Method of solar energy conversion
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a solar concentrator they carry out separately simultaneous stepwise heating of water steam and its mixture with a methane-containing gas, which is then sent to a reaction of steam catalytic conversion of the methane-containing gas into a sectioned catalytic reactor, installed outside the solar concentrator, the flow rate of water steam and its mixture with the methane-containing gas is reduced as the solar energy flow is reducing.
EFFECT: using this method makes it possible to reduce thermal costs for the process of energy resources generation and also to efficiently supply various energy resources under conditions of unavailability of methane sources, and also in the period of solar energy flow reduction at night time and when cloudiness increases.
8 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to a method for converting solar energy and can be used in chemical, hydrocarbon processing, and storage systems and transport energy in the systems of production of fuels for transportation and stationary power plants.
Known methods of converting solar energy into electrical energy:
- photovoltaic, which uses solar cells that absorb incoming solar radiation,
- thermoelectric, which uses a solar collector having a mirror surface that reflects solar radiation onto a receiver, which is heated working fluid, for example steam, to generate electricity in a steam turbine.
In particular, the known method described in the patent of Russian Federation №2440539, date of publ. 20.01.2012, which baroclinically the generator with electrical regeneration of the working body consisting of Taagepera cell, compressor cell and regenerative heat exchanger, forming a closed pressurized loop including an inlet for Taagepera cell thermal energy of solar radiation and/or combustion of biogas, ionization and recombination of the working fluid at the boundaries of the electrolyte and gas permeable electrodes in the cavities of high and low pressure Taagepera cells with the production of the Oh her power; Isobaric cooling low-pressure steam of the working fluid in the regenerative heat exchanger; compressing low-pressure steam of the working fluid in the compression cell for the expense of electrical energy produced Taagepera cell, accompanied by the removal from it of heat used for heating needs of low-rise buildings, ionization and recombination of the working fluid at the boundaries of the electrolyte and gas permeable electrodes in the cavities of high and low pressure compressor cell; Isobaric heating of the working fluid of high pressure in the regenerative heat exchanger and enters into the cavity of the high-pressure Taagepera cells in the cavities of high pressure in both cells and regenerative heat exchanger used working fluid in the liquid phase, for example, liquid iodine, and the working fluid in the liquid phase in the cavity of the high-pressure Taagepera cell is brought to a superheated state, such as superheated liquid iodine. The disadvantage of this method is the need to create a high pressure compressor for operation in aggressive environments.
Also there is a method of solar energy conversion by obtaining from methane efficient energy: hydrogen and synthesis gas (H2/CO), described in the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2042421, date of publ. 27.08.1995 (prototype), which is before the carrying out endothermic reactions in a catalytic reactor, containing accommodated in the housing with insulated heat exchanger, the pipe feeding the water, the evaporator and the Converter elements, which are formed by two nested one within the other tubes of different diameter, the space between which is filled with a catalyst, and one end of the outer tube has a cap and the inner tube serves as both a counterflow heat exchanger to the reaction mixture. Effect: method allows to intensify the process of conversion of methane by more uniform heating of the catalyst by radiation and better mixing and heating the mixture at the inlet to the Converter element. The method allows to produce as an energy carrier synthesis gas, which can be used for further processes for the synthesis of alcohols, dimethyl ether, ammonia, or other large-tonnage chemical products. At the same time, the described method has a number of disadvantages, which include functional and economic constraints of the application of the method associated with the location of the catalytic reactor reforming of natural gas in the area of concentration of solar flux, making it difficult Diplopoda to the flow of the reaction mixture, and reducing the efficiency and productivity of energy supply in times of low solar energy in nocny the clock and with increasing clouds. In addition, this process requires high energy and capital costs. A serious problem is the separation of the final products, dramatically reducing the effectiveness of the method and the necessity of supplying to the process of methane. In addition, the process does not allow you to retrieve in addition to the synthesis gas production other energy sources (water vapor or water, electricity).
The purpose of the present invention is to create a new method of solar energy conversion, allowing to reduce heat costs in the process of obtaining energy, and it is also effective to supply different energy in the absence of sources of methane, as well as during periods of low solar energy at night and with increasing clouds.
The problem is solved in that a method for converting solar energy into chemical energy and its accumulation in products steam-reforming of hydrocarbons, in which using the solar energy concentrator carry out the reaction of steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas with obtaining the reaction product containing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, wherein the solar concentrator is carried out separately simultaneous stepwise heating of water vapor and mixtures thereof with metrostars the relevant gas which is then send to the reaction of steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas in a partitioned catalytic reactor located outside of the concentrator of solar energy, reduce consumption, water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas by decreasing the amount of solar energy.
the reaction products containing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, hoard at high pressure, and then sent to a synthesis gas and oxygen in high-temperature electrochemical process, the synthesis gas on the catalyst receive metanosoderzhashchie gas, which returns to the beginning of the process for conversion.
The reaction products containing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, is directed to the synthesis of methane, which is carried out at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst based on a metal selected from the group of Nickel, rhodium, platinum, iridium, palladium, iron, cobalt, rhenium, ruthenium, copper, zinc, iron, mixtures thereof or compounds, allotment released during the synthesis of methane thermal energy due to the heating of the heat carrier.
- Response steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas are without the supply of heat at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst based on a metal selected from the group of Nickel, rhodium, platinum, Il is Dios, palladium, their alloys or compounds.
- In the hub of solar energy to heat water vapor in a mixture with mechanostrider gas before the reaction steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas lead to temperatures 450-880°C in a sealed heat exchange surface, at least part of which transmits solar radiation frequency of more than 8·1014Hz.
