Method of obtaining even nano-gaps between surfaces of bodies

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used in making different optical, optoelectronic, quantum and micromechanical devices in which there is need to obtain a gap with an even and small thickness between electrodes or plates having a large surface area, particularly controlled Fabry-Perot interferometers. The method involves levelling one surface which is equally spaced from a second surface using a sacrificial layer and a flexible film attached to the surface by a layer of hardening medium. The sacrificial layer used is an interlayer of a surface-wetting liquid whose droplets are deposited first in a region of the surface of a first body, or said region is moistened by exposure to vapour of the liquid. A flexible film wetted by said liquid is then applied and the required surface of the second body is applied onto said flexible film through the layer of hardening medium. The liquid is removed by evaporation once the medium hardens. The volume of the deposited liquid droplets can wet the surface only within said region.

EFFECT: simple method of making devices in form of a system of bodies with ultra-small air gaps between their surfaces.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to optics, electronics, to methods of manufacturing devices with small gaps between the surfaces of the parts or electrode size in fractions of a micron, including the production of optical devices and quantum electronic devices.

In optics are widely used device based on the interference light fluxes, such as Fabry-Perot interferometers used in scientific research and technology for spectral analysis and monochromatization of light.

In optics and Microsystems technology are widely used at least two technologies for flat air gap between the surfaces of flat bodies using sacrificial (deleted) layer between the surfaces fastened parallel to each other plates and film flat layer and using a calibrated shims placed between the joined plates locally (for example, in the manufacture of Fabry-Perot interferometers). Option last method is the manufacturing technology on a flat surface of one plate by the method of ion etching of flat recesses with a depth equal to the desired interval, and the compound prepared plate with another flat plate on "optical contact". The sacrificial layer is used to create a surface microtopology with naviaux the mi or detachable from the substrate structural elements in the technology of micromechanics. Getting gap with shims - common technique in optics and mechanics.

The task of obtaining the air gap becomes much more complicated when necessary, keeping his flat over the entire surface of the wafer hundredths and less share of the wavelength of light required in optical devices because it is difficult manufacture of the plates with the specified flatness.

As analogue selected known method of manufacturing optical devices containing the mirror surface with a gap between them, for example devices with Fabry-Perot cavities [Akhmanov S.A., Nikitin HE Physical optics. Tutorial - M.: Izd-vo Mosk. University, 1998].

In accordance with similar, previously, methods, mechanical or other polishing, preparing plates with a high degree of flatness of at least one of surfaces of each plate method, for example, deep polishing; these surfaces then attach the mirror properties (thin films), then the plates are fixed relative to each other in the mechanism of their movement to the polished surface was between a flat gap.

Disadvantages of analogue: the complexity of the way while providing acceptable flatness of the massive gap between the plates is of the order of hundredths-tenths of the wavelength emitted is I; this condition requires a significant cost to the manufacture of plates and design complexity of the device with such plates as a whole and its operation in connection with the necessity of introducing into the design of quotation mechanism and the process of alignment with the constant control of the relative position of the plates; the method does not allow to obtain controlled gaps with sizes of the order of interatomic distances.

The prototype of the invention, the selected method of manufacturing a tunable optical filter with a Fabry-Perot interferometer [Patent RF №2388025, priority dated July 21, 2008, Chesnokov, R.A., Chesnokov V.V. Nikulin D.M., Chesnokov AU], namely, that on one plate of the interferometer with a mirror coating is applied to the sacrificial layer by sputtering in a vacuum over it put a mirrored floor and attach the second transparent plate with a layer of solid material, after which the said plate is fixed on the holder and removing the sacrificial layer by evaporation, heating the interferometer.

The disadvantage of the prototype is the need for special manufacturing operations deposition of the sacrificial layer and the complexity of its substance layer must be volatile and have an absolutely smooth surface.

The task of creating a simplified method of manufacturing the surveillance devices in the form of a system of bodies with extremely small air gap between their surfaces.

The task is solved in that in the method of obtaining uniform nanosizer between areas of two surfaces mechanically fastened bodies, including the alignment of one surface equidistant relative to the second using the sacrificial layer and the flexible film adhered to the surface using a layer of hardening of the environment, in accordance with the invention, as the sacrificial layer using a layer of wetting the surface of the liquid drop which is applied first to the region of the surface of the first body, or moisturize this area exposure in the vapor of liquid, then placing the wetted this liquid flexible film, a layer of hardening environment impose the necessary surface of the second body, and after solidification environment the liquid is removed by evaporation.

It is also proposed that the volume of the applied liquid droplets provides wetting surfaces only within the mentioned areas.

The method is illustrated in figure 1 for the example of a gap between the mirror coatings in the multibeam interferometer Fabry-Perot.

In the figure: 1 and 2 - the second and first transparent plate, 3-mirror layer on the surface of the second plate, 4 - flexible film, 5 - wetting liquid, 6 - meniscus on the side of the liquid layer, caused by capillary forces in fluids, 7 - harden the th environment, 8 - housing, fastening plates 1 and 2, as in the process of solidification of the medium 7, and after removal of the liquid layer 5, 9 - glue connecting the housing and the plate.

