Method of forming wheatgrass-licorice agrophytocenose on salt-affected soils with close groundwater occurrence

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to soil reclamation. The method includes conducting of primary and pre-sowing soil treatment, planting in furrows of cuttings from licorice rootstocks, narrow-row sowing of wheatgrass and harvesting wheatgrass-licorice hay and licorice rootstocks. Formation of agrophytocenosis is carried out in I-II decade of October by alternating the bands of common licorice - 3 rows and wheat grass - 5 rows. And the distance between the furrows of licorice is 0.3 m, and between the rows of wheatgrass is 0.15 m. In the first year of formation of the plantation the two-fold mowing for hay of wheatgrass tops is carried out to a height of 0.12-0.15 m. On the 2-5th year, up to 2-3 mowing of wheatgrass-licorice hay is carried out. And during five years after each mowing of tops of wheatgrass-licorice agrophytocenosis the mineral feeding is carried out, irrigation with water with the salinity of less than 1.8-3.0 g/l while maintaining the threshold of preirrigation soil moisture not lower than 65-70% minimum water capacity. The rootstocks of licorice are harvested at the end of the growing season of the 5th year of life of wheatgrass-licorice agrophytocenosis.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the phytomeliorative effect contributing to reduction of content of water-soluble salts in the arable soil layer, to reduce the level of ground water, and increase the yield of high-protein cereal-legume hay and medicinal licorice raw material.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular, to an environmentally safe phyto-reclamation technologies for developing secondary saline soils with similar groundwater table.

There is a method of desalinization of soils, including the removal of salts from the soil by sowing on her annual plants - galaticos with subsequent cleaning, which as annuals-halophytes use amaranth (EN, Pat. No. 2109425, A01B 79/00, 79/02, BI No. 12, 1998).

The main disadvantages of this method are the economic costs associated with repetition of the necessary technical measures in annual crops annual crops, which, moreover, increases the load on the components of agricultural landscapes, leading to soil compaction and reduction of phyto-reclamation activity amaranth.

There is a method of creating plantations of licorice on obstructing soils in irrigated agriculture (EN, Pat. No. 2160981, A01B 79/00, 79/02, BI. No. 36, 2000), which proposes the technology of creation of mixed herbage of licorice and amaranth to restore fertility obstructing soils and reduction of salinity and groundwater level.

The disadvantage of this method is the need for annual planting annual crops amaranth and its high sensitivity to atmospheric drought the initial period of development.

Closest to the present invention is a method phytomelioration lands of secondary salinization (EN, Pat. No. 2415557, A01B 79/02, BIPM No. 9, 2011), which includes a one-year soil preparation and sowing, characterized in that in the first decade of may wide-row method in furrows at a depth of 0.12-0.16 m perform simultaneous linear planting of cuttings from the rhizomes of licorice norm 4-5 pieces per meter and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke with a diameter of 2.5 to 6.5, in the amount of 6-8 pieces per running meter. Perpendicular to the direction of planting cuttings and tubers carry narrow-row seeding quack grass with wide row spacing of 0.075-0.30 m to a depth of 6-8 cm seeding rate 16-22 kg of viable seeds per hectare. In addition, inter-row spacing in planting licorice and Jerusalem artichoke refers to the width of the inter-row crops Elytrigia repens (37-18):1.

The disadvantage of this method is its complexity due to the large amount of manual labor, the complexity of the processing machine and the lack of efficiency of agricultural production.

To eliminate the mentioned disadvantages allows the proposed method of forming plains-licorice agrophytocenosis again on saline soils with similar groundwater table, including the primary and pre-sowing soil treatment, planting in furrow cuttings from licorice roots, narrow-row planting Pyr who I am and cleaning plains-licorice hay and rhizomes of licorice, which is characterized by the formation of agrophytocenosis carried out in the I...II decade of October by alternating strips of licorice (3 rows) and couch grass saline (5 rows), and the distance between furrows licorice 0.3 m and between rows of wheat grass saline 0.15 m, in the first year of establishment of plantations spend twice mowing for hay plains aboveground mass to a height of 0.12-0.15 m, and 2-5 years to carry 2...3 cutting plains-licorice-sung, during five years after each harvest of aboveground mass plains-licorice agrophytocenosis exercise mineral supplements, irrigated with water with a salinity of no more than 1.8...3.0 g/l while maintaining the threshold pre-irrigation soil moisture below 65...70% HB, rhizomes of licorice removed at the end of the vegetation season 5-year life of the plains-licorice agrophytocenosis.

