Method of solar energy conversion

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: in a solar concentrator they carry out separately simultaneous stepwise heating of water steam and its mixture with a methane-containing gas, which is then sent to a reaction of steam catalytic conversion of the methane-containing gas into a sectioned catalytic reactor, installed outside the solar concentrator, the flow rate of water steam and its mixture with the methane-containing gas is reduced as the solar energy flow is reducing.

EFFECT: using this method makes it possible to reduce thermal costs for the process of energy resources generation and also to efficiently supply various energy resources under conditions of unavailability of methane sources, and also in the period of solar energy flow reduction at night time and when cloudiness increases.

8 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to a method for converting solar energy and can be used in chemical, hydrocarbon processing, and storage systems and transport energy in the systems of production of fuels for transportation and stationary power plants.

Known methods of converting solar energy into electrical energy:

- photovoltaic, which uses solar cells that absorb incoming solar radiation,

- thermoelectric, which uses a solar collector having a mirror surface that reflects solar radiation onto a receiver, which is heated working fluid, for example steam, to generate electricity in a steam turbine.

In particular, the known method described in the patent of Russian Federation №2440539, date of publ. 20.01.2012, which baroclinically the generator with electrical regeneration of the working body consisting of Taagepera cell, compressor cell and regenerative heat exchanger, forming a closed pressurized loop including an inlet for Taagepera cell thermal energy of solar radiation and/or combustion of biogas, ionization and recombination of the working fluid at the boundaries of the electrolyte and gas permeable electrodes in the cavities of high and low pressure Taagepera cells with the production of the Oh her power; Isobaric cooling low-pressure steam of the working fluid in the regenerative heat exchanger; compressing low-pressure steam of the working fluid in the compression cell for the expense of electrical energy produced Taagepera cell, accompanied by the removal from it of heat used for heating needs of low-rise buildings, ionization and recombination of the working fluid at the boundaries of the electrolyte and gas permeable electrodes in the cavities of high and low pressure compressor cell; Isobaric heating of the working fluid of high pressure in the regenerative heat exchanger and enters into the cavity of the high-pressure Taagepera cells in the cavities of high pressure in both cells and regenerative heat exchanger used working fluid in the liquid phase, for example, liquid iodine, and the working fluid in the liquid phase in the cavity of the high-pressure Taagepera cell is brought to a superheated state, such as superheated liquid iodine. The disadvantage of this method is the need to create a high pressure compressor for operation in aggressive environments.

Also there is a method of solar energy conversion by obtaining from methane efficient energy: hydrogen and synthesis gas (H2/CO), described in the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2042421, date of publ. 27.08.1995 (prototype), which is before the carrying out endothermic reactions in a catalytic reactor, containing accommodated in the housing with insulated heat exchanger, the pipe feeding the water, the evaporator and the Converter elements, which are formed by two nested one within the other tubes of different diameter, the space between which is filled with a catalyst, and one end of the outer tube has a cap and the inner tube serves as both a counterflow heat exchanger to the reaction mixture. Effect: method allows to intensify the process of conversion of methane by more uniform heating of the catalyst by radiation and better mixing and heating the mixture at the inlet to the Converter element. The method allows to produce as an energy carrier synthesis gas, which can be used for further processes for the synthesis of alcohols, dimethyl ether, ammonia, or other large-tonnage chemical products. At the same time, the described method has a number of disadvantages, which include functional and economic constraints of the application of the method associated with the location of the catalytic reactor reforming of natural gas in the area of concentration of solar flux, making it difficult Diplopoda to the flow of the reaction mixture, and reducing the efficiency and productivity of energy supply in times of low solar energy in nocny the clock and with increasing clouds. In addition, this process requires high energy and capital costs. A serious problem is the separation of the final products, dramatically reducing the effectiveness of the method and the necessity of supplying to the process of methane. In addition, the process does not allow you to retrieve in addition to the synthesis gas production other energy sources (water vapor or water, electricity).

