Method of forming wheatgrass-licorice agrophytocenose on salt-affected soils with close groundwater occurrence
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to soil reclamation. The method includes conducting of primary and pre-sowing soil treatment, planting in furrows of cuttings from licorice rootstocks, narrow-row sowing of wheatgrass and harvesting wheatgrass-licorice hay and licorice rootstocks. Formation of agrophytocenosis is carried out in I-II decade of October by alternating the bands of common licorice - 3 rows and wheat grass - 5 rows. And the distance between the furrows of licorice is 0.3 m, and between the rows of wheatgrass is 0.15 m. In the first year of formation of the plantation the two-fold mowing for hay of wheatgrass tops is carried out to a height of 0.12-0.15 m. On the 2-5th year, up to 2-3 mowing of wheatgrass-licorice hay is carried out. And during five years after each mowing of tops of wheatgrass-licorice agrophytocenosis the mineral feeding is carried out, irrigation with water with the salinity of less than 1.8-3.0 g/l while maintaining the threshold of preirrigation soil moisture not lower than 65-70% minimum water capacity. The rootstocks of licorice are harvested at the end of the growing season of the 5th year of life of wheatgrass-licorice agrophytocenosis.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the phytomeliorative effect contributing to reduction of content of water-soluble salts in the arable soil layer, to reduce the level of ground water, and increase the yield of high-protein cereal-legume hay and medicinal licorice raw material.
The invention relates to agriculture, in particular, to an environmentally safe phyto-reclamation technologies for developing secondary saline soils with similar groundwater table.
There is a method of desalinization of soils, including the removal of salts from the soil by sowing on her annual plants - galaticos with subsequent cleaning, which as annuals-halophytes use amaranth (EN, Pat. No. 2109425, A01B 79/00, 79/02, BI No. 12, 1998).
The main disadvantages of this method are the economic costs associated with repetition of the necessary technical measures in annual crops annual crops, which, moreover, increases the load on the components of agricultural landscapes, leading to soil compaction and reduction of phyto-reclamation activity amaranth.
There is a method of creating plantations of licorice on obstructing soils in irrigated agriculture (EN, Pat. No. 2160981, A01B 79/00, 79/02, BI. No. 36, 2000), which proposes the technology of creation of mixed herbage of licorice and amaranth to restore fertility obstructing soils and reduction of salinity and groundwater level.
The disadvantage of this method is the need for annual planting annual crops amaranth and its high sensitivity to atmospheric drought the initial period of development.
Closest to the present invention is a method phytomelioration lands of secondary salinization (EN, Pat. No. 2415557, A01B 79/02, BIPM No. 9, 2011), which includes a one-year soil preparation and sowing, characterized in that in the first decade of may wide-row method in furrows at a depth of 0.12-0.16 m perform simultaneous linear planting of cuttings from the rhizomes of licorice norm 4-5 pieces per meter and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke with a diameter of 2.5 to 6.5, in the amount of 6-8 pieces per running meter. Perpendicular to the direction of planting cuttings and tubers carry narrow-row seeding quack grass with wide row spacing of 0.075-0.30 m to a depth of 6-8 cm seeding rate 16-22 kg of viable seeds per hectare. In addition, inter-row spacing in planting licorice and Jerusalem artichoke refers to the width of the inter-row crops Elytrigia repens (37-18):1.
The disadvantage of this method is its complexity due to the large amount of manual labor, the complexity of the processing machine and the lack of efficiency of agricultural production.
To eliminate the mentioned disadvantages allows the proposed method of forming plains-licorice agrophytocenosis again on saline soils with similar groundwater table, including the primary and pre-sowing soil treatment, planting in furrow cuttings from licorice roots, narrow-row planting Pyr who I am and cleaning plains-licorice hay and rhizomes of licorice, which is characterized by the formation of agrophytocenosis carried out in the I...II decade of October by alternating strips of licorice (3 rows) and couch grass saline (5 rows), and the distance between furrows licorice 0.3 m and between rows of wheat grass saline 0.15 m, in the first year of establishment of plantations spend twice mowing for hay plains aboveground mass to a height of 0.12-0.15 m, and 2-5 years to carry 2...3 cutting plains-licorice-sung, during five years after each harvest of aboveground mass plains-licorice agrophytocenosis exercise mineral supplements, irrigated with water with a salinity of no more than 1.8...3.0 g/l while maintaining the threshold pre-irrigation soil moisture below 65...70% HB, rhizomes of licorice removed at the end of the vegetation season 5-year life of the plains-licorice agrophytocenosis.
