Method of saving water and physical properties of soil

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes division of sloping areas to at least two levels, performing the preparatory works associated with digging and displacement the soil to create the limited amounts on the areas of different levels. And on the sloping and divided to sections areas the diking is made with the creation of the reservoir for moisture collection located upward the irrigated areas. Then in spring period of thawing of soil to the depth of 0.5-0.8 height of topsoil the water is released from the reservoir into the lower irrigated diked areas with its uniform distribution on the irrigated areas. The moisture collection in the reservoirs located at a higher level is carried out throughout the year with use of underwater channels and trays made in the soil.

EFFECT: method provides long-term conservation of water and physical soil properties when used effectively.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to agriculture and forestry, in particular to technology for improving water supply vegetation, as well as to a method of growing a sustainable and productive vegetation - trees, shrubs and herbs.

It is known that in the process of exploitation of the soil, its periodic richline and irrigation, the soil to a depth of 20-40 cm below the ploughing saturated fine-grained soils (natural clay, physical dust) and often tightly clog the soil pores. Saturated fine-grained soils the soil contributes to the formation of the alluvial aquifer, limiting the ability to pass oxygen and moisture in the soil. Due to the weakening of oxygen in the soil to the root system of plants and herbs, and because of the impossibility of infiltration of moisture in the lower horizons of disturbed soil biological activity.

The known method culture clayey and loamy soils, see RF patent №2125583, MCL SC 17/40. The way culture clayey and loamy soils includes the creation in the arable horizon of biologically active water control layer based on clay with montmorillonite addition, crop residues and nitrogen fixing microorganisms, the water control layer, a mixture of the following composition,%: humus - 30-36, montmorillonite - 10-4, vegetable residues and 9.8-9,71, nitrogen-fixing, microor aNISM - 0,12-0,15, growth stimulants - 0.08 to 0.14, clay - rest. As a stimulator of plant growth using HUMATE oxidat peat.

The disadvantages of this method include the high cost and the saturation of the soil at the level of 20-40 cm small physical dust when disturbed soil biological activity due to the decrease of intake of oxygen and the inability infiltration of moisture in the lower horizons.

Known a better way of land reclamation, which consists in the fact that the selected stretch of sandy soils with deep groundwater form a trench at a depth of quasirandom layer, formed on the bottom of the trenches perform vertical slit trench depth below low-water level of the groundwater, then do slanted slit trenches between adjacent vertical trenches, fill the trench with a slurry of clay with a density of 1.2-1.3 g/cm3and cover them houseromani layer. Cm. RF patent №2253225 prototype, MCL 01G 25/00, AV 79/02. Trench in quasirandom layer formed in parallel to each other. Trench in quasirandom layer is formed at a distance of 0.5 to 2.0 m of Trench in quasirandom layer is formed with the formation of a square grid. Sloping of the trench is performed with the angle between them and the vertical trenches 15-45°. The width of the vertical and sloping of trenches - 10-15 cm

Selected the castle in arid areas with low annual rainfall on brown and chestnut soils with a top heavy loam perform directly with the surface of the terraces vertical trench at a depth of 2-3 m and fill their coarse-grained sand with a particle size of 0.5 to 2 mm.

The disadvantages of this method include the high volume of work and little time productive use of the soil prepared by the proposed method, since the soil layer at a depth of 20-40 cm will also be satisfied with fine-grained deposits and 5-10 years of operation the soil again becomes unsuitable for its efficient use in agriculture or horticulture.

The task of the invention is to eliminate the disadvantages of the prototype, in particular the establishment of technologies for long time preservation of water-physical properties of soil with its effective use.

Delivered to the invention this object is achieved by a combination of known characteristics, such as breakdown sloping areas, at least on two levels, the implementation of the preparatory work associated with the excavation and movement of soil with the creation of limited volumes on areas of different levels and new features, consisting in the execution of the dike of these areas with the creation of at least one reservoir located at a level above the irrigated areas, the collection of moisture in is made at a higher level in the reservoir and the release of water from a reservoir in downstream irrigation bermed area in the spring of Ottawan what I soil to a depth of 0.5-0.8 the height of the arable layer.