The sequence of operations upon receipt of the clearance between the mirror coatings of the surfaces of the plates (plates with mirror coatings are the bodies referred to in the claims following. On the first plate 1 with the reflecting layer 3 is applied a drop of liquid, wetting the mirror layers, the alternative may be wetting the surface of the vapors of the liquid, then put the prepared flexible film of a thickness of <1 μm with a mirror coating on the lower side, and the liquid wets the mirror cover and spreads over him, forming a capillary layer 5 with a meniscus 6 on the edges; the size of the capillary layer is determined by the amount of damage drops; over the flexible film put a drop of epoxy adhesive 7 and the second transparent plate 2. A second plate is placed so that the area of the plates, between which it is necessary to form nanosizer, coincided. On the bottom plate is fixed by the adhesive 9 of the cylinder 8, the inner cavity which includes the top plate and is fixed by adhesive 9.

The volume of the applied liquid droplets is necessary to choose such that the meniscus 6 formed on the surface of the liquid in the gap between the mirrors, did not work C is the boundary of a flexible film. Under this condition, the layer of spilled liquid is under negative pressure (because of the concavity of the meniscus facing the air), which presses the flexible film to the bottom plate, respective film on all surface irregularities. The hardening of the adhesive fixes the "spread-eagle" position of the flexible film. For the formation of the air gap between the mirror layers is necessary to remove the liquid from the capillary layer; if you want the backlash greater than provides capillary liquid layer, the upper plate to remove the desired distance (using a cylinder 8, which may be made of piezoelectric ceramics, or by lengthening the cylinder when it is heated). The pressure inside the fluid layer between the wetted surfaces relative to the pressure in the external environment can be defined in accordance with the Laplace equation-Jung, as for meniscus with cylindrical symmetry:

where Δ - the difference between the pressure inside the liquid and the outside, σ is the surface tension of the liquid at the boundary with the air, R is the radius of the surface of the meniscus. When complete wetting R=d/2. Use of water (σ≈0,073 H/m); d=0.1 ám get the negative pressure in the capillary layer is Δ=1.46 MPa (14,6 ATM), which confirms the assumption of the adequacy Capella the aqueous pressure for clamping a flexible film.

To get air in the capillary between the liquid must be removed from, for example, by heating and evaporation. The removal process can be quick, if you choose the boiling liquid and remove the capillary layer by heating the solids to liquid boiling. In the above case of a gap in the system metal - air - metal through the capillary of the liquid layer, the gap can be up to twice the thickness of the adsorption layer of molecules h≈0.5 nm.

Consider the examples of the invention's implementation.

To get between the two glass plates of flat gap thickness less than 1 μm will conduct their preliminary training, which is mechanically polishing at least one side of each plate with the requirements for flatness no worse than N=5 (5 of the Newton rings), ΔN=1. Draw on a surface of the wafer through the mask translucent mirror layer of aluminum by vacuum deposition. Prepare in the same vacuum chamber flexible film with a deposited layer of aluminum. In atmospheric conditions moisten aluminum layer on the plate, put a flexible film layer metallization layer of aluminum on the plate and make sure respectiveiy flexible film over the plate. As hardening your environment, you can apply a drop of epoxy glue or hardening type is pricheski adhesives; put the top and the second transparent plate. After hardening of the glue, or even not so cured, put the package into the body, smeared with glue. After hardening of the adhesive, the resulting design can be marked in a vacuum to remove the capillary layer or heated to the boiling point (in the case of water - up to 100°C). Thus, you will get the mirror resonator Fabry-Perot, the gap between them has the same value at all points of their surface, suitable for use as optical filters. Examples of the invention and analysis of the reasonableness of the proposed solutions show the usefulness and novelty of solutions, their feasibility and attainability of its stated goals.

Small achievable gap and a large area can afford to use the method when creating quantum devices using the effects of tunneling of electrons through the vacuum of space.

Industrial application of the method can be found in the manufacture of various optical, optoelectronic, quantum and micromechanical devices, which must receive clearance equal and small thickness between the electrodes or plates having a large surface area, in particular controllable Fabry-Perot interferometers.

1. The method of obtaining uniform nanos the Zora between areas of two surfaces mechanically fastened tel, includes one alignment surface equidistant relative to the second using the sacrificial layer and the flexible film adhered to the surface using a layer of hardening medium, characterized in that the sacrificial layer using a layer of wetting the surface of the liquid drop which is applied first to the region of the surface of the first body, or moisturize this area exposure in the vapor of liquid, then placing the wetted this liquid flexible film, a layer of hardening environment impose the necessary surface of the second body, and after solidification of the medium liquid is removed by evaporation.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the amount of the applied liquid droplets provides wetting surfaces only within the mentioned areas.



 

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