- Pressure conversion mechanostrider gas is chosen in the range from 0.1 to 7.0 MPa.
- Carry out the separation of part of the hydrogen from the other reaction products by adsorption or membrane separation of gases.
Through the regenerative heat to change the temperature of water vapor in a mixture with mechanostrider gas inlet steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas.
In the drawing is given for the implementation of the method, where 1 is the solar energy, 2 - a solar concentrator, 3 - heater and water vapour with mechanostrider gas, 4 - a mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas, 5 - steam and gas flow, 6 - apparatus regenerative heat transfer, 7 - partitioned catalytic reactor, 8 - gas storage, 9 - thread mechanostrider gas, 10 - synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas, 11 - synthesis gas, 12 - high temperature electrochemical Converter 13 is oxygen, 14 - flow synthesis gas, 15 - separator hydrogen, 16 in the location.
An example implementation of the invention is a method of converting solar energy, described below.
In the described example embodiment of the invention as mechanostrider gas is used methane, which allows us to characterize the features of the invention as applied to the synthesis of methane from 9 synthesis gas 11 in the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10, although the implementation of the method an important feature is the use of mechanostrider gas 9 with the composition, which will be established after the synthesis in the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10, which serves synthesis gas 11 obtained in high-temperature electrochemical Converter 10. In addition to methane in mechanostrider gas 9 can also be present in appreciable quantities CO (1-4%), CO2(1-8%), H2(1-8%) and water vapor, are not removed by condensation.
The set of reactions occurring during the implementation of the invention set forth below:
The flow of solar energy 1 is directed to a solar concentrator 2, in which the flow of solar energy 1 focus on the heater water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas 3, which serves a mixture of water vapor and methane 9 at a ratio of steam/gas, for example, avnon 2.0-3.0, with higher pressure 4.0 MPa, and a stepped heat the mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas 9 to a temperature in the range 650°C-880°C. the Heated vapor stream 5 is directed to the apparatus of the regenerative heat transfer 6, and then partitioned catalytic reactor 7, the completed attachment of the catalyst, which, for example, it is preferable to use Nickel catalyst type GIAP-16. Can also be applied catalysts based on other active metals selected from the group of rhodium, platinum, iridium, palladium, iron, cobalt, rhenium, ruthenium, copper, zinc, iron, mixtures thereof or compounds. Pressure conversion mechanostrider gas in a partitioned catalytic reactor 7 is chosen in the range from 0.1 to 7.0 MPa. The degree of conversion of methane according to reaction (1) increases with a decrease in pressure with increasing ratio of steam/gas and heating temperature, but heating is limited by the resistance of the respective sealed surfaces of the heater 3. On the other hand, the possibility of heating the mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas 4 in the hub of solar energy 2 can also limit its temperature, but below the temperature of 650°C, the degree of methane conversion 4 is too low. The pressure increase methane conversion reduces the cost of subsequent stage of the process, in particular the costs of Energiya compression and the degree of synthesis of methane in the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10 and the volume of the storage 8, however, over pressure 7.0 MPa, these effects become negligible in comparison with the fall of the degree of conversion of methane with increasing pressure.
In a partitioned catalytic reactor 7 produce the reaction (1) methane conversion 4, then from the stream 14 to partially remove water vapor returned to the process, and, in accordance with the total reaction - product hydrogen 16 allocated by adsorption or membrane separation of gases in the separator 15. Given the variable nature of thermal regime in the period of lower solar energy 1 at night and with increasing clouds, it is advisable to maintain the stability of the degree of methane conversion 4 through the use of sectionrowindex catalytic reactor and reduce the flow of the mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas by decreasing the amount of solar energy 1. This mode will allow you to maintain the temperature of reaction (1) methane conversion 4 in the range of 650°C-880°C, which will provide a high degree of methane conversion 4 at the level of 0.6-0.8 depending on the process pressure. It is also advisable to partition the catalytic reactor 7 as parallel and sequential sections that will allow you to change the working conditions of the catalyst, and feeding the mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas 4 in different zones on the temperature and the rate of catalyst.
With this purpose it is expedient by applying apparatus regenerative heat 6 to change the temperature of the mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas 15 at the inlet steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas. The apparatus of the regenerative heat exchange 5 may be installed after the catalytic reactor 7 in the embodiment, heating the mixture of water vapor with mechanostrider gas 4 in the heater 3 to the reaction temperature (1) methane conversion 4 in the range of 650°C.-880°C.
In the solar energy concentrator 2 can be used paraboloid mirrors that allow you to get the temperature up to 3600°C. To increase the flux density of solar energy 1 in the heater water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas 3 it is advisable to place a slice catalytic reactor hub of solar energy, reducing the surface darkening of the heater 3. Given the efficiency of ultraviolet radiation in the reaction of methane conversion in the heater water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas 3, at least part of the sealed heat exchanger surfaces should be performed with the possibility of transmission of solar radiation frequency of more than 8·1014Hz. Solar radiation frequency of more than 8·1014Hz contains photons of energy needed. For dissoc the emission of one water molecule requires energy of about 3 eV. If the process of dissociation is effected under the action of solar radiation, the wavelength of light photons must be less than 0.4 μm with a frequency greater than 8·1014Hz, the share of which in the spectrum of solar radiation at sea level is about 3%. For the near ultraviolet (UV-a or UVA) with a wavelength of light photons: 400 nm-315 nm with energy: 3.10-3.94 eV properties transmittance of solar radiation has, for example, quartz glass optic (for example, type KU-1, KU-2, CUVI), transparent in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum, no absorption bands in the wavelength interval 170-250 nm, with absorption bands at intervals of wavelengths 2100-2300 nm and 2600-2800 nm, aluminosiloxane, radiation is optically stable and high mechanical properties. Near ultraviolet solar radiation will permit due to photochemical reactions of methane conversion in the heater water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas 3 to reduce the cost of thermal energy.