The collection of moisture in located at a higher level reservoirs carried out during the year with the help of underwater channels and trays, made in the soil.

The novelty of the proposed method is the implementation of the dike areas with the creation of at least one reservoir located at a level above the irrigated areas, the collection of moisture in is made at a higher level in the reservoir and the release of water from a reservoir in downstream irrigation bermed area during thawing of the soil in the spring to a depth of 0.5-0.8 of the height of the arable layer.

Thus, the execution of the reservoirs at a higher level than the irrigated area, allows certain period of time to supply water by gravity from a reservoir and more efficient to use it to penetrate into the deeper layers of the soil. During thawing of the soil to a depth of 0.5-0.8 height of the arable layer, the height of which is 10-20 cm in spring, the soil is slowly frozen condition and overlooks the water in the underlying horizons. While below the thawed layer of frozen and highly porous soil layers function as filters, trapping small physical dust due to the fixing of its energy to the cold soil, which does not penetrate into the deeper layers of the soil and plowing most of it is returned to the upper layers of the soil.

Sign collecting moisture raspolojennyh at a higher level in the reservoirs during the year through underwater channels and flumes, made in the soil - is a sign of a more revealing specific implementation of core topics, and is aimed at achieving invention tasks.

The characteristics of the proposed method performed according to the patent information search are new, involve an inventive step and industrial applicability and is aimed at achieving the invention of the task.

Figure 1 presents the layout of the reservoir and irrigated fields.

Figure 2 in the context of a schematic representation of the structure of the soil in the implementation of the proposed method.

Way to save water-physical properties of soils with reference to graphic materials is as follows.

The reservoir 1, made according to the level above, at least one of the irrigated area 2 has underwater channels formed by the shaft 3. The reservoir 1 is connected with irrigation, bermed around the perimeter of the shaft 4 squares 2 using multiple channels with 5 gates 6. The surface layer 7, is equal to the height of from 0.5 to 0.8 of the height of the arable layer 8, during the release of water from the pond thawed in the spring and are sluggish in the frozen state, pass the water to the bottom of nottawasaga arable layer 8 and to the lower layers 9 of the soil. This potassi arable soil layer 7 acts as a filter, in kotoroe delayed minor component of fine-grained deposits. When the soil is porous and permeable to plant roots and herbs water and oxygen.

Currently, the authors have carried out detailed work on the implementation of the proposed method.

Squares (OPH "Barnaul") with a slope of 3-7 degrees in 1998 in the upper part there was a pond with dimensions of: width of 50 m and a length of 250 m On the sides and bottom of the reservoir 1 were created shafts for arrest and accumulation of moisture with height of 1.5 m At the corners of the upper part of the reservoir for water supply were made underwater channels 3. Below pond 1 with bunding to prevent moisture were formed four plots irrigated areas 2 with the same dimensions, which produced wheat, buckwheat, peas and clover. In subsequent years the area alternately planted these crops. In early may, when the soil in the irrigated areas 2 (plots) were thawed to a depth of 0.6 of the height of the arable layer (9-10 cm), each subsequent year from the reservoir 1 through channel 4 has released the accumulated water from her uniform distribution on the downstream irrigation areas. Surface thawed and are sluggish in the frozen state, the layer 7, is equal to the height of 0.6mm height of the arable layer 8, during the release of water from a reservoir missed the water to the bottom of nottawasaga arable layer 7 and to the lower layers 8 of the soil. This potassi photn the th soil layer 7 was performing a filter function, which was delayed minor component of fine-grained deposits. The soil retain water-physical properties, being porous and capable of flowing to the roots of crops, water and oxygen.

Harvest crops in the irrigated areas in terms of per hectare were: wheat 22 kg/ha, buckwheat 31 kg/ha, peas 12 t/ha, clover 30 kg/ha was Decided to use the proposed method in the farms of the Altai territory.

The results of the work on preservation of water-physical properties of soil are positive. Penetration into the lower layers of the soil fine-grained deposits were not found. The soil is suitable for further effective use for a long time.

