Method of vegetable crop cultivation under drip irrigation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to reclamation. The method includes planting seeds or seedlings of vegetable crops and their vegetative irrigation with electroactivated aqueous solutions - anolyte and catholyte. The first irrigation after planting is carried out with the activated aqueous solution of anolyte and catholyte at their ratio (70:30)-(80:20). The subsequent irrigations are carried out with the activated aqueous solution of with the ratio of anolyte and catholyte (30:70)-(20:80). At that after the first irrigation with the activated solution one irrigation with light water is carried out, and the subsequent irrigations with the said solutions are alternated with irrigations with light water so that one irrigation with the activated aqueous solution is accounted for two irrigations with light water with the predetermined irrigation norm. Prior to mixing the components of the activated water the anolyte pH is 3.2-4.7, and the catholyte pH is 10.5-12.0.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the quality of vegetable produce and increase productivity, reduce energy consumption and improve the environmental friendliness of the process, and also reduce the consumption of activated aqueous solutions during irrigation.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to agriculture, and is intended for cultivation of agricultural plants, mainly of vegetable crops under drip irrigation.

There is a method of settling of the soil, including supply to the abandoned section of water, cutting it cracks, irrigation of mislevy bands, removal of salts from the surface of the walls of the cracks and filling, and the slit is performed through a distance not exceeding double the amount of capillary moisture transfer soil abandoned area, and the depth of their cuts set to a larger value of capillary rise of soil moisture abandoned plot, on the surface of mislevy strips form a gable ridges, on which place the pipelines with droppers connected to the power network, and the surface of mislevy bands cover waterproof screens from a hydrophobic material, the edges of which are fixed in the upper part cracks, and then produce a flow of water from a dropper until the end of the settlement process, after which the water supply stop, a layer of soil with salt from the walls of the cracks move at their bottom and form over it waterproof layer of hydrophobic material, and cracks zaravnivayut (patent RU №2273693. The method of settlement of the soil. 10.04.2006).

The disadvantages of the described method include the inability to change the activity will irrigate the school water and reducing the efficiency of the method of desalinization of the soil.

There is a method of cultivation of winter wheat on irrigated lands, including fertilizing, plowing, winter irrigation, seeding, vegetative watering and mowing of green mass of waxy grain rolls with subsequent obsoleta, at the same time with plowing form a water absorption of cracks by filling in the last of plant and root residues and applied organic fertilizers, sowing is carried out in parallel to the slits, mutually remote by a distance equal to half or width of the planter, the vegetation irrigation drip irrigation is the norm 150-200 m3/ha alternated with a fine sprinkling the norm 20-50 m3/ha, while combine the introduction of micro - and macro fertilizers in liquid form (patent RU №2202868, IPC AV 79/02, AV 13/16. The method of cultivation of winter wheat on irrigated land. 27.04.2003).

The disadvantages of this method include the lack of influence of irrigation water to increase the biological activity of the growth and development of plants and increased productivity.

In addition, the described method does not provide suppression of pathogens and pests.

There is a method of cultivation of agricultural crops under drip irrigation, including the layout of the drip line sowing seeds of selskokhozyajstvenn the th culture in the locations of outlets and watering pot, the first irrigation of crops produce irrigation water to the anolyte - electroactive water redox potential the redox potential of +600 ... +700 mV and irrigation standard set of conditions bring soil moisture to the smallest capacity (LC), followed by reducing soil moisture produce re-watering Catolica - electroactivated water with the potential of -150 ... -300 mV, and subsequent irrigation is performed to maintain a humidity of at least 70...80% HB, periodically alternating the anolyte with a potential of +500 ... +600 Iim and catholyte with the potential of -150 -200 ... mV (patent RU No. 2332825 C1, IPC AV 79/02. The method of cultivation of agricultural crops under drip irrigation. 10.09.2008).

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of optimization of the technological process in the application of activated aqueous solutions only anolyte or Catolica, so as to get them separately from each other in the process of electrochemical activation of water is impossible. Also, when watering only Catolica or anolyte (as in a known way), without alternating with normal irrigation water, the effectiveness of such irrigation will decrease as well as increase the energy of electric activation of water, and the soil condition to deteriorate.