In turn, the rest of the reaction products after separation of hydrogen 16 and partially water low pressure steam is sent to electrolysis in high-temperature electrochemical Converter 12, in which the supplying of electrical energy is the flow of the reaction products (1) to the input of cathode space high temperature electrochemical con is artera 12, while oxygen 13 emit in the anode space, which is separated from the cathodic electrolytic layer. At the output of the cathode space of the reaction stream contains predominantly synthesis gas 11, which is sent to the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10 with the catalyst, mainly on the basis of Nickel. Can be used, for example, industrial catalyst type ANCM (TU 2178-036-47317879-97 with am.1). Thus, reaction (2) is partly carried out in high temperature electrochemical process while supplying electricity and education at the anode production of oxygen, and finally in the catalytic synthesis of methane in the heat-sensitive exothermic nature of the formation of methane 9 from synthesis gas 11. The resulting stream can contain not only methane (40-60%), which is considered in this example, but other components of the mixture, including water vapor, hydrogen (8-12%), mono - and dioxide of carbon (less than 1%). Thus, reaction (1) steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas 4 are given this composition by the above process.
A set of processes conducted in high-temperature electrochemical Converter 12 and the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10, describes the total reaction as:
In the separation of hydrogen 16 from whom elitel hydrogen 15 before high-temperature electrochemical Converter 12 the overall reaction is represented as:
The total decomposition of water in the proposed invention is described by reaction (3), in which it is possible to obtain hydrogen from water 16 and 13 oxygen of high purity is required for further use pressure.
The resulting decomposition products are water - hydrogen gas 16 and oxygen 13 can then be used in the chemical industry and metallurgy, hydrocarbon processing, and storage systems and transportation energy and as a fuel in transportation and stationary power units.
However, in another embodiment of the invention in the absence of consumers gaseous hydrogen 16 and oxygen 13 in the process of converting solar energy 1 from the process of obtaining energy (water vapor or water, electricity) can be excluded high-temperature electrochemical Converter 12 and the flow of synthesis gas 14 may be directly sent to the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10, which produces the reverse of reaction 1 with the release mechanostrider gas 9, heat and water vapor or water (not shown), which can either be sent to the consumer, or be used in industrial processes, for heating, to obtain electricity in steam turbines. In times of low flow from the solar energy at night and with increasing clouds in the synthesis reactor mechanostrider gas 10 stream can be supplied from gas storage similar to a gas 8, in which the accumulated surplus in this period the flow of synthesis gas 14.
Thus, in the proposed invention was able to reduce heat costs in the process of obtaining energy, and it is also effective to supply different energy in the absence of sources of methane, as well as during periods of low solar energy at night and with increasing clouds.
1. The method of conversion of solar energy into chemical energy and its accumulation in products steam-reforming of hydrocarbons, in which using the solar energy concentrator carry out the reaction of steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas with obtaining the reaction product containing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, wherein the solar concentrator is carried out separately simultaneous stepwise heating of water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas, which is then send to the reaction of steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas in a partitioned catalytic reactor located outside of the concentrator of solar energy, reduce consumption, water vapor and mixtures thereof with mechanostrider gas by decreasing the amount of solar energy.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reaction products containing hydrogen dioxide and the angle of the ode, send to a synthesis gas and oxygen in high-temperature electrochemical process, the synthesis gas on the catalyst receive metanosoderzhashchie gas, which returns to the beginning of the process for conversion.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reaction products containing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, is directed to the synthesis of methane, which is carried out at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst based on a metal selected from the group of Nickel, rhodium, platinum, iridium, palladium, iron, cobalt, rhenium, ruthenium, copper, zinc, iron, mixtures thereof or compounds, allotment released during the synthesis of methane thermal energy due to the heating of the heat carrier.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the reaction of steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas are without the supply of heat at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst based on a metal selected from the group of Nickel, rhodium, platinum, iridium, palladium, their alloys or compounds.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the hub of solar energy to heat water vapor in a mixture with mechanostrider gas before the reaction steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas lead to temperatures 450-880°C in a sealed heat exchange surface, at least part of which about will uskay solar radiation frequency of more than 8·10 14Hz.
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the pressure conversion mechanostrider gas is chosen in the range from 0.1 to 7.0 MPa.
7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that conduct a separate part of the hydrogen from the other reaction products by adsorption or membrane separation of gases.
8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that by means of the regenerative heat to change the temperature of water vapor in a mixture with mechanostrider gas inlet steam catalytic conversion mechanostrider gas.
SUBSTANCE: solar wind-driven air heater includes a solar thermal header, a cylindrical housing with a cover plate, in which an electric generator is installed on a vertical shaft, which is connected from above through a coupling to a power shaft, and air pipelines attaching the header and the housing to the unit. The header includes a housing in the form of a case with two transparent coatings, side walls and a base, as well as a channel arranged between bottom coating and a heat receiving plate, in which two or more thermal electric heaters with wing membranes are installed, which are electrically connected through wires, a distributing board with an electric generator fixed on a cross piece, above which an impeller is fixed on the power shaft, and from below on the shaft there installed is an impeller arranged in central part of the frame, which is connected via an air pipeline to lower part of the header, and upper part of the heater is pneumatically interconnected with the unit via air pipelines enveloping the housing on both sides, in which thermal coil electric heaters are installed, via wires, the distributing board, which are electrically connected on the side of the frame; the housing pneumatically interconnected from above with atmosphere through holes in the cover plate, above which there installed is a movable disc with holes made concentrically as in the cover plate.