The purpose of the present invention is to create a new method of solar energy conversion, allowing to reduce heat costs in the process of obtaining energy, and it is also effective to supply different energy in the absence of sources of methane, as well as during periods of low solar energy at night and with increasing clouds.

The problem is solved in that a method for converting solar energy into chemical energy and its accumulation in products steam-reforming of hydrocarbons, in which using the solar energy concentrator carry out the reaction of steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas with obtaining the reaction product containing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, wherein the solar concentrator is carried out separately simultaneous stepwise heating of water vapor and mixtures thereof with metrostars the relevant gas which is then send to the reaction of steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas in a partitioned catalytic reactor located outside of the concentrator of solar energy, reduce consumption, water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas by decreasing the amount of solar energy.

In addition:

the reaction products containing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, hoard at high pressure, and then sent to a synthesis gas and oxygen in high-temperature electrochemical process, the synthesis gas on the catalyst receive metanosoderzhashchie gas, which returns to the beginning of the process for conversion.

The reaction products containing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, is directed to the synthesis of methane, which is carried out at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst based on a metal selected from the group of Nickel, rhodium, platinum, iridium, palladium, iron, cobalt, rhenium, ruthenium, copper, zinc, iron, mixtures thereof or compounds, allotment released during the synthesis of methane thermal energy due to the heating of the heat carrier.

- Response steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas are without the supply of heat at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst based on a metal selected from the group of Nickel, rhodium, platinum, Il is Dios, palladium, their alloys or compounds.

- In the hub of solar energy to heat water vapor in a mixture with mechanostrider gas before the reaction steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas lead to temperatures 450-880°C in a sealed heat exchange surface, at least part of which transmits solar radiation frequency of more than 8·1014Hz.

- Pressure conversion mechanostrider gas is chosen in the range from 0.1 to 7.0 MPa.

- Carry out the separation of part of the hydrogen from the other reaction products by adsorption or membrane separation of gases.

Through the regenerative heat to change the temperature of water vapor in a mixture with mechanostrider gas inlet steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas.

In the drawing is given for the implementation of the method, where 1 is the solar energy, 2 - a solar concentrator, 3 - heater and water vapour with mechanostrider gas, 4 - a mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas, 5 - steam and gas flow, 6 - apparatus regenerative heat transfer, 7 - partitioned catalytic reactor, 8 - gas storage, 9 - thread mechanostrider gas, 10 - synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas, 11 - synthesis gas, 12 - high temperature electrochemical Converter 13 is oxygen, 14 - flow synthesis gas, 15 - separator hydrogen, 16 in the location.

An example implementation of the invention is a method of converting solar energy, described below.

In the described example embodiment of the invention as mechanostrider gas is used methane, which allows us to characterize the features of the invention as applied to the synthesis of methane from 9 synthesis gas 11 in the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10, although the implementation of the method an important feature is the use of mechanostrider gas 9 with the composition, which will be established after the synthesis in the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10, which serves synthesis gas 11 obtained in high-temperature electrochemical Converter 10. In addition to methane in mechanostrider gas 9 can also be present in appreciable quantities CO (1-4%), CO2(1-8%), H2(1-8%) and water vapor, are not removed by condensation.

The set of reactions occurring during the implementation of the invention set forth below:

The flow of solar energy 1 is directed to a solar concentrator 2, in which the flow of solar energy 1 focus on the heater water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas 3, which serves a mixture of water vapor and methane 9 at a ratio of steam/gas, for example, avnon 2.0-3.0, with higher pressure 4.0 MPa, and a stepped heat the mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas 9 to a temperature in the range 650°C-880°C. the Heated vapor stream 5 is directed to the apparatus of the regenerative heat transfer 6, and then partitioned catalytic reactor 7, the completed attachment of the catalyst, which, for example, it is preferable to use Nickel catalyst type GIAP-16. Can also be applied catalysts based on other active metals selected from the group of rhodium, platinum, iridium, palladium, iron, cobalt, rhenium, ruthenium, copper, zinc, iron, mixtures thereof or compounds. Pressure conversion mechanostrider gas in a partitioned catalytic reactor 7 is chosen in the range from 0.1 to 7.0 MPa. The degree of conversion of methane according to reaction (1) increases with a decrease in pressure with increasing ratio of steam/gas and heating temperature, but heating is limited by the resistance of the respective sealed surfaces of the heater 3. On the other hand, the possibility of heating the mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas 4 in the hub of solar energy 2 can also limit its temperature, but below the temperature of 650°C, the degree of methane conversion 4 is too low. The pressure increase methane conversion reduces the cost of subsequent stage of the process, in particular the costs of Energiya compression and the degree of synthesis of methane in the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10 and the volume of the storage 8, however, over pressure 7.0 MPa, these effects become negligible in comparison with the fall of the degree of conversion of methane with increasing pressure.