This method adopted by us as the nearest equivalent.

The essence of the claimed invention.

The challenge to the Torah directed to the claimed invention, to develop a way to ensure the effective cultivation of vegetables, which creates the most favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants and provides a significant yield increase.

The technical result is to improve the quality of vegetable production and increase yield, reduce energy consumption and improve the environmental friendliness of the process, reducing consumption of activated aqueous solutions when watering.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of cultivation of agricultural crops, in particular vegetables, drip irrigation, including planting of seeds or seedlings of vegetable crops and vegetation irrigation electroactivated aqueous solutions of the analyte and Catolica, according to the invention the first watering produce activated water anolyte solution and Catolica at a ratio(70:30)-(80:20), and subsequent irrigations perform active aqueous solution at a ratio of anolyte and catolyte(30:70)-(20:80), after the first watering activated solution perform one watering with plain water, and subsequent irrigations these alternate solutions with watering with plain water so that one watering activated aqueous solution has two watering with plain water given the irrigation rate. Before mixing whom is onenew activated water, the pH of the anolyte is 3.2-4,7, and pH Catolica 10,5-12,0.

Due to the fact that irrigation water passing through the anode chamber for electric activation acquires new acid-base, redox and catalytic properties of dilute solutions and water, this allows the use of such metastable liquid instead of the traditional solutions of chemicals in the cultivation of vegetable crops.

Water treated in the anode chamber electroactuator, gets increased acidity, which provides for the destruction of pathogens and pests of vegetable crops, which contributes to normal growth and development of plants and higher yields. Irrigation water passing through the cathode chamber electroactuator becomes alkaline due to the conversion of some portion of the dissolved salts in the hydroxides. Its redox potential (ORP) is dramatically reduced, reduced surface tension, decreases dissolved elements oxygen, nitrogen, increases the concentration of hydrogen, the free hydroxyl groups decreases the conductivity changes, the structure not only hydrate shells, but the free volume of water.

In the result of the formation of soluble hydroxides of sodium and potassium and increase due to e the CSO pH (hydrogen ion exponent) is the displacement of carbonate equilibrium with the formation of insoluble carbonates of calcium and magnesium from water soluble compounds of these metals. Catholyte, with the above properties, has a high biological activity, positive effect on the growth and development of plants and to increase the yield.

Thus, the catholyte and anolyte are two functionally dependent components of electroactivated aqueous solution. Catholyte is alkaline ("living") water, anolyte acid ("dead") water. Despite their fundamental differences, both components have a certain stimulating effect on plants, particularly on vegetable crops (tomatoes, potatoes, carrots and other). Special properties of the mixture of Catolica and anolyte. Over time, this mixture turns into a normal ecologically clean water. But immediately after the mixing of the anolyte improves the electrochemical performance of Catolica, increasing its beneficial effects on plants, and the anolyte, which has a powerful bactericidal and fungicidal action, temporarily stores antiseptic properties and is environmentally friendly "drug" for sterilization of seeds and seedlings.

The method is as follows.

To implement the method used sowing or planting unit, equipped with a device for styling and layout of irrigation pipes, drip irrigation system with module electric activation of irrigation in the s, which shall be activated anolyte solution and Catolica in a predetermined ratio, as well as normal water in the irrigation system according to the irrigation mode.

Preplant tillage should be performed according to the agricultural requirements for this vegetable crops.

Sowing or planting are made in the best agronomic terms, according to climatic parameters, at the same time is the layout of the irrigation pipes, culverts which are located in the area of seeds planted crops. After seeding or planting, irrigation pipelines are connected to power pipelines drip irrigation system with module electric activation of irrigation water.

First irrigation of crops seeds or seedlings is activated water anolyte solution and Catolica at a ratio(70:30)-(80:20), and subsequent irrigations perform active aqueous solution at a ratio of anolyte and catolyte(30:70)-(20:80), after the first watering activated solution perform one watering with plain water, and subsequent irrigations these alternate solutions with watering with plain water so that one watering activated aqueous solution has two watering with plain water given the irrigation rate. And before mixing compound is activated water, the pH of the anolyte is 3.2-4,7, and pH Catolica 10,5-12,0.