EFFECT: combination of air heating equipment and its movement by means of solar and wind energy.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: chemical thermal pump comprises reactor section including active body and evaporator/condenser section including portion of volatile fluid existing in condensed state and can be absorbed by active body. Reactor section is communicated with evaporator/condenser section via channel. For heating purposes, reactor section side wall is composed of solar energy collector or stays in direct contact herewith. Reactor section comprises mould for active body. The latter stays in contact with said side wall. Active body in both solid state and fluid state or in solution phase is retained by mould and/or coupled therewith. Porous material permeable for volatile fluid is contained in evaporator/condenser section at, at least, part of its surface. Mould and permeable material may be arranged as concentric layers with spacing there between aforesaid channel is arranged.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, compact design.
33 cl, 24 dwg
SUBSTANCE: solar concentrator photoelectric apparatus has concentrator photoelectric modules (2) mounted on a mechanical system, azimuthal and zenithal drives located in an electromechanical box and a system for alignment of the concentrator photoelectric modules (2) towards the sun with a solar sensor. The mechanical system is formed by a base frame (3) and at least two suspended frames (4). The base frame (3) is adapted to turn about the vertical axis on a base ring (1) through wheels (5). Two wheels (5) are provided with sections of a roller chain which are engaged with toothed gears mounted on faces of two horizontal oppositely rotating output shafts (8) of the bevel gear speed reducer of the azimuthal electric drive mounted on the base frame (3). Each suspended frame (4) with concentrator photoelectric modules (2) is mounted to a horizontal pipe which is adapted to rotate on supports mounted to the base frame (3) and is pivotally connected by levers and bars to neighbouring suspended frames (4). One of the suspended frames (4) is provided with two vertical circular sectors separated on sides, circular surfaces of said sectors being attached to sections of the roller chain which are engaged with the toothed gears mounted on the horizontal shaft of the reducer of the zenithal electric drive mounted on the base frame (3). The distance L between the horizontal pipes of neighbouring suspended frames (4) satisfies a certain relationship.
EFFECT: high unit power of the photoelectric apparatus while keeping a sufficiently simple design.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: solar power plant comprises a solar battery assembled from concentrator photoelectric modules, installed on a mechanism system of orientation at the Sun, comprising drives of zenithal and azimuthal rotation equipped with step motor gears. The novelty in the plant is the fact that photoelectric modules contain linear photodetectors arranged in foci of cylindrical Fresnel lenses, and at the sides of the long side of photodetectors, close to them, at the angle, there are reflectors arranged, drives are controlled by a microprocessor that contains information on a geographic latitude of plant location and electronic clock equipped with a calendar, by signals of which, at regular intervals, step motor gears are started, which rotate the solar battery by zenithal and azimuthal angles, in accordance with the equation of Sun motion on the horizon, at the same time values of achieved zenithal and azimuthal angles are determined with the help of appropriate sensors, and their values are compared to values produced from the equation of Sun motion at the current moment of time.
EFFECT: invention shall simplify a system of Sun tracking.
SUBSTANCE: solar module has a chassis, solar cells, structured glass and a textured reflecting panel with a geometric relief. Structural features of the solar panel are that the solar cells have double-sided sensitivity and are placed with spacing perpendicular to the structured glass, and the textured reflecting panel with a geometric relief is placed behind the solar cells. Placing the solar cells perpendicularly increases electric power generation and enables to stabilise their temperature conditions.
EFFECT: increase in active area of the solar module with simultaneous increase in efficiency.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat tube system of solar power saving of a building comprises a solar collector, comprising a box, the cover of which is coated from inside with a grid from strips of a porous material, equipped with steam and condensate nozzles, inside of which there are lifting wicks, connected to the grid from strips of the porous material, and a collector wick closed with shells having gaps at the cover and connected with lower edges with a jacket closing the collector wick, connected by steam lines and a condensate line with an ejector, a condenser, heat and power accumulators, an evaporator. The solar collector box cover from outside is coated with photoelectric cells, in boxes of the solar collector and cooling panels, the side walls are coated from inside with the grid from strips of the porous material, on the bottom of above boxes there are collector wicks laid, jackets of which are coated with the grid from strips of the porous material, shells of lifting wicks are arranged with gaps in the form of triangular slots on upper edges connected with covers of boxes, the condenser is arranged in the form of a shell and tube heat exchanger and is connected with a network of hot water supply of a building and a heat accumulator arranged in the form of a hot water tank, the evaporator is made in the form of cooling panels arranged in the upper area of the cooled room, below which there are axial fans arranged, the condensate line is a pipeline filled with a wick and connected to collector wicks of the solar collector and cooling panels, and photoelectric cells of the solar collector are connected with an electric line to the electric network of the building and the electric accumulator.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of a heat tube system of solar power supply to a building.