The proposed method is as follows:
On degraded secondary saline soils with a content of water-soluble salts of 0.4-1.2% and shallow groundwater table (Kalmykia) conduct basic and pre-seeding tillage in the fall, then I...II fortnight of October (as spring becomes very hot) form plains-the licorice agrophytocenosis alternating strips of licorice (3 rows) and couch grass saline (5 rows). Planting root cuttings licorice is carried out in n gotovlenie grooves with a spacing of 0.3 m Seeding grass saline conduct ordinary way with wide row spacing 0.15 m (figure 1). Thus form a thickened vegetable array.
In the 1st year of the establishment of plantations produce double mowing for hay plains land mass to a height of 0.12...0.15 m, not to cut fragile shoots of licorice. Wheat grass saline taller than everything else, so its possible to mow hay, not breaking landings licorice. From 2nd to 5th years when actively growing and land mass licorice, exercise 2...3 harvests plains-licorice hay. Within 5 years after each harvest of aboveground mass plains-licorice agrophytocenosis conduct mineral supplements, irrigated with water with a salinity of no more than 1.8...3.0 g/l while maintaining the threshold pre-irrigation soil moisture below 65...70% HB, creating a descending flow of water, the removal of salts from the root zone and to prevent their restoration in non-irrigation periods. While 27% of total water consumption plains-the licorice agrophytocenosis consumes from shallow groundwater, which significantly lowers their level. When snowy winter after the first harvests of aboveground mass of the couch saline possible to do without irrigation, because quite natural moisture from melting snow, but in Kalmykia frequent winter drought, and then the PR is the solution after each cut is necessary.
Thanks to long-term (5 years) cultivation plains-licorice agrophytocenosis decreases the density of adding soil layer 0...0.4 m 15...18%, increases the total porosity and aeration porosity in comparison with the initial state, respectively, 3% and 5%, reduces the cost of manual labor.
Licorice and wheat grass saltmarsh more adapted to extreme conditions of arid ecosystems and capable of forming up to 7 t/ha of hay. The projective cover of plantations in the plains-licorice agrophytocenosis already in the first year of production reaches 60...70%, which significantly increases its phyto-reclamation effect, contributing to a decrease of soluble salts in the arable horizon of the soil with 0,4...1,2% to 0.28 to 0.8% and decreasing groundwater level at 0,5...0,7 m
Thus, the proposed method allows you to return degraded, secondary saline soils in agricultural use and to get additional yield of high-protein cereal-legume hay and medicinal licorice raw materials.
The method of forming plains-licorice agrophytocenosis again on saline soils with similar groundwater table, including the primary and pre-sowing soil treatment, planting in furrow cuttings from licorice roots, narrow-row planting grass and cleaning plains-licorice hay and rhizomes solo is key, characterized in that the formation of agrophytocenosis carried out in I-II fortnight of October by alternating strips of licorice - 3 rows and grass saltmarsh - 5 rows, and the distance between furrows licorice 0.3 m and between rows of wheat grass saline 0.15 m, in the first year of establishment of plantations spend twice mowing for hay plains aboveground mass to a height of 0.12-0.15 m, and 2-5 years to carry 2-3 harvests plains-licorice-sung, during five years after each harvest of aboveground mass plains-licorice agrophytocenosis carry out mineral supplements, irrigate with water with a salinity of no more than 1.8-3.0 g/l while maintaining the threshold pre-irrigation soil moisture is not below 65-70% HB, rhizomes of licorice removed at the end of the vegetation season 5-year life of the plains-licorice agrophytocenosis.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a source of irrigation, water intake facilities connected to self-pumped pipeline, irrigation sites with compacted irrigation furrows. The self-pumped pipeline is connected through valves with diaphragm actuators to a pair of distribution pipelines. The irrigation pipelines are laid on the maximum slope of the terrain. The upper part of the irrigation sites with compacted irrigation furrows is laid at an angle to the terrain contour lines, and the lower part - parallel to horizontal lines. On the irrigation pipelines the hydraulic step motors are mounted. The hydraulic motors are connected to the spherical distribution valve. The spherical distribution valve outlets are connected by tubes to the water-distributing furrows. Through the water-distributing furrows the water is supplied to pairs of compacted irrigation furrows located at the edges of the beds. The upper part of the irrigation furrows is laid at a mild slope along the terrain contour lines. The lower part of the irrigation furrows is made in the form of deep irrigation furrows laid without slope. In the middle of the beds the trenches of up to one metre depth are laid, which are filled with peat and manure. The center of the beds is covered with trash mulch. The screens of ameliorative film are laid below the irrigation furrows. Above the screens of ameliorative film in the soil active layer of the beds a 5-10 cm layer of sand or gravel is laid. The irrigation control unit is connected to the valves diaphragm actuators.