EXAMPLE. In the field on the vegetable plot was planted seedlings of tomato varieties "Newbie". - Irrigation (drip irrigation) expressed in seedlings, and then plants was performed according to the following options.

1. Watering only plain water (control).

2. The first watering seedlings activated water solution (ATS) of the anolyte and catolyte at a ratio of 70:30, subsequent irrigations activated water anolyte solution and Catolica at a ratio of 30:70.

3. The first watering seedlings ABP anolyte and catolyte at a ratio of 80:20, subsequent irrigations ABP anolyte and catolyte at a ratio of 20:80.

4. The first watering seedlings ABP anolyte and catolyte at a ratio of 70:30, subsequent irrigations ABP anolyte and catolyte at a ratio of 20:80.

5. The first watering seedlings ABP anolyte and catolyte at a ratio of 80:20, subsequent irrigations ABP anolyte and catolyte at a ratio of 30:70.

6. The first watering seedlings ABP - anolyte with a redox potential of +600 mV, subsequent irrigations were performed to maintain soil moisture at least 70-80% of the smallest capacity, periodically alternating the anolyte with a redox potential of +500 mV and catholyte with a redox potential of 150 mV (the closest analogue to patent No. 2332825 C1).

In embodiments 2-5, before mixing components electrochemically activated water, the pH of the anolyte was 3.2 to 4.7 and pH Catolica 10,5-12,0.

In embodiments 2-5 glaze specified electroactivity in the governmental solutions alternated with normal irrigation water, after the first watering activated water solution performed one watering with plain water, and subsequent irrigations activated aqueous solutions was carried out so that after each irrigation ABP produced two watering with plain water. The cultivation of tomatoes was carried out in the South of Russia, Volgograd region, on light-chestnut soils, fertilizers, and irrigation rates for all six variants were identical. Mixing of anolyte and catolyte carried out at the outlet of the flow-through module electric activation of the water in the drip irrigation system, i.e. directly before watering. The main results of the cultivation of tomatoes in the table.

Table
Accommodation optionsThe main results of cultivation of tomato varieties "Newbie" depending on the mode of drip irrigation
yield, %the size of the fruit, %
1100100
2129140
3134147
4130141
5132143
6107115
(similar to patent No. 2332825 C1)

Yields and fruit size tomatoes in options 2-5 were significantly higher than in options 1 (control) and 6 (similar to patent No. 2332825 S1). Compared with the control (drip irrigation normal water) - in the 3rd embodiment, the yield increased by 34%, and the particle size of the fruit by 47%, as compared to analogue patent No. 2332825 C1 (option 6), respectively (134-107) 100/107=25.2% and on (147-115)100/115-27,8%.

Thus, in the proposed method of cultivation of vegetable crops, particularly tomatoes under drip irrigation increased yield and fruit size is achieved on the background of reducing energy consumption of cooking electroactivated aqueous solutions is about 5-5,5 times. This is achieved due to the following factors: 1) reduce by almost 3 times irrigation electroactivated solution; 2) the simultaneous use of two components of electroactivated aqueous solution of anolyte and catolyte (in the activation process, the amount of received Catolica and the Olite can be adjusted, but to get only the catholyte or the anolyte is not possible); 3) improvement of electrochemical performance of Catolica in the presence of a mixture of the analyte. Along with the above, increases the sustainability of the technological process due to the "washing" of the soil for seedlings with plain water, the intensification of the process of transformation of the activated solution in clean water due to the presence of an activated mixture of Catolica and anolyte.

Moreover, unlike the closest analogue (patent No. 2332825 C1), in the proposed method of cultivation of vegetable crops under drip irrigation excluded escapes anolyte and catolyte, as the process of irrigation of vegetable crops simultaneously involved in both activated aqueous solutions, the consumption of which irrigation is reduced by approximately 5.8 times.