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: underground circuit consists of input well 1, underground heat exchange chamber 2 and output well 3 and compressor 4 for air injection to well 1. Power circuit includes helioplant 5 consisting of three heliocollectors 6-8, heat exchanger 9 one inlet of which is connected to output well 3 of underground circuit, and the other inlet of which is connected to heliocollector outlet 6, and the outlet is connected to heat exchanger 10 with low-boiling working medium and simultaneously with steam generator 11 connected to thermal power plant 12, as well as air cooling plant 13. At that, heliocollector 7 outlet is connected to one inlet of compressor 4 the outlet of which is connected to well 1 head. Utility circuit includes control unit 14, system 15 of heat utilities and heat exchanges 16, 17, 18. One inlet of heat exchanger 16 is connected to outlet of steam generator 11 of power circuit, and the other outlet is connected to air cooling plant 13, and one outlet is connected to control unit 14, and the other outlet is connected to heat exchanger 18. One of the outlets of control unit 14 is connected to inlet of heat utilities system 15, and the other outlet is connected to inlet of heat exchanger 17 connected to heliocollector 8 of helioplant 5. Outlet of heat utilities system 15 is connected to the second inlet of heat exchanger 18 the outlet of which is connected to the second inlet of compressor 4. As working medium there initially used is the gas that is first dried using solar power, and then it is pump to underground heating chamber. After that, heated gas is supplied under pressure from underground circuit to power circuit - to heat exchanger of air collector, where it is heated using solar energy, and then, it is used for heating of low-boiling working medium to the steam formation temperature and conversion of working medium to steam. That steam is passed through steam generator for electric power generation. At the same time, hot gas is supplied to utility circuit to be used for heating needs; for that purpose, heat carrier from utility circuit is heated by its help to the temperature of 70°C, which is then heated by means of solar energy to 120°C, and after that, it is supplied to utility circuit to consumer. Introduction to HGS of helioplant consisting of three heliocollectors, one of which is used for drying of gas pumped to the well, the second one is used in power circuit for heating of hot gas and for its further use for heating up to the steam formation temperature of low-boiling working medium, and the third one - for heating of heat carrier in utility circuit, provides the possibility of using the heat of low-temperature internal parts of the earth in order to obtain electricity and provide the heating of housing developments.
EFFECT: possible use in operation conditions of geothermal power plants built on low-temperature internal parts of the earth.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: solar module includes concentrator in the focus of which there located is photovoltaic solar energy converter, with connection contacts of batteries of electrical and heat energy accumulators and liquid-flow heat removal system; at that, photovoltaic converter is made of one hollow tube from heat-conducting material, on the external surface of which there applied is semiconductor structure and inside which a heat carrier circulates, as well as combined solar power plant including the above solar modules.
EFFECT: minimisation of operating costs and reducing the weight and dimensions of the design.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: device consists of pipe with generator, hot house, heat accumulator for conversion and accumulation of solar energy so that heat energy is obtained, by means of which air movement in solar collector is created. Air flow is supplied to air ioniser. Ionised air flow is supplied to MHD generator, power plant in which the energy of working medium (electrically conductive gaseous medium) flowing in magnetic field is converted immediately to electrical energy.
EFFECT: simpler design.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: solar battery panel substrate comprises a meshy material made of strings impregnated with a binding solution, according to the invention, the strings are made from an aramid cord. The method to manufacture a solar battery panel substrate is carried out by impregnation of meshy material strings with a binding solution and degassing in vacuum. Strings are made of an aramid cord, first it is degassed, then cut into pieces of the necessary size, impregnated with a binding solution, for instance, an organosilicic varnish, twisted, again impregnated, then the impregnated cord is stretched and dried.
EFFECT: solar battery panel substrate is universal, making it possible to compensate exposure to temperature deformations on aluminium or carbon-filled plastic frames, considerably reduces panel weight.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in a solar radiation concentrator according to the first version, having a gas-filled chamber, the chamber is in form of a flexible casing, wherein part of the chamber casing is transparent; the inside of the chamber is divided by a flexible partition wall; according to the invention, the concentrator has a bearing frame mounted inside the chamber; the inner surface of the chamber casing is connected to the bearing frame along its periphery; one surface of the flexible partition wall is reflecting and faces the transparent part of the chamber casing; between the flexible partition wall from the rear side of the mirror surface and the chamber there is a frame in form of threads linking the chamber casing with the flexible partition wall; wherein the points where the threads are joined to the flexible partition wall and the chamber casing are distributed on the surface of the casing and the partition wall; the length of the threads at different areas of said surfaces is determined by the required shape of the mirror surface; there is a radiation detector inside the gas-filled chamber. In the solar radiation concentrator according to the second version, having a gas-filled chamber, the chamber is in form of a flexible casing, wherein part of the chamber casing is transparent; the inside of the chamber is divided into two airtight cavities by a first flexible partition wall; according to the invention, the concentrator has a bearing frame mounted inside the chamber; the chamber casing is tightly connected to the bearing frame along its periphery; there is a second flexible partition wall along the flexible partition wall; one surface of the second flexible partition wall is reflecting and faces the transparent part of the chamber casing; the first cavity of the chamber is formed between the transparent part of the chamber casing and the first flexible partition wall. The second flexible partition wall has holes; the second cavity is formed between the other part of the chamber casing and the first flexible partition wall; pressure in the first cavity is higher than that in the second cavity; along the first flexible partition wall there is a stiff net which is attached on the periphery to the bearing frame; on the surface of the second flexible partition wall there are connecting elements which connect the second flexible partition wall to the net and the first flexible partition wall; the net can be stretched when the first flexible partition wall is stretched; and a radiation detector is placed in the first cavity of the chamber.
EFFECT: larger size of the concentrator, improved capability of obtaining and maintaining a given profile shape of the concentrator, possibility of raising said concentrator into top layers of the atmosphere, high reliability of operation of the concentrator.