In a partitioned catalytic reactor 7 produce the reaction (1) methane conversion 4, then from the stream 14 to partially remove water vapor returned to the process, and, in accordance with the total reaction - product hydrogen 16 allocated by adsorption or membrane separation of gases in the separator 15. Given the variable nature of thermal regime in the period of lower solar energy 1 at night and with increasing clouds, it is advisable to maintain the stability of the degree of methane conversion 4 through the use of sectionrowindex catalytic reactor and reduce the flow of the mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas by decreasing the amount of solar energy 1. This mode will allow you to maintain the temperature of reaction (1) methane conversion 4 in the range of 650°C-880°C, which will provide a high degree of methane conversion 4 at the level of 0.6-0.8 depending on the process pressure. It is also advisable to partition the catalytic reactor 7 as parallel and sequential sections that will allow you to change the working conditions of the catalyst, and feeding the mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas 4 in different zones on the temperature and the rate of catalyst.

With this purpose it is expedient by applying apparatus regenerative heat 6 to change the temperature of the mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas 15 at the inlet steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas. The apparatus of the regenerative heat exchange 5 may be installed after the catalytic reactor 7 in the embodiment, heating the mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas 4 in the heater 3 to the reaction temperature (1) methane conversion 4 in the range of 650°C.-880°C.

In the solar energy concentrator 2 can be used paraboloid mirrors that allow you to get the temperature up to 3600°C. To increase the flux density of solar energy 1 in the heater water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas 3 it is advisable to place a slice catalytic reactor hub of solar energy, reducing the surface darkening of the heater 3. Given the efficiency of ultraviolet radiation in the reaction of methane conversion in the heater water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas 3, at least part of the sealed heat exchanger surfaces should be performed with the possibility of transmission of solar radiation frequency of more than 8·1014Hz. Solar radiation frequency of more than 8·1014Hz contains photons of energy needed. For dissoc the emission of one water molecule requires energy of about 3 eV. If the process of dissociation is effected under the action of solar radiation, the wavelength of light photons must be less than 0.4 μm with a frequency greater than 8·1014Hz, the share of which in the spectrum of solar radiation at sea level is about 3%. For the near ultraviolet (UV-a or UVA) with a wavelength of light photons: 400 nm-315 nm with energy: 3.10-3.94 eV properties transmittance of solar radiation has, for example, quartz glass optic (for example, type KU-1, KU-2, CUVI), transparent in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum, no absorption bands in the wavelength interval 170-250 nm, with absorption bands at intervals of wavelengths 2100-2300 nm and 2600-2800 nm, aluminosiloxane, radiation is optically stable and high mechanical properties. Near ultraviolet solar radiation will permit due to photochemical reactions of methane conversion in the heater water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas 3 to reduce the cost of thermal energy.