EFFECT: construction enables to improve the uniformity of soil moisture, moisture capacity of the soil active layer, to prevent the water loss for depth filtration.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a source of irrigation, a dam, water overshot wheel, a water intake device in the form of a mesh scouring cylinder, a liquid-gas ejector and a water pump, generators of air ions and ozone, a reservoir with manure, a subsoil system of moistening and aeration of soil in the greenhouse, a unit of soil humidity control. A mesh scouring cylinder is installed inside the water overshot wheel. Inside the scouring cylinder a waste chute is located with a perforated pipeline. The perforated pipeline is connected through the gate to the inlet of the circulating-water intake. The outlet of the circulating-water intake is connected through the gate to the input of the water pump. The water wheel shaft is connected through the reducer to the water overshot wheel. The outlet of the water pump is connected to a water pipe of the liquid-gas ejector. The ejector air nozzle is connected through the gates to the generators of air ions and ozone, the atmosphere, the reservoir with manure. The reservoir with manure is connected through the gates with the generators of air ions and ozone. The output of the liquid-gas ejector is connected to the conductive pipeline. The conductive pipeline is connected to the perforated irrigation pipelines. The perforated irrigation pipelines are mounted under the trenches filled with manure. The trenches are located in the middle of the beds covered with film tunnels. Above the beds the greenhouse is placed. In the active layer of the soil of the greenhouse a capacitance sensor of integrated humidity of soil horizon is placed. The sensor is made in the form of two parallel metal strips. Between the parallel metal strips a layer of porous ceramic is laid, connected to the unit of soil humidity control.
EFFECT: design enables to improve the quality of moistening, aeration and heating the active layer of soil in the greenhouse.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of land reclamation and may be used to improve quality of water under trickle irrigation of crops, when watering is done with water of high salt content. The method includes mixing of mineralised and distilled water. Production of irrigating water of required mineralisation is provided with the help of a device that separates irrigating water into two parts. One of the parts remains unchanged, and the other one is demineralised, with their subsequent mixing at the necessary proportion or without mixing, using each one separately. The device for method realisation comprises a body, an evaporating element, a condensate collector and a device for distillate drainage. The body is equipped with a hollow dismountable cover. The upper and lower surfaces of the cover are made as spherical from optically transparent material with different radii of curvature. The cover, when filled with irrigating water, forms a collective concave-convex lens, which focuses solar radiation at a focal plane. The evaporating element is made in the form of a detachable sleeve. Drainage of distillate and control of mineralisation of irrigating water is carried out with pipelines equipped with control devices and communicating with the cover cavity, environment and condensate collector. The collector is made in the form of a ring to form a circular inclined tray between the body and the ring, and this tray collects distillate.
EFFECT: invention provides for production of irrigating water with salt composition that minimises negative effect at structure of irrigated lands soil.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gas-drop jet generation and may be used in fire fighting, agriculture, etc. Fluid feed comprises forcing fluid axially via feed branch pipe, confuser and cylindrical nozzle aligned and communicated with said branch pipe. Fluid tangential feed is executed via conical cartridge aligned with cylindrical nozzle with vortex annular chamber secured atop cylindrical part of said cartridge and provided with fluid feed pipe. Two lines of fluid feed tangential channels are made along edges of said annular chamber. At least three tangential channels are arranged in every said line to communicate annular chamber with housing cylindrical chamber.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of fire fighting.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural reclamation, in particular to subsurface irrigation. The humidifier comprises a water-supplying container (1), the main subsurface injector (6), and flexible water-supply hoses (12). The main subsurface injector (6) is made with a perforated lower part (10) and a mesh filter (9). The water-supplying container (1) is made removable, is equipped with a threaded connection (5), a mesh filter (3) and a shut-off valve (4). The humidifier is equipped with additional subsurface injectors (11) to provide uniform saturation with water throughout the root zone area.