13 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: solar plant with functions of heating and electric energy generation includes at least a solar concentrator adapted to actuation of mechanisms capable of orienting themselves towards the sun within the day to get maximum amount of solar energy for heating and accumulation of fluids for various applications and for generation of electric energy with high energy efficiency. The device using solar energy to heat and generate electric energy adapted for heating of fluids for various application and generation of electric energy with high energy efficiency, includes at least a solar concentrator capable of variable orientation relative to the sun within the day, characterised by a basic bearing structure (7), installed on the earth. And an additional bearing structure (9), supported with the specified basic bearing structure (7) and attached to the specified solar concentrator (8) and providing for the possibility for the specified solar concentrator (8) to rotate by the previously established maximum angle of rotation, performing the first reciprocal rotary motion along the circle in the horizontal plane along the specified bearing structure (7) and the second reciprocal motion along the curvilinear trajectory in the vertical plane orthogonally to the specified horizontal plane. The specified solar concentrator (8) may be started for performance of the specified first motion and with the help of the specified second motion within the entire day with the help of the first and second start devices, accordingly, which are actuated with driving devices connected to the specified first and second start devices according to appropriate orientations of the specified solar concentrator (8) according to detection by the first and second sensor facilities, accordingly, connected to the specified driving devices to maintain the specified solar concentrator permanently oriented to the sun in a proper manner within the day in order to ensure maximum possible quantity of solar radiation, which shall be received for each established orientation. The solar plant is further characterised by heat exchange facilities and electric energy generation facilities resting against the specified additional bearing structure (9) and preferably arranged in the focus of the specified solar concentrator (8), which provide for the possibility to perceive solar radiation received by the latter and concentrated in it, and to cause heating of the liquid circulating in the specified facilities of heat exchange, and generation of electric energy, accordingly, in the amounts corresponding to the amount of the received solar radiation. The specified facilities for electric energy generation include at least photoelectric panels comprising multiple photoelectric elements, which are arranged as adjacent to each other and are fixed on a support structure, formed from appropriate shields made of electric insulating material, equipped with joined electric contacts and current-conducting paths. The specified basic bearing structure (7) comprises at least a horizontal metal guide ring (10) of the previously established diameter, having such configuration, which provides for availability of a flat upper edge and an outer guide slot stretching along it and equipped with a set of metal brackets arranged below as identical to each other and arranged with even intervals along the entire circumference of the specified ring, besides, each bracket is bent to form a lower support base, a vertical stand and an upper head, in which the specified support base is fixed with the help of bolts or similar fastening facilities to a horizontal foundation slab (17) made of a material of appropriate stiffness and strength, such as concrete, metal, etc., which is reliably fixed on the ground, and the specified upper head is equipped with facilities of sliding, such as idlers or similar facilities, interacting with the specified guide ring (10) and capable of sliding relative to it to ensure reciprocal motion for this guide ring. The specified additional bearing structure (9) comprises a set of rectilinear bars stretching in longitudinal direction and rectilinear bars stretching in transverse direction, and also a pair of semicircular elements, which are connected to the specified bars and the specified solar concentrator (8), according to the invention, the semicircular elements have configuration of guide semirings, appropriate end parts of which are connected to each other by means of a pair of rectilinear bars and a pair of intermediate bracing traction rods, the specified additional bearing structure (9) additionally includes a pair of metal reinforcing elements, having a semicircle shape, which are fixed on the specified longitudinal bars and to the specified semirings, which in their turn rest as capable of sliding against a row of sliding and supporting brackets installed below, which rest against appropriate horizontal end parts and are attached to these end parts, one of two lengthy crosspieces (64, 65), identical and fixed on the specified guide ring (10) so that the specified crosspieces are arranged in parallel to each other and are separated from each other, the specified first and specified second pair of brackets are equipped with facilities of sliding and facilities of a mechanical drive, which may be actuated by the specified start facilities. The specified first and the specified second sensor facilities are made of at least the first and second pair of photoelectric sensors (97, 98, 99, 100), accordingly, which are arranged closely to each other and coaxially to each other and rest against the specified additional bearing structure (9) in the position to be permanently turned towards the sun, starting from the early morning and practically within the entire day, so that the specified sensors are permanently exposed to solar radiation within the specified period of time, sensors of the specified first and the specified second pair of sensors are arranged in the mutually leveled position in longitudinal or transverse direction of their location on the specified additional bearing structure (9) and are prepared to recognize brightness of solar radiation and to start by means of the specified start facilities to cause the specified first motion and the specified second motion of the specified solar concentrator (8), either for continuing or for stopping, and as a result the specified solar concentrator (8) shall be properly oriented in the appropriate position, when both sensors of the specified first and the specified second pairs of sensors are illuminated at different levels of brightness and with identical levels of brightness, accordingly.
EFFECT: invention shall provide for production of maximum high quantity of solar energy within a day and high energy efficiency, both heating of liquids and generation of electric energy.
4 cl, 26 dwg
FIELD: solar technology.
