Method of tunnelling in rocks
SUBSTANCE: method of tunnelling is characterised by the fact that rocks are broken at a bottomhole with a fluid working agent under pressure, at the same time mines and wells are arranged along the perimetre and along the frontal area of the bottomhole; the distance between these mines is chosen with account of breaking action at rocks with a reheated gas or steam-gas working agent under pressure, which is generated with a multi-module jet plant and its working devices, and also extended elastic tubular elements are used, filled with an energy composition that generates a reheated agent under high pressure, with the help of which the specified mines and wells are arranged in the rock massif; the massif is damaged and ground. The bottomhole is cleaned by pressure at the bottomhole end to damaged parts of the rock massif with a working medium in the form of reheated steam-gas phases under pressure.
EFFECT: efficient complex action at a bottomhole with higher efficiency, lower labour and power inputs.
The invention relates to the mining industry and in technology education tunnels and workings of a significant cross-section for use as: transport, ventilation, for laying various communications.
In the technology of tunneling of a known individual and complex processes, including basic operations: development and destruction of rocks on the bottom, crushed, removal from areas of the face passable production; using various mechanical tunneling shields and devices [Dmitriev A.P. thermal and combined fracture of rocks, M., Nedra, 1978; Kutuzov, B. N. The destruction of rocks by explosion, M., Nedra, 1980; SU 822604, E29D 9/00; SU 828761; EN 2207973, 2002; SU 1480391; Velichkin B.A. Construction of tunnels, subways, M, C, 1971; SU 924389, E21D 11/10, 1977; EN 2148699, EV 25/00, 1998.]. The last of these decisions is the closest to the technological substance and achieved a positive result.
Significant and obvious disadvantages of this method working driving are: significant labor and high energy costs on the operations of the destruction of rocks on the bottom together with minor performance and low efficiency.
The technical task and the technological positive result of the proposed method is b is more efficient and comprehensive impact on the bottom with increased productivity, reduced labor and energy costs for individual operations and the whole process of destruction of rocks on the bottom, remove them and the education of the barrel passable tunnel.
The specified task and the technical result is achieved in the method due to the fact that the method of drilling a tunnel in the rocks is characterized by the fact that the destruction of rocks are fluid working medium, forming a linear formulation for the normal contour of the tunnel, also held separate horizontal or slanted wells with downhole end of the tunnel, between these wells form a curved and straight production in different directions square face, a pulse of power effect of cavities traversed wells and mines destroy the monolith downhole portion passable tunnel, parts, debris and sludge destroyed rock is separated from the bottom force fluid working environment and removed from the trunk of a patent tunnel.
The method is also characterized in that develop along the contour of the tunnel to form a curvilinear variable radius of curvature and cross-section.
The method is also characterized in that as a working agent for the rock fracture using compressed gas and steam environment.
The method, originally characterized by the fact that as a working agent use overheated liquid and gaseous phase Energoatom the Alov.
The method is also characterized in that the sources of the working agent for the destruction of the breed is used elastic elongated tubular elements, equipped progrevaemost working environment.
The method is also characterized in that for generating the working agent applied to the face, use multimodal reactive devices.
The way of tunneling as follows. Using these known technical means, mainly design Ahipping lead the development and destruction of rocks on the bottom, and perform these technological operations original. Initially are sinking separate horizontal or slightly inclined (at an angle of about 10-15° to the horizontal) wells with a diameter of 120-150 mm along the axis and at a distance of 2-3 diameters of the wells from one another according to the "Daisy" using multimodal reactive devices; forming a tunnel section perform straight and curved generation of variable cross-section with a curvature of the arc - radius tunnel to 0.1 this radius; all of these wells and production are the low voltage grips mountain massif in different directions of the cross-section of the tunnel. This condition is performed to prevent possible spontaneous treshinoobrazovaniya in this array is, which could lead to uncontrolled spontaneous destruction of the educated "skeleton" in this array breed. Instrument diagnostics using DCU-emitters and receiver detectors located in the studied wells and mines, determine the strength data of the arch of the tunnel and bridges between mines and wells. According to the received strength of the jumper selects the type of elastic charges on the necessary destructive ability, which is formed in the elongated tubular elements, equipped progrevaemost working environment, in particular the use of water, hydrogen peroxide and thermite instantly peregrevaetsya rods for instant explosive overheating water emulsion, whose expansion in the range of 0.5*103-0.9*103time allows you to create explosive steam-wave for the destruction of the monolith downhole parts and jumpers between wells and between straight and curved workings. First destroy the jumper in the upper svodoobrazuyuschih part passable tunnel at a distance from the vault is about 1/3 of the diameter (height) of the tunnel. Then destroy the jumper side of the tunnel from both sides; then consistently destroy the Central jumpers and at the base of the tunnel, formed by the fracture fragments, parts of the array, the sludge is separated from the bottom with the gross impact of the current business environment and remove the plate conveyor from the bottom and from the trunk passable tunnel. As such the working environment using the specified peregrevaetsya mixture enclosed in a flexible elongated tubular elements placed in the hole part formed in the cavities after the destruction of the bridges, as reflected above, using superheated liquid and gaseous phases produced from energy-related materials (water, hydrogen peroxide, thermite rods with tocaptain elements: 30÷50 and 350÷500).