1. The method of cultivation of vegetable crops under drip irrigation, including planting of seeds or seedlings of vegetable crops and vegetation irrigation electroactivated aqueous solutions of the analyte and Catolica, characterized in that the first irrigation after sowing produce activated water anolyte solution and Catolica at a ratio(70:30)-(80:20), and subsequent irrigations perform active aqueous solution at a ratio of anolyte and catolyte(30:70)-(20:80), after the first watering activated solution however is t one watering with plain water, and subsequent irrigations these alternate solutions with watering with plain water so that one watering activated aqueous solution has two watering with plain water given irrigation rate.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that before mixing components activated water, the pH of the anolyte is 3.2 to 4.7 and pH Catolica 10,5-12,0.



 

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1 ex

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3 tbl

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5 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of technical means for generating ice crystals and can be used to control the meteorological processes. The nitrogen generator of artificial ice crystals comprises a Dewar vessel with liquid nitrogen placed in the airplane. The vessel comprises a cover and clips for its mounting, the delivery line, the drain branch pipe and the device for forced supply of liquid nitrogen through the delivery line to the sprayer. One end of the line is equipped with a sprayer and put overboard of the airplane, and the other end through the cap is inserted into the Dewar vessel. The device for forced supply of liquid nitrogen to the sprayer also contains an electric actuator placed on the cover with the lowered rotating shaft. The rotating shaft is enclosed in a cup which with its open end is attached to the electric actuator, and with the closed end is immersed in liquid nitrogen. At the bottom of the cup there is an opening along the axis through which the end of a rotating shaft is passed outwards. At the bottom of the cup a centrifugal pump is placed. The pump casing with pumping and suction branch pipes is attached to the end of the cup, and the rotor wheel with blades is attached to the end of the rotating shaft protruding from the cup. The open end of the pumping branch pipe is connected to the delivery line with a sprayer.

EFFECT: simplified design of the device is provided, as well as improvement of reliability and safety of its operation.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and can be used in cultivation of agricultural and ornamental plants. Fence for horticultural constructions comprises modules with flanging around the perimetre, connected through fittings and holes in the flanging, and reinforcing elements. It additionally comprises modules that have horizontally oriented flanging at the upper and lower part, and connected by means of fittings with the modules having flanging around the perimetre. In addition, two types of modules are made of steel plate with a multilayer coating. At that, the front side of the module comprises from an outer layer to the surface of the steel plate - a layer of polyester, chrome coating and galvanised coating applied on the steel plate. The inner side of the module comprises from the outer layer to the surface of the steel plate - a layer of an organic compound, chrome coating and galvanised coating applied on the steel plate.

EFFECT: increased strength characteristics, increased service life, ease of assembly and disassembly.

7 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to plant production and fodder production. In the process an intensive use of farm field is carried out in the area of risk farming on chestnut soils through primary and presowing treatment of soil and seeds, crop tending and harvesting. The tillage is carried out by stubble ploughing. After growth of weeds the field is treated with non-selective herbicide with the consumption rate of 2-3 l/ha. In autumn, after precipitation the casing harrowing and presowing complete cultivation is carried out to a depth of 5-6 cm with the application of basic fertiliser with the rate of application N60P60 kg/ha. In spring the presowing and after sowing compacting is carried out. Sowing is carried out with incrustate seeds early in cryogenic-thawed soil with seeding rate up to 2.0 million pieces of viable seeds per hectare, harvesting of spring rape is carried out by direct combining.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the intensity of growing of spring rape seed.

5 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes division of sloping areas to at least two levels, performing the preparatory works associated with digging and displacement the soil to create the limited amounts on the areas of different levels. And on the sloping and divided to sections areas the diking is made with the creation of the reservoir for moisture collection located upward the irrigated areas. Then in spring period of thawing of soil to the depth of 0.5-0.8 height of topsoil the water is released from the reservoir into the lower irrigated diked areas with its uniform distribution on the irrigated areas. The moisture collection in the reservoirs located at a higher level is carried out throughout the year with use of underwater channels and trays made in the soil.

EFFECT: method provides long-term conservation of water and physical soil properties when used effectively.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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