SUBSTANCE: method includes reflection of the solar energy flow and its concentration at a heat absorber. The concentrated solar energy goes from the first stage energy concentrator to the light guide concentrator of circular or elliptical section made from dielectric non-absorbing (transparent) material, where flat inclined reflective (transparent or mirror) panels are installed along the whole length at regular intervals on the incident solar energy side. The solar energy flow from the first stage energy concentrator falls on the flat inclined reflective (transparent or mirror) panels with a 65-70 degrees angle of incidence, reflects from it and falls into the angled prism surfaces positioned with a 30-35 degrees angle of incidence. Then, after the air-glass boundary, the flow refracts in the glass and enters the inner pocket of the light guide concentrator, confined from all sides with glass in the axial direction, there the flow acquires the direction parallel to the rays reflected from the inclined panels, and the angle of incidence for rays falling on the opposite side of the light guide concentrator equals 60-65 degrees. For such rays as in the air-glass interface there exists an angle of total internal reflection, the rays will not pass through the boundary separating two media. Instead, they will stay inside the light guide concentrator, the solar energy flowing from the first stage concentrator will accumulate from all flat inclined reflective (transparent or mirror) panels, get into the light guide concentrator, and the solar energy flow will change, going along the light guide concentrator, going in the cross-section equal to the cross-section of the light guide. If a double-convex lens is installed in the flow outlet on the end face of the light guide concentrator, the accumulated solar energy is concentrated by the cylindrical parabolic concentrator into a point with the diameter of 1-2 mm. This allows the energy to be sent via an optical fibre bundle to the conversion device.
EFFECT: high solar energy concentration level; creation of conditions suitable for solar energy transmission without the conversion of the said energy.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: in solar power station containing concentrator made in the form of linear single-axis concentrating system, tracking system and photoreceiver with p-n junctions in focal area, photoreceiver is made in the form of one or more sections of solid matrix of subsequently commutated miniature solar elements with diode structures and with p-n junctions the planes of which are parallel to two of four side edges of the matrix, and has transparent protective coating on two working surfaces of matrix, which are perpendicular to plane of p-n junctions; optical and focal plane of concentrator is perpendicular to plane of p-n junctions of receiver, and cross-section plane of concentrator and flow direction of concentrated solar radiation is parallel to plane of p-n junctions of photoreceiver; photoreceiver is installed in transparent cylindrical cover along its axis and provided with device for pumping of cooling liquid through transparent cylindrical cover and heat exchanger for heat removal, and planes of p-n junctions are perpendicular to axis of cylindrical cover.
EFFECT: invention must reduce the cost of installed capacity and generated energy.
14 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: converter consists of solar energy concentrator assembled on tripod and equipped with facility of orientation by the sun. The concentrator is made in form of a symmetrical part of a parabolic cylinder including a crest and a focal line; the parabolic cylinder is installed into parabolic guides arranged along upper and lower edges of the cylinder. The guides are enclosed in a rigid frame made out of ribs connecting ends of the guides and conjugated between them. Shelves covering the converter from top and bottom are installed by upper and lower ends of the focal line and on upper and lower ribs. A solar energy receiver is made in form of a tube passing along the focal line and conjugated with an external tank. The converter is equipped with sensors determining a position and intensity of the radiation source affecting a rotary mechanism of a photo-electric panel.
EFFECT: complete utilisation of solar energy, more simplified design and capability to withstand strong wind loads, reduced weight and cost and simplification of assembly.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of optics, in particular to methods and facilities for transformation of wave field with provision of possibility of its focusing. Method consists in the fact that wave field 1 is transformed into two flows of radiation - 2 and 3. Each flow 2 and 3 is diverged by specified (from focusing condition) angles in one of two zones of wave field 1. Each zone is separated by means of installation of ordered set (OS) of identical focusing structures (FS) 4 and 5 in the form of sequence of discrete functional elements (DFE) with reflecting surfaces, combination of acting apertures of which creates apertures of appropriate OS. Transformation of wave field 1 is realised by means of the first FS OS arranged along with direction of beams 4 and 5. Specified FS 4 and 5 in OS are arranged with helical shape with length of DFE reflecting surfaces that increases from centre of OS apertures to their periphery, and sequence of reflecting surfaces is formed in FS 4 and 5 of stepped shape and is spatially organised with generation of input and output OS apertures with properties of rotary symmetry by combination of their acting apertures. For this purpose FS 4 and 5 in OS are distributed invariantly relative to rotation with pitch that is permanent by angle. Orientation of FS 4 and 5 in OS is realised so that shadow from n FS 4 of OS that is first along with direction of beams is located between n-1 and n+1 FS 5 of the second OS, partially covering them. Mentioned FS 4 and 5 in every OS are organised under condition of 2 and 3 radiation flows divergence by specified angles with formation of focal spot 9 common for both OS in space between them. For this purpose OS is formed so that for the first OS installed along with direction of radiation, surface that envelopes it from the side of input aperture is convex, from the side of output aperture - concave, and for the second OS surface that envelopes it from the side input aperture is concave, and from external side - convex. Radiuses of curvature of meridional sections of reflecting surfaces of DFE in each FS 4 and 5 are related by a certain dependence.
EFFECT: reduced dimensional parametres, optimisation of efficiency (from energy point of view) of radiation flow directivity diagram, distribution in zone of functional surface of receiver, improved stability of power system to wind loads.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed device relater to solar power engineering and can be used in devices that convert solar energy into various types of useful power (thermal, electric, chemical etc.). Solar energy concentrator comprises, at least, one reflector with reflecting element made from flexible material tape, stiffness ribs, not coupled, that feature form-building arc-like concave surface and stops linked up with the said ribs via flexible fasteners. Note here that the reflector operating surface is formed thanks to tape material flexibility and fasteners that generated forces acting onto the tape edge in symmetry with the stiffness rib lengthwise plane of symmetry.
EFFECT: attaining required accuracy of reflecting surface.
6 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: solar power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat pipe solar collectors and it can be used in heat supply of buildings. Parabolic reflectors are installed under light transparent coating of collector and over absorbing pipes which form uninterrupted corrugated panel provided with liquid lenses in lower part. Liquid lenses and arranged over absorbing pipes coaxially with pipes. Liquid prismatic reflectors are installed under convexities of panel corrugations, and on side walls of housing plate reflectors are hinge fastened, being interconnected by polymeric film with metallized coating. Hinge fastening of plate reflectors makes it possible to set angle of their tilting to provide optimum position for each climatic region and concentrate radiation on absorbing pipes arranged in peripheral zone. Connection of separate plates by polymeric film with metallized coating precludes getting of sun rays onto side walls of housing which considerably reduces heat losses through side walls.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.