To test the effectiveness of this method was selected area of the tunnel in granite massif. When the diameter of the tunnel DTH=5.0 m were completed well dck=120-135 mm l=2100 mm along the axis of the tunnel and the "Daisy" around this leader well at a distance of 320-340 mm (between the walls forming the lintel of this thickness); then, taking into account the cross-sectional area F tunnel were completed direct production at the sides with the width of the slit 92-100 mm, were also passed the last curve of the arch of the tunnel with a radius of curvature equal to R, 0.5 R, 0.3 R and 0.1 R width of cracks 92-110 mm. the destruction of the bridges was carried out taking into account the strength of the jumpers on the compression static bending load and a split from area code passable tunnel using a pulsed-explosive pressure of the hot gas and gas-vapor medium formed under pressure P=500-700 kg/cm with temperature t=300-400°C in cavities in elastic (elastic pliable elements. After the destruction of the bridges on the sides, center and foot tunnel all parts of rocks, debris and sludge are separated from the bottom using a similar explosive pressure of the hot environment, choosing P=50-200 kg/cm2at t=200-250°C; then destroyed the rock rolls back out of the barrel passable generation and repeat the cycle of work on the operations set forth above.
1. The method of drilling a tunnel in the rocks, characterized by the fact that the destruction of the rocks are fluid working medium, forming a linear formulation for the normal contour of the tunnel, also held separate horizontal or slanted wells with downhole end of the tunnel, between these wells form a curved and straight production in different directions square face, a pulse of power effect of cavities traversed wells and mines destroy the monolith downhole portion passable tunnel, parts, debris and sludge destroyed rock is separated from the bottom force fluid working environment and removed from the barrel passable tunnel.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized by the fact that develop along the contour of the tunnel to form a curvilinear variable radius of curvature and cross-section.
3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the working agent for the rock fracture using compressed gas and steam environment.
4. The method according to claim 1 or 3, characterized in that as a working agent use overheated liquid and gaseous phases of energy-related materials.
5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as sources operating agent for the destruction of the breed is used elastic elongated tubular elements, equipped progrevaemost working environment.
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that for generating the working agent applied to the face using multimodal jet apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: method to construct station tunnels with low subsidence of earth surface includes erection of an advance support and a temporary support along a tunnel vault, erection of permanent lining and mining of bottomhole rock, according to the invention, in a bottomhole under protection of the advance support along the longitudinal axis of the tunnel there are injection fibreglass anchors installed, the temporary support is erected providing for maintenance of the advance support, and mounted from steel arcs directly following face advance with filling of the support space with concrete, the permanent lining is erected after temporary support concrete gains strength. At the same time injection fibreglass anchors are cut in layers with a tunnelling unit together with rock in the bottomhole as it advances. At the same time the advance support is erected by drilling of wells along the tunnel vault at the angle to its longitudinal axis, placement of metal pipes in wells and filling of pipes with cement mortar.
EFFECT: increased quality of tunnel construction by reduction of earth surface subsidence at main stages of construction.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: complex for tunnelling of a subway mine of round cross section comprises mechanisms of rock breaking arranged on a carcass equipped with a movement drive, a transshipment device for loading of rock mass into transport facilities. The transshipment device is made in the form of a chute of cylindrical shape fixed on the frame and normally oriented towards the bottomhole, the lower edge of the chute is located at the sharp angle a to the mine base and with limitation of the upper edges of the chute with the horizontal plane arranged at the level of the central axis of the mine or with certain downward displacement. Inside the chute in its middle part there is an infinitely closed double-chain scraper contour on driving and tension sprockets with a curvilinear external profile of scrapers, and with the possibility of interaction of scrapers in the lower weight-bearing branch with the chute base, and the upper idle branch - with resting against the rollers.
EFFECT: improved reliability of complex operation, elimination of rock mass accumulation near a bottomhole as a result of mine tunnelling, reduced labour intensiveness of complex maintenance and its increased efficiency due to elimination of complex idle time.