In turn, the rest of the reaction products after separation of hydrogen 16 and partially water low pressure steam is sent to electrolysis in high-temperature electrochemical Converter 12, in which the supplying of electrical energy is the flow of the reaction products (1) to the input of cathode space high temperature electrochemical con is artera 12, while oxygen 13 emit in the anode space, which is separated from the cathodic electrolytic layer. At the output of the cathode space of the reaction stream contains predominantly synthesis gas 11, which is sent to the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10 with the catalyst, mainly on the basis of Nickel. Can be used, for example, industrial catalyst type ANCM (TU 2178-036-47317879-97 with am.1). Thus, reaction (2) is partly carried out in high temperature electrochemical process while supplying electricity and education at the anode production of oxygen, and finally in the catalytic synthesis of methane in the heat-sensitive exothermic nature of the formation of methane 9 from synthesis gas 11. The resulting stream can contain not only methane (40-60%), which is considered in this example, but other components of the mixture, including water vapor, hydrogen (8-12%), mono - and dioxide of carbon (less than 1%). Thus, reaction (1) steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas 4 are given this composition by the above process.

A set of processes conducted in high-temperature electrochemical Converter 12 and the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10, describes the total reaction as:

In the separation of hydrogen 16 from whom elitel hydrogen 15 before high-temperature electrochemical Converter 12 the overall reaction is represented as:

The total decomposition of water in the proposed invention is described by reaction (3), in which it is possible to obtain hydrogen from water 16 and 13 oxygen of high purity is required for further use pressure.

The resulting decomposition products are water - hydrogen gas 16 and oxygen 13 can then be used in the chemical industry and metallurgy, hydrocarbon processing, and storage systems and transportation energy and as a fuel in transportation and stationary power units.

However, in another embodiment of the invention in the absence of consumers gaseous hydrogen 16 and oxygen 13 in the process of converting solar energy 1 from the process of obtaining energy (water vapor or water, electricity) can be excluded high-temperature electrochemical Converter 12 and the flow of synthesis gas 14 may be directly sent to the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10, which produces the reverse of reaction 1 with the release mechanostrider gas 9, heat and water vapor or water (not shown), which can either be sent to the consumer, or be used in industrial processes, for heating, to obtain electricity in steam turbines. In times of low flow from the solar energy at night and with increasing clouds in the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10 stream can be supplied from gas storage similar to a gas 8, in which the accumulated surplus in this period the flow of synthesis gas 14.

Thus, in the proposed invention was able to reduce heat costs in the process of obtaining energy, and it is also effective to supply different energy in the absence of sources of methane, as well as during periods of low solar energy at night and with increasing clouds.

1. The method of conversion of solar energy into chemical energy and its accumulation in products steam-reforming of hydrocarbons, in which using the solar energy concentrator carry out the reaction of steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas with obtaining the reaction product containing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, wherein the solar concentrator is carried out separately simultaneous stepwise heating of water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas, which is then send to the reaction of steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas in a partitioned catalytic reactor located outside of the concentrator of solar energy, reduce consumption, water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas by decreasing the amount of solar energy.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reaction products containing hydrogen dioxide and the angle of the ode, send to a synthesis gas and oxygen in high-temperature electrochemical process, the synthesis gas on the catalyst receive metanosoderzhashchie gas, which returns to the beginning of the process for conversion.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reaction products containing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, is directed to the synthesis of methane, which is carried out at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst based on a metal selected from the group of Nickel, rhodium, platinum, iridium, palladium, iron, cobalt, rhenium, ruthenium, copper, zinc, iron, mixtures thereof or compounds, allotment released during the synthesis of methane thermal energy due to the heating of the heat carrier.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reaction of steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas are without the supply of heat at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst based on a metal selected from the group of Nickel, rhodium, platinum, iridium, palladium, their alloys or compounds.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the hub of solar energy to heat water vapor in a mixture with mechanostrider gas before the reaction steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas lead to temperatures 450-880°C in a sealed heat exchange surface, at least part of which about will uskay solar radiation frequency of more than 8·10 14Hz.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the pressure conversion mechanostrider gas is chosen in the range from 0.1 to 7.0 MPa.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that conduct a separate part of the hydrogen from the other reaction products by adsorption or membrane separation of gases.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that by means of the regenerative heat to change the temperature of water vapor in a mixture with mechanostrider gas inlet steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas.