FIELD: solar engineering, in particular, engineering of reinforced deflectors of solar radiation for producing electricity and heat.
SUBSTANCE: method includes manufacturing forming polyether resin, manufacturing reinforcing fiberglass material using special substance on basis of interleaving glass tissue, manufacture of deflecting surface using glass bevels of internal mirroring, manufacture of high transparence glue with shear resistance of 70 kilogram-force/cm2 and more of nitrophenol or epoxyvinylphenol, hardening at normal temperature (20°C) or with heating up to 50-80°C, sending of deflector for following processing and measurement of physical-mechanical and optical characteristics, sending thereof to storage for storing in from of finished product. Device contains station for preparing raw mixture on basis of non-saturated polyether resin, station for making reinforcing fiberglass material and manufacturing deflecting surface on basis of glass bevels of internal mirror. Forming station with forming and hardening plant, including vessel for forming mixture, vessel for glue, vessel for acryl composition, sprayer pistol, post-processing station.
EFFECT: reduced costs of manufacture of reinforced thin-walled deflector of solar radiation, increased service life.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: solar-energy technology.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for making solar power assemblies provided with axial-symmetrical concentrators. According to first version, tube with diameter D is made on base of n cylindrical mirror reflectors, having receiver with linear size of D. Then tube is cut at angle of β=π/2(n-2/n) to axis of tube to blanks in such a way, that trapezoid is made to have angle between side faces of α=2π/n, and relation of lengths of lower base to top base equals to k=2-20. N trapezoid-shaped sections of tubes are put in form of toroid-shaped blank and are connected together by means of welding, soldering, gluing or by means of screws and rivets. Toroid-shaped blank is placed into cast made of two separated chambers and cast if filled with fibrous concrete, with mixture of concrete and polymer or with polymer only. Chambers are separated after compound is hardened. Toroid-shaped blank is put off and is cut to two blanks of semi-toroid concentrators. Mirror coating is applied onto concentrators by depositing or by gluing of metallized film, of sheets of polished aluminum or glass mirror facets. Receiver with linear size of D is mounted axis-symmetrically onto made concentrator in middle plane. According to second version, n blanks of n-sector cylindrical concentrator (n-3-60) are cut of flat thin metal sheet or of plastic having mirror coating. Two frame with similar sizes are made in form of two bigger and smaller polygons, having number of sides as n and diameter of described circle around bigger polygon (1,75-2,25) of linear size of receiver D to have relation of diameters of circles, described around bigger and smaller polygon, being equal to 2-25. Any of n blanks, having mirror coating, is bent in form of sector semi-cylinder, which forms a trapezoid in plan. Bigger base of trapezoid is connected to one side of bigger polygon, and smaller base is connected to parallel side of smaller polygon by welding, gluing or by means of rivets and bolts or by any other way. Receiver with linear size D is mounted axial-symmetrical in central part pf plane of bigger polygon. According to third version, two frames in form of two bigger and smaller polygons of different sizes are mounted in axial symmetry in middle plane onto which plane the radiation comes. Number of sides of polygons equals to n, where n=3-60. Sides of polygons are parallel to each other. Diameter of circle described around bigger polygon, being equal to (1,75-2,25) of linear size D of receiver and relations of diameters of circles, described around bigger and smaller polygons, equals to 2-25. Vertexes of polygons being closest to each other are connected by curvilinear hard members, which form surface of sector semi-cylinder with diameter being equal to distance between parallel sides of bigger and smaller polygons with different sizes of sides. Mirror coating in form of metallized plastic, polished metal or glass mirror facets is put on form of semi-cylinder onto curvilinear hard members. The coating is attached to curvilinear members by any known method, namely, by means of glue, weld, soldering or by means of rivets and bots with nuts. Receiver with linear side D is mounted in axial symmetry in plane of frame of bigger polygon. According to fourth version, tube with diameter D is made to have mirror coating onto its internal side. Tube is cut to two symmetrical semi-cylindrical blanks along axis of tube. Ready blanks are cut in perpendicular to plane of inlet opening of semi-cylinder at angle β=π/2(n-2/n) to sector blanks in such a way to get trapezoid with angle between side faces α=2π/n. Then n sector semi-cylindrical blanks are put in form of n-sector semi-toroidal cylindrical concentrator and are connected together along side faces by trapezoid. And then receiver with linear size D is put in axial symmetry onto semi-toroidal sector cylindrical concentrator.
EFFECT: reduced costs; ability of making solar power assembly of any size; usage of simple equipment and tools.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing hydrocarbon compounds containing at least one nitrile (nitrogen-containing) functional group. The method is characterised by that it involves processing said compounds at a hydrodenitrogenation step by reaction with hydrogen at absolute hydrogen pressure ranging from 0.1 to 10 MPa, at temperature ranging from 200°C to 500°C and in the presence of a hydrodenitrogenation catalyst, wherein nitrile compounds are selected from a group comprising methylglutaronitrile, ethylsuccinonitrile, 2-pentenenitrile, 2-methyl-2-butenenitrile or mixtures thereof, as well as ortho-TDA isomers.
EFFECT: use of the present method enables to remove nitrogen from hydrocarbon-containing wastes.
9 cl, 6 ex, 5 tbl