as downhole hydraulic tool having string composed of two parts in length direction. The parts are pivotally connected one to another. The string is arranged on pontoon so that the parts may be lowered in series. The cranes are portal. The axle is located in rear or front pontoon part.
EFFECT: possibility of mining work performing at variable development depth.
FIELD: methods to develop underwater and flooded ferromanganesian concretion and phosphate shelf concretion deposits, as well as similar flooded and marine deposits mainly including horizontal and flat thin seams located on bed surface.
SUBSTANCE: draghead comprises frame body with upper, lower, side and rear walls, suction pipe of suction dredge, blades secured to intermediate bottom, which may rotate in vertical plane. The draghead is also provided with hydraulic abrasing unit having pressure pipe transversal to upper frame body wall. The pressure pipe is provided with hydraulic heads. The draghead comprises ball-and-socket hinge arranged in upper frame body orifice. Upper horizontal edge of rounded side wall is connected to inner surface of upper wall. Side wall flat part height and rounded part height thereof are related as 1:0.5. Ball-and-socket hinge and rounded part of side frame body have curvature radii in plane view equal to active suction dredge suction radius. Intermediate bottom is installed inside rounded side wall of frame body and may rotate with the use of two hydraulic cylinders about horizontal pin secured to rounded part of side frame body wall.
EFFECT: simplified structure and reduced losses in sludge lines.