 

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The specified solar concentrator (8) may be started for performance of the specified first motion and with the help of the specified second motion within the entire day with the help of the first and second start devices, accordingly, which are actuated with driving devices connected to the specified first and second start devices according to appropriate orientations of the specified solar concentrator (8) according to detection by the first and second sensor facilities, accordingly, connected to the specified driving devices to maintain the specified solar concentrator permanently oriented to the sun in a proper manner within the day in order to ensure maximum possible quantity of solar radiation, which shall be received for each established orientation. The solar plant is further characterised by heat exchange facilities and electric energy generation facilities resting against the specified additional bearing structure (9) and preferably arranged in the focus of the specified solar concentrator (8), which provide for the possibility to perceive solar radiation received by the latter and concentrated in it, and to cause heating of the liquid circulating in the specified facilities of heat exchange, and generation of electric energy, accordingly, in the amounts corresponding to the amount of the received solar radiation. The specified facilities for electric energy generation include at least photoelectric panels comprising multiple photoelectric elements, which are arranged as adjacent to each other and are fixed on a support structure, formed from appropriate shields made of electric insulating material, equipped with joined electric contacts and current-conducting paths. The specified basic bearing structure (7) comprises at least a horizontal metal guide ring (10) of the previously established diameter, having such configuration, which provides for availability of a flat upper edge and an outer guide slot stretching along it and equipped with a set of metal brackets arranged below as identical to each other and arranged with even intervals along the entire circumference of the specified ring, besides, each bracket is bent to form a lower support base, a vertical stand and an upper head, in which the specified support base is fixed with the help of bolts or similar fastening facilities to a horizontal foundation slab (17) made of a material of appropriate stiffness and strength, such as concrete, metal, etc., which is reliably fixed on the ground, and the specified upper head is equipped with facilities of sliding, such as idlers or similar facilities, interacting with the specified guide ring (10) and capable of sliding relative to it to ensure reciprocal motion for this guide ring. The specified additional bearing structure (9) comprises a set of rectilinear bars stretching in longitudinal direction and rectilinear bars stretching in transverse direction, and also a pair of semicircular elements, which are connected to the specified bars and the specified solar concentrator (8), according to the invention, the semicircular elements have configuration of guide semirings, appropriate end parts of which are connected to each other by means of a pair of rectilinear bars and a pair of intermediate bracing traction rods, the specified additional bearing structure (9) additionally includes a pair of metal reinforcing elements, having a semicircle shape, which are fixed on the specified longitudinal bars and to the specified semirings, which in their turn rest as capable of sliding against a row of sliding and supporting brackets installed below, which rest against appropriate horizontal end parts and are attached to these end parts, one of two lengthy crosspieces (64, 65), identical and fixed on the specified guide ring (10) so that the specified crosspieces are arranged in parallel to each other and are separated from each other, the specified first and specified second pair of brackets are equipped with facilities of sliding and facilities of a mechanical drive, which may be actuated by the specified start facilities. The specified first and the specified second sensor facilities are made of at least the first and second pair of photoelectric sensors (97, 98, 99, 100), accordingly, which are arranged closely to each other and coaxially to each other and rest against the specified additional bearing structure (9) in the position to be permanently turned towards the sun, starting from the early morning and practically within the entire day, so that the specified sensors are permanently exposed to solar radiation within the specified period of time, sensors of the specified first and the specified second pair of sensors are arranged in the mutually leveled position in longitudinal or transverse direction of their location on the specified additional bearing structure (9) and are prepared to recognize brightness of solar radiation and to start by means of the specified start facilities to cause the specified first motion and the specified second motion of the specified solar concentrator (8), either for continuing or for stopping, and as a result the specified solar concentrator (8) shall be properly oriented in the appropriate position, when both sensors of the specified first and the specified second pairs of sensors are illuminated at different levels of brightness and with identical levels of brightness, accordingly.

EFFECT: invention shall provide for production of maximum high quantity of solar energy within a day and high energy efficiency, both heating of liquids and generation of electric energy.

4 cl, 26 dwg

FIELD: solar technology.