1. Way to save water-physical properties of soil, including a breakdown of sloping areas, at least on two levels, the implementation of the preparatory work associated with the excavation and movement of soil with the creation of limited volumes on areas of different levels, wherein the sloping and broken into sections squares perform the embankment with the creation above the irrigated areas of the reservoir to collect moisture, and then in the spring thawing of the soil to a depth of 0.5-0.8 height topsoil shall release water from a reservoir in downstream irrigation bermed area with her uniform distribution of irrigated areas.

2. The way to save in the bottom-physical soil properties according to claim 1, characterized in that the collection of moisture in located at a higher level reservoirs carried out during the year with the help of underwater channels and trays, made in the soil.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: water meter comprises a measuring device made by crosspieces in the form of beams 1. At the ends of the beams 1 there are frames 2 fixed in the form of a spillway with belts inside, having a form of a shield of a metering spillway with a thin wall 3, and the height of the shield is equal to the height of cut in a rift 7. Frames are fixed to crosspieces at diametrically opposite sides. Beams 1 by means of an axis of rotation 4 installed on boards of a canal, are connected to a reduction gear 5 with a metering device 6. Frames are attached to ends of beams along a generatrix relative to rotation of its axis along a longitudinal cut of the rift in vertical and circular direction along the flow. In the middle and lower part of a spillway rift 7 there is a washing window 8 with a spring loaded plate 9 with a visor 12, arranged as bent to the bottom of the canal.

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2 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: construction.

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FIELD: construction.

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FIELD: construction.

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FIELD: agriculture.

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FIELD: construction.

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FIELD: agriculture.

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FIELD: agriculture.

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FIELD: agriculture.

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FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of land reclamation and may be used to improve quality of water under trickle irrigation of crops, when watering is done with water of high salt content. The method includes mixing of mineralised and distilled water. Production of irrigating water of required mineralisation is provided with the help of a device that separates irrigating water into two parts. One of the parts remains unchanged, and the other one is demineralised, with their subsequent mixing at the necessary proportion or without mixing, using each one separately. The device for method realisation comprises a body, an evaporating element, a condensate collector and a device for distillate drainage. The body is equipped with a hollow dismountable cover. The upper and lower surfaces of the cover are made as spherical from optically transparent material with different radii of curvature. The cover, when filled with irrigating water, forms a collective concave-convex lens, which focuses solar radiation at a focal plane. The evaporating element is made in the form of a detachable sleeve. Drainage of distillate and control of mineralisation of irrigating water is carried out with pipelines equipped with control devices and communicating with the cover cavity, environment and condensate collector. The collector is made in the form of a ring to form a circular inclined tray between the body and the ring, and this tray collects distillate.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

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2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural reclamation, in particular to subsurface irrigation. The humidifier comprises a water-supplying container (1), the main subsurface injector (6), and flexible water-supply hoses (12). The main subsurface injector (6) is made with a perforated lower part (10) and a mesh filter (9). The water-supplying container (1) is made removable, is equipped with a threaded connection (5), a mesh filter (3) and a shut-off valve (4). The humidifier is equipped with additional subsurface injectors (11) to provide uniform saturation with water throughout the root zone area.

EFFECT: design enables to improve the efficiency of delivery of soluble fertilisers, to avoid water loss through evaporation, and create favorable air conditions in the soil.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: wheel comprises a tire 12 with a rim 11, a hub 10 with lateral discs 5 and an axis 9, a drive ring 7, fasteners 2 to connect the drive ring 7 to the hub 10, a pusher 13, and an anti-recoil brake 16. On the drive ring 7 the stops 8 are mounted. The brake 16 interacts with the stops 8. The drive ring 7 has joint plates 15 with holes 14, mounted in the center plane and fixed on the inner surface of the drive ring 7. The drive ring 7 is mounted with the ability to change the axial position and fixation by the fasteners 2 on the pins 6 with screw 3, located parallel to the axis and rigidly attached to the lateral disc 5. The lateral disc diameter is made larger than the diameter of the hub 10. The pins 6 pass through the holes 14 in the joint plates 15 of the drive ring. In the pins 6 there is a set of radial holes 4 located in planes parallel to the center plane of the wheel. In the holes 4 of the pins 6 the removable thrust pins 1 are mounted.

EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to improve the control accuracy of the axial position of the drive ring relative to the tire of the rim.

4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: irrigation device comprises a water-collecting container (3), which stretches along an area marked for irrigation and is arranged as capable of installation into earth (4). In the inner space of the specified container (3) there is a transverse separation wall (5), which stretches from the container base upwards, at least by half of the efficient height of the container. Along the outer side of the container there is a liquid-suction wick (11) stretching, which is connected with inner liquid-receiving spaces of the container, which are separated at a distance from each other, when looking along the container length. The specified wick (11) is arranged with provision of its passage through holes on the upper side of the container towards the container base (3) in the area of the appropriate separation wall (5) at each side from it. The active suction capacity of the wick (11) between available compartments of the container is interrupted for provision of water movement prevention along the wick (11) between the specified compartments.

EFFECT: higher convenience of a device in operation, higher flexibility and simplicity of device installation, higher strength and durability of a device, reduced water consumption, also there is a method and a facility for manufacturing of such device.

17 cl, 12 dwg

Irrigation system // 2477606

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: irrigation system comprises two sprinkling machines, joined to each other with a flexible traction rod, equipped with central vertical stands, fixed to the centre of the tray, on the stands there are radial spikes fixed by ties with sprinklers. Sprinkling machines move in series upwards without rotation and downwards with rotation along its inclined ropeways using the tray weight, when filled with irrigation water in the upper point of the inclined ropeway, and water is supplied from the tray along tubular spikes to sprinklers using a centrifugal force when moving downwards with simultaneous rotation of the sprinkling machine around the stand on the support. The system comprises a ratchet interacting with a spinner arranged in the form of a pulley rolling along the ropeway in the horizontal plane. Filling of the tray with water happens via a drain, opened as the end switch installed in the upper point of the ropeway interacts with the carriage at the moment of contact, and closed as the hook installed on the float inside the tray is disengaged after filling it with water.

EFFECT: increased operational reliability of a system.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used in sprinkler machines. Proposed wheel comprises pneumatic tire 1 with rim 2, hub 3 with axle 4, drive ring 6 with stops 7, fasteners to joint drive ring 6 with hub 3, pusher and self-adjusting brake interacting with stops 7 Stops 7 are mounted on removable shackles secured to drive ring 6 on the side of its outer circumference. Note here that shackle inner surface is aligned with drive ring outer circle arc. Thrust bolts are fitted on one side of shackle to enter shackle threaded holes to contact with drive ring 6. Adjusting screws are fitted on opposite side of said shackles to enter threaded holes and provided with taper ends to enter taper recesses on drive ring surface.

EFFECT: higher machine efficiency.

6 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to soil reclamation. The method includes conducting of primary and pre-sowing soil treatment, planting in furrows of cuttings from licorice rootstocks, narrow-row sowing of wheatgrass and harvesting wheatgrass-licorice hay and licorice rootstocks. Formation of agrophytocenosis is carried out in I-II decade of October by alternating the bands of common licorice - 3 rows and wheat grass - 5 rows. And the distance between the furrows of licorice is 0.3 m, and between the rows of wheatgrass is 0.15 m. In the first year of formation of the plantation the two-fold mowing for hay of wheatgrass tops is carried out to a height of 0.12-0.15 m. On the 2-5th year, up to 2-3 mowing of wheatgrass-licorice hay is carried out. And during five years after each mowing of tops of wheatgrass-licorice agrophytocenosis the mineral feeding is carried out, irrigation with water with the salinity of less than 1.8-3.0 g/l while maintaining the threshold of preirrigation soil moisture not lower than 65-70% minimum water capacity. The rootstocks of licorice are harvested at the end of the growing season of the 5th year of life of wheatgrass-licorice agrophytocenosis.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the phytomeliorative effect contributing to reduction of content of water-soluble salts in the arable soil layer, to reduce the level of ground water, and increase the yield of high-protein cereal-legume hay and medicinal licorice raw material.

1 dwg

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