SUBSTANCE: method includes the following stages. Installation of a structure inside or tightly with an underground mine, so that the structure provides for reactive forces when pushing a cutting head in direction of the material by means of a series of rigid materials fixed on the structure, which i arranged so that series of rigid elements may be fixed to it simultaneously at least in two directions, so that parts of tunnel branches could be formed in at least two appropriate directions, of the underground mine designed for transportation of people, mechanisms and extracted material. Formation of multiple parts of tunnel branches entering the material. Formation of the first part of the tunnel branch with the help of a cutting head and a series of rigid elements in the first direction, and afterwards formation of the second part of the tunnel branch in the second direction. During formation of the second part of the tunnel branch, movement of rigid elements from the part of the first tunnel into the part of the second tunnel branch for extension of the series of rigid elements in the part of the second tunnel branch.
EFFECT: application of the method considerably reduces costs, makes it possible to considerably increase speed of tunnelling and increases efficiency of production.
21 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to erect an underground mine with shield tunnelling using elements of an assembled circular lining of a support consists in mining soil with a mechanised shield. Plugging of the space behind the lining is carried out via holes in elements of a tubing support with a grouting mortar. At the initial stage of tunnelling a bottomhole is mined, and a part of the space behind the lining is filled at the length of 0.25-0.75 of the length of the element of the assembled circular lining of the support behind the first ring after the shield in the lining of the tubing support with a long-setting grouting mortar. The next stage of mining at the length of 0.5-1 of the length of the element of the assembled circular lining of the support is carried out with supply of the grouting mortar into the space behind the lining with a setting accelerator. At the stage of process shutdown of a shield for assembly of the next ring of the tubing support, the pressure of the grouting mortar in the space behind the lining behind the first ring after the shield for lining of the tubing support is maintained by means of the long-setting grouting mortar into the area of the section of the space behind the lining, initially filled with the long-setting grouting mortar. Further stages of soil mining and plugging of the space behind the lining are repeated.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and improved manufacturability of performed works, reduced labour intensiveness of overcoming emergency situations that occur in process of tunnelling.
SUBSTANCE: device for formation of tunnels contains cutting head provided with electric or hydraulic motor, mechanism for cutting head actuation, hydraulic mechanism connected to cutting head and designed with possibility of pushing of cutting heads towards the end of tunnel during material removal and supporting structure for support of previously formed part of tunnel. Supporting structure is designed so that to provide support on the tunnel surface both during stop and movement along the tunnel. Cutting head is designed with possibility to move independent of supporting structure. Besides the device has a conveyor for transportation of removed material from cutting head to the place distant from the cutting head during formation of part of tunnel. Also the method of tunnel formation using this device is proposed.
EFFECT: reducing time for tunnel driving.
31 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of tunnel building includes the following operations: soil development and its transportation, support of mine workings at driving with shotcrete, probably with anchors, arcs and net, geophysical measurement of rock density in bottom-hole zone, which results are used for correction of length of planned driving and thickness of layer of shotcrete in order to speed-up driving and to reduce shotcrete flow rate.
EFFECT: accident prevention, possibility of correction of driving method in order to speed-up it and correction of structure of temporary support in order to improve its efficiency, improving safety of underground operations.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: duplex geovehicle consists of three sections. Two front sections are mounted on load-carrying beams with drives by means of ball races with toothed rims of bevel gear. Section rotation drives are located on diaphragms that are mounted on front ends of load-carrying beams with drives. Each load-carrying beam with a drive is mounted in the guides of rear section with possibility of its retraction. A screw with a separate drive is mounted inside the load-carrying beam. On external surfaces of front rotating sections there located are screw blades with opposite winding direction. Before each blade there mounted are small actuating elements with individual drives and sleeves with screws. In the centre of diaphragms there mounted are hollow beams inside which screws with drives are mounted Flared ends and loading rotors with drives are mounted on the front side of face ends of hollow beams. Drives and actuating elements of rear section are located on its front wall. Outside the front wall: at the top and at the bottom - horizontally, and in the centre - vertically. Drag conveyor, tray and screw with a drive are located behind the front wall inside rear section.
EFFECT: increasing the strength of out-contour layer of rock mass.
SUBSTANCE: method involves uniform destruction of rock mass with continuous cross cutters of cycloidal direction with working tool of planetary flat disc actuators and of tangential direction with working tool of rotary elements. The latter are installed behind front and rear parts of the disc and fixed on reduction gears of planetary flat disc destruction elements.