The proposed method is as follows:

On degraded secondary saline soils with a content of water-soluble salts of 0.4-1.2% and shallow groundwater table (Kalmykia) conduct basic and pre-seeding tillage in the fall, then I...II fortnight of October (as spring becomes very hot) form plains-the licorice agrophytocenosis alternating strips of licorice (3 rows) and couch grass saline (5 rows). Planting root cuttings licorice is carried out in n gotovlenie grooves with a spacing of 0.3 m Seeding grass saline conduct ordinary way with wide row spacing 0.15 m (figure 1). Thus form a thickened vegetable array.

In the 1st year of the establishment of plantations produce double mowing for hay plains land mass to a height of 0.12...0.15 m, not to cut fragile shoots of licorice. Wheat grass saline taller than everything else, so its possible to mow hay, not breaking landings licorice. From 2nd to 5th years when actively growing and land mass licorice, exercise 2...3 harvests plains-licorice hay. Within 5 years after each harvest of aboveground mass plains-licorice agrophytocenosis conduct mineral supplements, irrigated with water with a salinity of no more than 1.8...3.0 g/l while maintaining the threshold pre-irrigation soil moisture below 65...70% HB, creating a descending flow of water, the removal of salts from the root zone and to prevent their restoration in non-irrigation periods. While 27% of total water consumption plains-the licorice agrophytocenosis consumes from shallow groundwater, which significantly lowers their level. When snowy winter after the first harvests of aboveground mass of the couch saline possible to do without irrigation, because quite natural moisture from melting snow, but in Kalmykia frequent winter drought, and then the PR is the solution after each cut is necessary.

Thanks to long-term (5 years) cultivation plains-licorice agrophytocenosis decreases the density of adding soil layer 0...0.4 m 15...18%, increases the total porosity and aeration porosity in comparison with the initial state, respectively, 3% and 5%, reduces the cost of manual labor.

Licorice and wheat grass saltmarsh more adapted to extreme conditions of arid ecosystems and capable of forming up to 7 t/ha of hay. The projective cover of plantations in the plains-licorice agrophytocenosis already in the first year of production reaches 60...70%, which significantly increases its phyto-reclamation effect, contributing to a decrease of soluble salts in the arable horizon of the soil with 0,4...1,2% to 0.28 to 0.8% and decreasing groundwater level at 0,5...0,7 m

Thus, the proposed method allows you to return degraded, secondary saline soils in agricultural use and to get additional yield of high-protein cereal-legume hay and medicinal licorice raw materials.

The method of forming plains-licorice agrophytocenosis again on saline soils with similar groundwater table, including the primary and pre-sowing soil treatment, planting in furrow cuttings from licorice roots, narrow-row planting grass and cleaning plains-licorice hay and rhizomes solo is key, characterized in that the formation of agrophytocenosis carried out in I-II fortnight of October by alternating strips of licorice - 3 rows and grass saltmarsh - 5 rows, and the distance between furrows licorice 0.3 m and between rows of wheat grass saline 0.15 m, in the first year of establishment of plantations spend twice mowing for hay plains aboveground mass to a height of 0.12-0.15 m, and 2-5 years to carry 2-3 harvests plains-licorice-sung, during five years after each harvest of aboveground mass plains-licorice agrophytocenosis carry out mineral supplements, irrigate with water with a salinity of no more than 1.8-3.0 g/l while maintaining the threshold pre-irrigation soil moisture is not below 65-70% HB, rhizomes of licorice removed at the end of the vegetation season 5-year life of the plains-licorice agrophytocenosis.



 

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1 tbl, 2 ex

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2 ex

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1 tbl

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1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: complex comprises at least one working platform and at least one service platform. Each platform comprises a bearing platform, a propeller with a drive, an angle of variation of platform motion direction, a power unit, a fuel unit and communications between them. The platforms include a control unit, a unit of information communication with other devices of the complex, a sensor of energy quantity, a sensor of fuel quantity, a unit of storage and exchange of process weights, a joint-exchange unit for exchange of energy, fuel, materials and replaceable modules with working elements with joined devices, a sensor to detect a position of the platform relative to the plantation, a sensor of process weights quantity, a sensor of replaceable modules condition. Working and service platforms differ to each other by the fact that the working platform additionally comprises at least one unit for fixation of replaceable modules, containing process working elements or auxiliary units, to the bearing platform - at least one replaceable module. The replaceable module comprises a process working element. The service platform additionally comprises a unit of storage and replacement of replaceable modules with a set of replaceable modules containing process working elements or auxiliary process units and a unit of lifting-lowering of the working platform. Additionally the complex may be equipped with a monitoring and control device and a device to monitor condition of a plantation. Each additional device includes a unit of control and a unit of communication. The device for monitoring of plantation condition additionally includes sensors of plantation condition. The method includes performance of process operations for handling of plants with a complex of devices described above.

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EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.

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