EFFECT: design enables to improve the efficiency of delivery of soluble fertilisers, to avoid water loss through evaporation, and create favorable air conditions in the soil.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wheel comprises a tire 12 with a rim 11, a hub 10 with lateral discs 5 and an axis 9, a drive ring 7, fasteners 2 to connect the drive ring 7 to the hub 10, a pusher 13, and an anti-recoil brake 16. On the drive ring 7 the stops 8 are mounted. The brake 16 interacts with the stops 8. The drive ring 7 has joint plates 15 with holes 14, mounted in the center plane and fixed on the inner surface of the drive ring 7. The drive ring 7 is mounted with the ability to change the axial position and fixation by the fasteners 2 on the pins 6 with screw 3, located parallel to the axis and rigidly attached to the lateral disc 5. The lateral disc diameter is made larger than the diameter of the hub 10. The pins 6 pass through the holes 14 in the joint plates 15 of the drive ring. In the pins 6 there is a set of radial holes 4 located in planes parallel to the center plane of the wheel. In the holes 4 of the pins 6 the removable thrust pins 1 are mounted.
EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to improve the control accuracy of the axial position of the drive ring relative to the tire of the rim.
SUBSTANCE: irrigation device comprises a water-collecting container (3), which stretches along an area marked for irrigation and is arranged as capable of installation into earth (4). In the inner space of the specified container (3) there is a transverse separation wall (5), which stretches from the container base upwards, at least by half of the efficient height of the container. Along the outer side of the container there is a liquid-suction wick (11) stretching, which is connected with inner liquid-receiving spaces of the container, which are separated at a distance from each other, when looking along the container length. The specified wick (11) is arranged with provision of its passage through holes on the upper side of the container towards the container base (3) in the area of the appropriate separation wall (5) at each side from it. The active suction capacity of the wick (11) between available compartments of the container is interrupted for provision of water movement prevention along the wick (11) between the specified compartments.
EFFECT: higher convenience of a device in operation, higher flexibility and simplicity of device installation, higher strength and durability of a device, reduced water consumption, also there is a method and a facility for manufacturing of such device.
17 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: irrigation system comprises two sprinkling machines, joined to each other with a flexible traction rod, equipped with central vertical stands, fixed to the centre of the tray, on the stands there are radial spikes fixed by ties with sprinklers. Sprinkling machines move in series upwards without rotation and downwards with rotation along its inclined ropeways using the tray weight, when filled with irrigation water in the upper point of the inclined ropeway, and water is supplied from the tray along tubular spikes to sprinklers using a centrifugal force when moving downwards with simultaneous rotation of the sprinkling machine around the stand on the support. The system comprises a ratchet interacting with a spinner arranged in the form of a pulley rolling along the ropeway in the horizontal plane. Filling of the tray with water happens via a drain, opened as the end switch installed in the upper point of the ropeway interacts with the carriage at the moment of contact, and closed as the hook installed on the float inside the tray is disengaged after filling it with water.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability of a system.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used in sprinkler machines. Proposed wheel comprises pneumatic tire 1 with rim 2, hub 3 with axle 4, drive ring 6 with stops 7, fasteners to joint drive ring 6 with hub 3, pusher and self-adjusting brake interacting with stops 7 Stops 7 are mounted on removable shackles secured to drive ring 6 on the side of its outer circumference. Note here that shackle inner surface is aligned with drive ring outer circle arc. Thrust bolts are fitted on one side of shackle to enter shackle threaded holes to contact with drive ring 6. Adjusting screws are fitted on opposite side of said shackles to enter threaded holes and provided with taper ends to enter taper recesses on drive ring surface.