EFFECT: increasing rock mass destruction efficiency using cross cutters.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves moving of air with moving trains through the circulation ventilation connection connecting the tunnels near the subway station, and through the station. To create the desired air flow through the subway station from moving trains in the tunnel and its regulation depending on the frequency of train movement, the aerodynamic drag of circulation ventilation connection is changed.
EFFECT: lower economic costs for the ventilation of tunnels and subway stations.
SUBSTANCE: method is implemented due to destructing the working face with cross cutters using rotary and planetary disc working members with lower power consumptions and yield of small ore fractions. In order to improve the efficiency of cross cutters, rock-destructing tool of planetary disc members moves in cycloidal-radial directions.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of destructing processes of mine rocks using heading-and-winning machines with cross cutters.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has frontal, two side and two conical working tools with rock-destroying tools on outer surfaces, drives, rigidly connected to axes of each working tool, and displacement mechanism, connected to guides, placed at angle relatively to each other, which angle is determined from mathematical expression. Frontal and each of side working tools are made in form of two rotation bodies, having arced forming lines with given value of convexity. Axes of frontal working tool and axes of two conical working tools are rigidly connected to guides, axes of upper rotation body of frontal working tool being displaced relatively to axis of its lower rotation body towards pit-face, and axes of each pair of side working tools are jointly connected to each other and to guides. Frontal working tool may be made in form of several modules.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes expanding guiding pipeline by extracting soil from around it by driving shield with rotor working implement. Soil is extracted to value, surpassing needed outer diameter of shield cover. Forming ring-shaped space inside tunnel mine is compacted from back side and continuously filled with liquid. Concurrently sedimentation of extracted soil is drained from lower portion of face. Displacement of driving equipment relatively to guiding pipeline is performed along soft trajectory. Device has means for driving guiding pipeline and driving shield with rotor working implement. Rotor working implement is mounted on body of driving shield. Front surface of working implement with cutters extends beyond outer contour of shield cover, provided with back end compaction. Device is provided with fluid pump device. Force hose of pump is outputted from upward portion beyond outer contour of shield cover. Device for transporting extracted soil from face is made in form of suck-in hose connected to pump device and to lower portion of ring space beyond rotor working implement.
EFFECT: lower transverse loads on guiding pipeline.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has two asynchronous electric engines, connected via reducers to drive sprockets of continuous traction chain, provided with plane carriages with their possible displacement along the guide, and hydraulic cylinders for displacing guide on pit-face. To windings of stators of first and second electric engines connected respectively are outputs of first and second frequency converters, inputs of which are connected to power grid and control inputs of which are connected respectively to outputs of first and second frequency adjusters. To frequency adjusters also connected are inputs of load detectors, to outputs of which load balancing block is connected, outputs of which are connected to inputs of first frequency adjuster. To inputs of both frequency adjusters output of load adjuster is connected, inputs of which are connected to load-setting block and load sensor for second engine. To output of second frequency converter connected are input of control block, other input of which is connected to signal block of base plant, and stator winding of third asynchronous engine, which via mechanical link is connected to first and second hydraulic pumps, having constant working volumes. Output of first hydraulic pump is connected to force hydro-main and input of second preventing hydraulic valve and to first inputs of two-position hydraulic distributors with electromagnetic control, to electromagnets of which outputs of control block are connected. Second inputs of two-positional hydraulic distributors with electromagnetic control are connected to control chambers of hydro-controlled two-positional hydro-distributors, which are part of hydro-blocks. Outputs of hydro-controlled two-positional distributors are connected to opposite hollows of volumetric dosing device of each hydro-block, and their inputs are connected respectively to outputs of hydro-distributors for controlling hydro-cylinder for moving the guide on pit-face, inputs of each of which are connected to force and drain hydro-mains, and outputs are connected to piston and rod hollows of appropriate hydro-cylinder.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes erection of wall, prior reinforcement of rock massif along extraction track by drilling longitudinal and slanting wells and forcing reinforcing cementing solutions into these wells, destruction and cleaning of rocks under protection of cementing cover, erection of permanent support, following reinforcement of contour-adjacent massif by cementation solutions through wells, drilled perpendicularly to mine axis. Draining wells are additionally drilled with delay through cementing layer having length greater than thickness of reinforced rocks zone, to form a draining layer around reinforced cover.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: rotor is made in form of cylindrical body, on working surface of which cutter holders are radially placed, each of which is made in form of shaft, freely placed in cylindrical groove of rotor body. Along whole length of each cutter holder cutting elements are mounted with hard-alloy inserts. Between cutter holders cutting elements are placed, made in form of rectangular prisms with hard-alloy inserts.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: building, particularly underground structures erected in difficult mining and geological conditions, namely in soft watered ground bedded under tunnel scoop and forming tunnel base.