SUBSTANCE: method includes reflection of the solar energy flow and its concentration at a heat absorber. The concentrated solar energy goes from the first stage energy concentrator to the light guide concentrator of circular or elliptical section made from dielectric non-absorbing (transparent) material, where flat inclined reflective (transparent or mirror) panels are installed along the whole length at regular intervals on the incident solar energy side. The solar energy flow from the first stage energy concentrator falls on the flat inclined reflective (transparent or mirror) panels with a 65-70 degrees angle of incidence, reflects from it and falls into the angled prism surfaces positioned with a 30-35 degrees angle of incidence. Then, after the air-glass boundary, the flow refracts in the glass and enters the inner pocket of the light guide concentrator, confined from all sides with glass in the axial direction, there the flow acquires the direction parallel to the rays reflected from the inclined panels, and the angle of incidence for rays falling on the opposite side of the light guide concentrator equals 60-65 degrees. For such rays as in the air-glass interface there exists an angle of total internal reflection, the rays will not pass through the boundary separating two media. Instead, they will stay inside the light guide concentrator, the solar energy flowing from the first stage concentrator will accumulate from all flat inclined reflective (transparent or mirror) panels, get into the light guide concentrator, and the solar energy flow will change, going along the light guide concentrator, going in the cross-section equal to the cross-section of the light guide. If a double-convex lens is installed in the flow outlet on the end face of the light guide concentrator, the accumulated solar energy is concentrated by the cylindrical parabolic concentrator into a point with the diameter of 1-2 mm. This allows the energy to be sent via an optical fibre bundle to the conversion device.

EFFECT: high solar energy concentration level; creation of conditions suitable for solar energy transmission without the conversion of the said energy.

2 dwg

Solar power station // 2431787

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: in solar power station containing concentrator made in the form of linear single-axis concentrating system, tracking system and photoreceiver with p-n junctions in focal area, photoreceiver is made in the form of one or more sections of solid matrix of subsequently commutated miniature solar elements with diode structures and with p-n junctions the planes of which are parallel to two of four side edges of the matrix, and has transparent protective coating on two working surfaces of matrix, which are perpendicular to plane of p-n junctions; optical and focal plane of concentrator is perpendicular to plane of p-n junctions of receiver, and cross-section plane of concentrator and flow direction of concentrated solar radiation is parallel to plane of p-n junctions of photoreceiver; photoreceiver is installed in transparent cylindrical cover along its axis and provided with device for pumping of cooling liquid through transparent cylindrical cover and heat exchanger for heat removal, and planes of p-n junctions are perpendicular to axis of cylindrical cover.

EFFECT: invention must reduce the cost of installed capacity and generated energy.

14 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: converter consists of solar energy concentrator assembled on tripod and equipped with facility of orientation by the sun. The concentrator is made in form of a symmetrical part of a parabolic cylinder including a crest and a focal line; the parabolic cylinder is installed into parabolic guides arranged along upper and lower edges of the cylinder. The guides are enclosed in a rigid frame made out of ribs connecting ends of the guides and conjugated between them. Shelves covering the converter from top and bottom are installed by upper and lower ends of the focal line and on upper and lower ribs. A solar energy receiver is made in form of a tube passing along the focal line and conjugated with an external tank. The converter is equipped with sensors determining a position and intensity of the radiation source affecting a rotary mechanism of a photo-electric panel.

EFFECT: complete utilisation of solar energy, more simplified design and capability to withstand strong wind loads, reduced weight and cost and simplification of assembly.