EFFECT: higher machine efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises pipelines of right and left wings of the machine, a unit of movement synchronisation along the course and control unit of the machine speed. The pipelines of the right and left wings of the machine are mounted on electric shuttles. The unit of movement synchronisation along the course comprises a guide wire. Along the irrigation channel on the racks a contact network is mounted, interacting with the current collector. The current collector through the telescopic mechanism is mounted on the shuttle. The shuttle moves on the opposite side of the irrigation channel. The current collector output is connected to the input of the control panel. The control panel output is connected to the input of electric power meter. The outputs of the electric power meter are connected to the inputs of the contactor, the microprocessor control unit, and the frequency converter. The inputs of the microprocessor control unit are connected to the timer, the course stabilisation system, the system of the shuttles synchronisation in line, the distometer, the irrigation norm setter, the setter of the irrigation length section, the flow meter, and the pressure gauge. The pressure gauge is mounted on the pipeline. The outputs of the microprocessor control unit are connected to electric hydraulic valve, frequency converter, contactor, devices of the shuttles synchronisation in line and devices of stabilisation of the left and right wing course. The outputs of the microprocessor control unit are connected via a vacuum pump to the pump input. The pump output through the electric hydraulic valve the flow meter is connected to the pipeline. The microprocessor control unit is connected to the input-output of the interface device. The signal from the output of the frequency converter is set to the electric drive of the left and right wing of the machine. The output of the contactor is connected through the electric motor to the pump input.
EFFECT: construction enables to improve the quality of irrigation and environmental friendliness of energotechnological process of irrigation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation of disturbed soils, in particular technogenic wastelands. The method comprises application on the soil surface of wastes, mineral fertilisers, and sowing of perennial grasses. At that, on the soil surface the mining wastes are applied with the layer not less than 5 cm, containing calcite and/or hydrous magnesium silicate. Compound fertilisers N70P70K70 are applied, then exfoliated vermiculite is spread with a layer of up to 1 cm with granules of up to 4 mm, a mixture of seeds of perennial plants is sown, watered and covered with a polymer film which is removed at the 5-7th day. As mining wastes the carbonatite wastes are also used, or screened olivinite ore or serpentinite magnesite. As the seeds of perennial plants the red fescue, timothy, awnless brome, European dune wild ruttishness is used in the amount of 50-100 g/m2. Watering is carried out at the rate of 5 l/m2.
EFFECT: method reduces complexity of technical and biological works on recultivation of disturbed soils and planting of urban areas, wastes recycling of mining and processing complex, increasing the efficiency of formation of sowing culture phytocoenoses and their durability, accelerating the process of recultivation with creation of conditions for accelerated accumulation of elements of fertility in the disturbed layer.
4 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and forestry. The method includes soil treatment under trees. At the same time terraces are formed downstream the slope at 1-2 m from the tree crown with length of 4-5 m and height of 15-30 cm depending on slope steepness. Prior to ripening of seeds and their falling the area and the terraces are treated with the biopreparation Baikal EM-5.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase efficiency of common yew seeds preservation.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes selection of a ventilated area with no shade, with fertile drained reclaimed soil of sandy-loam or light-loamy grain size and acidity close to neutral. Main treatment of soil in the year before sowing includes clipping of stubble, application of organic and higher doses of mineral phosphorus and potassium fertilisers for plowing with a colter for depth of ploughed layer and pre-sowing treatment of soil. After plowing of soil, if level of ground water is not more than 10 cm above the bottom of drains, deep tillage is carried out for depth of at least by 25 cm of less than depth of drains installation at the angle of 45° to their direction with minimum permissible distance between strips with simultaneous combing of stones and their further removal. At least in a month, if ground water level is not more than 10 cm above the bottom of drains, deep tillage is repeatedly carried out in direction perpendicular to the direction of the first tillage with the same distance between strips with simultaneous combing out of stones and their subsequent removal. Moreover, the depth of repeated deep tillage is by 10-15 cm less than of the first one. In process of tillage a layer of peat is added onto a plough foot with thickness of at least 15 cm, and organic fertilisers are represented by multi-purpose compost in the dose of 10-15 t/ha.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce amount of weeds and extent of soil compaction, to improve their water-air regime and development conditions, and also to accelerate growth of underground part of plants.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to plant production and fodder production. In the process an intensive use of farm field is carried out in the area of risk farming on chestnut soils through primary and presowing treatment of soil and seeds, crop tending and harvesting. The tillage is carried out by stubble ploughing. After growth of weeds the field is treated with non-selective herbicide with the consumption rate of 2-3 l/ha. In autumn, after precipitation the casing harrowing and presowing complete cultivation is carried out to a depth of 5-6 cm with the application of basic fertiliser with the rate of application N60P60 kg/ha. In spring the presowing and after sowing compacting is carried out. Sowing is carried out with incrustate seeds early in cryogenic-thawed soil with seeding rate up to 2.0 million pieces of viable seeds per hectare, harvesting of spring rape is carried out by direct combining.