SUBSTANCE: tunnel has composite lining including hollow metal members driven in ground and forming screen, load-bearing frames and grouting concrete. Metal members are connected one to another through interlocks. At least some of metal members have rigidity varying along length thereof and increasing in direction opposite to metal member driving direction. Metal members have constant outer diameters.
EFFECT: increased tunnel reliability and operational safety due to prevention of original ground deformation during tunnel building and operation; reduced ground settlement at base of tunnel built under motor road without traffic interruption, reduced building time, power and labor inputs, material consumption due to optimal material distribution along driven member in accordance with load distribution among member parts.
24 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes making a mini-tunnel by serial pressing through, in soil with concurrent feeding of special solution, at least two hollow concrete sections connected with pressing, each of which is made with end portions open at ends, one of which is made on outer side with ring-shaped groove open from end portion, wherein metallic ring is mounted projecting beyond section end, with thickness not greater than groove depth, hollow of which together with inner hollow of end portion of section forms shelf-like cone, and other end portion of section is made stepped and narrowing towards end with forming of bushing portion with one shelf for ring of adjacent section cone and no less than with one shelf for ring compacting insert made of soft pressurizing gas and water impermeable material, tightly clinging by one side to surface of shelf, and by other - to inner surface of ring, while shelves of bushing portion are made within limits of section wall half thickness, which half is directed outwards. End portions of pipeline sections adjacent to mini-tunnel are made matching with adjacent mini-tunnel sections or transfer sections are used and/or inserts, while pipeline is connected to mini-tunnel after pressing through in soil and/or embankment of the last mini-tunnel section.
EFFECT: lower costs, higher reliability and durability.
8 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes cleaning pipes and wells and further maintenance while providing for continuous draining of sewage by liquidating breakdowns, liquidating random obstructions, and also launching new areas of network into operation, while at least one constructed network area is driven though soil or body of existing embankment by, micro-tunneling by means of serial pressing through in soil with concurrent feeding of special solution, at least two hollow concrete sections connected with pressing, each of which is made with end portions open at ends, one of which is made on outer side with ring-shaped groove open from end portion, wherein metallic ring is mounted projecting beyond section end, with thickness not greater than groove depth, hollow of which together with inner hollow of end portion of section forms shelf-like cone, and other end portion of section is made stepped and narrowing towards end with forming of bushing portion with one shelf for ring of adjacent section cone and no less than with one shelf for ring compacting insert made of soft pressurizing gas and water impermeable material, tightly clinging by one side to surface of shelf, and by other - to inner surface of ring, while shelves of bushing portion are made within limits of section wall half thickness, which half is directed outwards. After pressing through all sections of reconstructed network portion free ends of end sections are connected to existing network.
EFFECT: higher reliability and durability, lower costs.
8 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes continuous feeding of electric power having appropriate frequency and voltage to consumers due to maintenance operations, and also launching new areas of network into operation, while at least one of constructed network areas is driven in soil or in body of existing embankment by micro-tunneling by means of serial pressing in soil with concurrent feeding of special solution of at least two hollow concrete sections, connected to each other and to network with pressing, each section being made with open end portions, one of which is made on outer side with open circular groove at end portion, wherein metallic ring is mounted, projecting behind end piece, having thickness no greater than groove depth, hollow of which together with inner hollow of end portion of section forms shelf-like cone, and other end portion of section is made stepped and narrowing towards end with forming of bushing portion with one shelf for ring of adjacent section cone and no less, than with one shelf for ring compacting insert of soft pressurizing gas and water impermeable material, tightly clinging by one side to shelf surface, and by other side - to inner surface of ring, while shelves of bushing portion are made within limits of outward-directed half of thickness of section wall. After pressing through all sections of reconstructed network portion, free ends of end sections are attached to existing network.
EFFECT: lower laboriousness, lower costs, higher reliability and durability.
8 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly underground structures built under difficult mining and geological conditions, namely in presence of soft watered grounds at tunnel base.
SUBSTANCE: tunnel comprises prefabricated lining including hollow metal members driven in ground and forming a screen, load-bearing frames and grouting concrete. Metal members are joined by means of locking means. At least some metal members driven in ground have constant outer diameters. At least part of above metal members are composed of sections having different lengths. Lengths of the metal members decrease in direction opposite to the driving direction.
EFFECT: increased reliability and operational safety due to prevention of original ground surface settlement during tunnel building and operation; prevention of ground settlement during tunnel building under traffic road without traffic interruption, reduced time of tunnel building, labor and power inputs, material consumption due to optimal material distribution along driven member in correspondence with loading of its sections.
21 cl, 12 dwg