3 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of optics, in particular to methods and facilities for transformation of wave field with provision of possibility of its focusing. Method consists in the fact that wave field 1 is transformed into two flows of radiation - 2 and 3. Each flow 2 and 3 is diverged by specified (from focusing condition) angles in one of two zones of wave field 1. Each zone is separated by means of installation of ordered set (OS) of identical focusing structures (FS) 4 and 5 in the form of sequence of discrete functional elements (DFE) with reflecting surfaces, combination of acting apertures of which creates apertures of appropriate OS. Transformation of wave field 1 is realised by means of the first FS OS arranged along with direction of beams 4 and 5. Specified FS 4 and 5 in OS are arranged with helical shape with length of DFE reflecting surfaces that increases from centre of OS apertures to their periphery, and sequence of reflecting surfaces is formed in FS 4 and 5 of stepped shape and is spatially organised with generation of input and output OS apertures with properties of rotary symmetry by combination of their acting apertures. For this purpose FS 4 and 5 in OS are distributed invariantly relative to rotation with pitch that is permanent by angle. Orientation of FS 4 and 5 in OS is realised so that shadow from n FS 4 of OS that is first along with direction of beams is located between n-1 and n+1 FS 5 of the second OS, partially covering them. Mentioned FS 4 and 5 in every OS are organised under condition of 2 and 3 radiation flows divergence by specified angles with formation of focal spot 9 common for both OS in space between them. For this purpose OS is formed so that for the first OS installed along with direction of radiation, surface that envelopes it from the side of input aperture is convex, from the side of output aperture - concave, and for the second OS surface that envelopes it from the side input aperture is concave, and from external side - convex. Radiuses of curvature of meridional sections of reflecting surfaces of DFE in each FS 4 and 5 are related by a certain dependence.

EFFECT: reduced dimensional parametres, optimisation of efficiency (from energy point of view) of radiation flow directivity diagram, distribution in zone of functional surface of receiver, improved stability of power system to wind loads.

3 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device relater to solar power engineering and can be used in devices that convert solar energy into various types of useful power (thermal, electric, chemical etc.). Solar energy concentrator comprises, at least, one reflector with reflecting element made from flexible material tape, stiffness ribs, not coupled, that feature form-building arc-like concave surface and stops linked up with the said ribs via flexible fasteners. Note here that the reflector operating surface is formed thanks to tape material flexibility and fasteners that generated forces acting onto the tape edge in symmetry with the stiffness rib lengthwise plane of symmetry.

EFFECT: attaining required accuracy of reflecting surface.

6 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: solar power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat pipe solar collectors and it can be used in heat supply of buildings. Parabolic reflectors are installed under light transparent coating of collector and over absorbing pipes which form uninterrupted corrugated panel provided with liquid lenses in lower part. Liquid lenses and arranged over absorbing pipes coaxially with pipes. Liquid prismatic reflectors are installed under convexities of panel corrugations, and on side walls of housing plate reflectors are hinge fastened, being interconnected by polymeric film with metallized coating. Hinge fastening of plate reflectors makes it possible to set angle of their tilting to provide optimum position for each climatic region and concentrate radiation on absorbing pipes arranged in peripheral zone. Connection of separate plates by polymeric film with metallized coating precludes getting of sun rays onto side walls of housing which considerably reduces heat losses through side walls.

EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.

4 dwg

FIELD: solar engineering, in particular, engineering of reinforced deflectors of solar radiation for producing electricity and heat.

SUBSTANCE: method includes manufacturing forming polyether resin, manufacturing reinforcing fiberglass material using special substance on basis of interleaving glass tissue, manufacture of deflecting surface using glass bevels of internal mirroring, manufacture of high transparence glue with shear resistance of 70 kilogram-force/cm2 and more of nitrophenol or epoxyvinylphenol, hardening at normal temperature (20°C) or with heating up to 50-80°C, sending of deflector for following processing and measurement of physical-mechanical and optical characteristics, sending thereof to storage for storing in from of finished product. Device contains station for preparing raw mixture on basis of non-saturated polyether resin, station for making reinforcing fiberglass material and manufacturing deflecting surface on basis of glass bevels of internal mirror. Forming station with forming and hardening plant, including vessel for forming mixture, vessel for glue, vessel for acryl composition, sprayer pistol, post-processing station.