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the intensity of growing of spring rape seed.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recultivation of soils contaminated with oil and oil products. Proposed method comprises oil processing, introducing fertilisers, biological agents and sowing of grass. Note here that plowing is carried out without trenching to depth of 30-35 cm with introduction of zeolite-bearing clays, alanites, in amount of 5-6 t/hec together with minced vegetable residues of leguminous plants and leaf litter in amount of 1.5-2 t/hec and autumn planting of annul clover in amount of 25-30 kg/hec. Clover seed are pre-wetted in the solution of Baikal-EM-1 bio preparation mixed with p-amino-benzoic acid with 0.001%-concentration of every component for 2-3 h. In spring, in budding-blooming phase, bio mass is tilled into soil and herbage is pre-sprinkled with the same mix in amount of 200-300 l/hec.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of soil reclamation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes complex soil treatment on slope lands, compacting, sowing seeds, and fertiliser application. And the lands are subjected to complex treatment across the slope, which is carried out simultaneously by a number of agricultural practices: stone removal and formation of protective terraces of them on the sides of the lands with subsequent rolling down of the soil upper layer and sowing seeds with fertiliser application. And each device is made with the ability to control the depth of sowing seeds.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce erosion process on slope lands and to create favorable conditions for crop growing.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of shallot cultivation includes trimming the neck and roots before planting in each onion and planting the onions until the end of the first decade of May in loose soil at a distance of at least 30 cm from each other. Before planting shallot the plot of land is marked and the ridges are formed out of the ground of the inter-row spacing with a minimum width of 30 cm and a height of at least 30 cm. The onions are planted in the ridges to a depth of at least 7 cm.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the productivity of shallot, to increase the weight and size of the onions, to reduce the labour intensity of the growing and to provide the ability to grow shallot at peat and bog soil.
11 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes operations of tillage, cultivation, sowing, rolling, crop tending and harvesting for seeds. For additional yield of biomass from a unit of sown area, autumn mowing is carried out for green fodder, crops are left until spring, and upon completion of vegetation they mow and thresh seeds.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to produce additional yield of biomass for animal fodder per area unit.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and farming. The method provides for usage of green manure, which is closed into soil. Green manure is represented by high-protein soya-oat mixture with the soya: oat ratio of 1:1. The mixture is sown into soil after harvesting early cereal crops with zero plowing in the first decade of August, and in the middle of October green manure is closed into soil for depth of 14 cm with disc tools. At the same time all fields of rotation of crops are used 100% within the year for production of agricultural goods.
EFFECT: method efficiently increases soil fertility due to usage of a high-protein soya-oat mixture as green manure; sowing green manure after harvesting early cereal crops makes it possible to use arable land 100% for production of agricultural goods and increases product yield from 1 ha of crop rotation area.
SUBSTANCE: complex comprises at least one working platform and at least one service platform. Each platform comprises a bearing platform, a propeller with a drive, an angle of variation of platform motion direction, a power unit, a fuel unit and communications between them. The platforms include a control unit, a unit of information communication with other devices of the complex, a sensor of energy quantity, a sensor of fuel quantity, a unit of storage and exchange of process weights, a joint-exchange unit for exchange of energy, fuel, materials and replaceable modules with working elements with joined devices, a sensor to detect a position of the platform relative to the plantation, a sensor of process weights quantity, a sensor of replaceable modules condition. Working and service platforms differ to each other by the fact that the working platform additionally comprises at least one unit for fixation of replaceable modules, containing process working elements or auxiliary units, to the bearing platform - at least one replaceable module. The replaceable module comprises a process working element. The service platform additionally comprises a unit of storage and replacement of replaceable modules with a set of replaceable modules containing process working elements or auxiliary process units and a unit of lifting-lowering of the working platform. Additionally the complex may be equipped with a monitoring and control device and a device to monitor condition of a plantation. Each additional device includes a unit of control and a unit of communication. The device for monitoring of plantation condition additionally includes sensors of plantation condition. The method includes performance of process operations for handling of plants with a complex of devices described above.
EFFECT: such structural design and technology will make it possible to automate the process of handling of a plantation of plants to the maximum with minimum expenditures of resources, reduction of specific pressure at soil in process of handling with maximum coefficient of land area usage.
7 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.