EFFECT: reduced costs of manufacture of reinforced thin-walled deflector of solar radiation, increased service life.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: solar-energy technology.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used for making solar power assemblies provided with axial-symmetrical concentrators. According to first version, tube with diameter D is made on base of n cylindrical mirror reflectors, having receiver with linear size of D. Then tube is cut at angle of β=π/2(n-2/n) to axis of tube to blanks in such a way, that trapezoid is made to have angle between side faces of α=2π/n, and relation of lengths of lower base to top base equals to k=2-20. N trapezoid-shaped sections of tubes are put in form of toroid-shaped blank and are connected together by means of welding, soldering, gluing or by means of screws and rivets. Toroid-shaped blank is placed into cast made of two separated chambers and cast if filled with fibrous concrete, with mixture of concrete and polymer or with polymer only. Chambers are separated after compound is hardened. Toroid-shaped blank is put off and is cut to two blanks of semi-toroid concentrators. Mirror coating is applied onto concentrators by depositing or by gluing of metallized film, of sheets of polished aluminum or glass mirror facets. Receiver with linear size of D is mounted axis-symmetrically onto made concentrator in middle plane. According to second version, n blanks of n-sector cylindrical concentrator (n-3-60) are cut of flat thin metal sheet or of plastic having mirror coating. Two frame with similar sizes are made in form of two bigger and smaller polygons, having number of sides as n and diameter of described circle around bigger polygon (1,75-2,25) of linear size of receiver D to have relation of diameters of circles, described around bigger and smaller polygon, being equal to 2-25. Any of n blanks, having mirror coating, is bent in form of sector semi-cylinder, which forms a trapezoid in plan. Bigger base of trapezoid is connected to one side of bigger polygon, and smaller base is connected to parallel side of smaller polygon by welding, gluing or by means of rivets and bolts or by any other way. Receiver with linear size D is mounted axial-symmetrical in central part pf plane of bigger polygon. According to third version, two frames in form of two bigger and smaller polygons of different sizes are mounted in axial symmetry in middle plane onto which plane the radiation comes. Number of sides of polygons equals to n, where n=3-60. Sides of polygons are parallel to each other. Diameter of circle described around bigger polygon, being equal to (1,75-2,25) of linear size D of receiver and relations of diameters of circles, described around bigger and smaller polygons, equals to 2-25. Vertexes of polygons being closest to each other are connected by curvilinear hard members, which form surface of sector semi-cylinder with diameter being equal to distance between parallel sides of bigger and smaller polygons with different sizes of sides. Mirror coating in form of metallized plastic, polished metal or glass mirror facets is put on form of semi-cylinder onto curvilinear hard members. The coating is attached to curvilinear members by any known method, namely, by means of glue, weld, soldering or by means of rivets and bots with nuts. Receiver with linear side D is mounted in axial symmetry in plane of frame of bigger polygon. According to fourth version, tube with diameter D is made to have mirror coating onto its internal side. Tube is cut to two symmetrical semi-cylindrical blanks along axis of tube. Ready blanks are cut in perpendicular to plane of inlet opening of semi-cylinder at angle β=π/2(n-2/n) to sector blanks in such a way to get trapezoid with angle between side faces α=2π/n. Then n sector semi-cylindrical blanks are put in form of n-sector semi-toroidal cylindrical concentrator and are connected together along side faces by trapezoid. And then receiver with linear size D is put in axial symmetry onto semi-toroidal sector cylindrical concentrator.

EFFECT: reduced costs; ability of making solar power assembly of any size; usage of simple equipment and tools.

6 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing hydrocarbon compounds containing at least one nitrile (nitrogen-containing) functional group. The method is characterised by that it involves processing said compounds at a hydrodenitrogenation step by reaction with hydrogen at absolute hydrogen pressure ranging from 0.1 to 10 MPa, at temperature ranging from 200°C to 500°C and in the presence of a hydrodenitrogenation catalyst, wherein nitrile compounds are selected from a group comprising methylglutaronitrile, ethylsuccinonitrile, 2-pentenenitrile, 2-methyl-2-butenenitrile or mixtures thereof, as well as ortho-TDA isomers.

EFFECT: use of the present method enables to remove nitrogen from hydrocarbon-containing wastes.

9 cl, 6 ex, 5 tbl

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