Sealed electric connector

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: sealed electric connector contains a cable terminal, a receptacle, a swivel nut and two bushings with conic surfaces for fixation of the logging cable armature; the cable terminal is designed to be composite, consisting of an upper and a lower bodies, thread-connected. The swivel nut and the two bushings with conic surfaces are attached in the upper body upper part wherein boring is done for installation of a thrust washer and sealing elements. On the external conic bushing a facet is made, the thrust washer made of a metal less hard than the cable armature wire. In the lower body an insulator-confined contact is positioned whereon the bushing is fitted that protects against breakdown and serves as the support assimilating the force of coupling with the receptacle. The socket is designed to be removable and represents a body wherein a female contact and a shank are pressed-in, on one side and on the other side respectively, the contact and the shank forming a sealed lead-in. The bushing, insulator and sealed lead-in are interfaced in a stepped manner. The receptacles is mechanically connected to the body with the help of the swivel nut.

EFFECT: invention ensures high tightness of the connector under high pressure.

2 cl, 2 dwg


The invention relates to electrical engineering, and in particular to devices used during geophysical surveys of wells, and to control the parameters in the working wells, and is intended for electrical and mechanical connection logging cable with downhole tools.

Known cable lug (RF patent for useful model №38355 from 23.07.02 g), contains a cap and two conical surfaces for fixing the carrying armor, sealing element, the connecting bridge, building and chocolatprincess the drive sleeve locking device has a double-sided cone.

The disadvantages of this device are the complexity of the design, which does not provide sufficient protection of the cable from twisting. In addition, this design features a fairly large length, which limits its use. Reduced reliability of the device and of the device, since the seal seals inevitably leads to the ingress of formation fluids into the unit and cause malfunction due to the circuit conductor parts on the body. In the case of leaking joints mate with the housing unit, the liquid will get and also inside the unit and will result in failure of the device.

Closest to the claimed invention is a cable lug is artigny type NC (TU 41-03-730-82), comprising a housing, in which is fixed to the outlet of electrocoagulated, by means of which the electric circuit of the downhole tool is connected to the cable. In the bottom of the body are electrical sensors, which are connected with the outlet of electrocoagulated using conductors. The electrical sensors are protected from mechanical damage by glass, which is screwed onto the housing and is fixed on the housing lock washer. In the upper part of the glass is the cable clamp.

The main disadvantage of this technical solution is that the Assembly and disassembly of the tip is provided with a rigid connection and mutual fixation of the node cable clamp to the housing of the handpiece, which include electrical sensors. This leads to the twisting and bending of the wires of the cable and, consequently, to the breaking lived in places soldering and disturbance isolation of electrical sensors. Sealing and insulation of electrical sensors, are soldered to the cable conductors, is made by means of an insulating tape, which is applied manually with a simultaneous coating of the adhesive composition. Because of imperfections in this process there is a partial breaking of the wires of the cable in the soldering joints. For connecting the wires of the cable to the socket of electrocoagulated intermediate conductors, the length of which is chosen by a large margin, as the socket installed is deep inside the body of the handpiece. When installing the outlet conductors are subjected to repeated bending, which leads to their breaking of the soldering joints. Mount the cable clamp in the glass with a screw complicates the Assembly process and especially after disassembly operation in the well.

The objective of the invention is to improve the reliability hermetic electrical connector, ensuring its integrity at high pressure and small size in diameter and length.

The technical result is achieved in that in a sealed electrical connector containing a cable tip, socket, cap nut and the two conical surfaces for fixing the logging cable armor, cable lug made of composite, United by the thread of the upper and lower body. While bolting and two conical surfaces are attached to the upper part of the upper body, which carried out the bore to install the thrust washers and seals. On the outer tapered sleeve is made chamfer, and thrust washer is made of metal with a lower hardness than the wire armor cable. In the lower body is pin contact insulator on which the wear sleeve, protects against breakdown and serves as a stop perceiving the force of coupling with the socket. Socket issue is Lana removable in the form of housing, in which are pressed from one side of the socket and shank, forming a hermetical input. The coupling sleeve, the insulator and the inlet is screwed performed stepwise. Socket with cable lug mechanically connect with the Union nut. Hermetic electrical connector includes a dielectric fluid that fills the inner cavity of the socket and the cable lug in the upper housing which is located the valve to remove air when entering the dielectric fluid. The diameter of the cap nut 23 mm, and its length is not more than 95 mm

1 shows a cable lug, General view; figure 2 is sealed electrical connector Assembly section.

Structurally sealed electrical connector includes a cable lug and socket. Cable tip is made of a composite of the top 1 and bottom 2 of the housing (see figure 1 and 2), which are connected by threads. In the upper part of the upper housing 1 are fasteners armor logging cable 3 - twin tapered bushing inner 4 and outer 5, and thrust washer 6, which by means of the Union nut 7 is fastened to the upper part of the upper housing 1. In the bore 8 are sealing elements 9 (ring or cuff), which seal the cable conductor 3. The proposed construction of the mount armor KAB is La 3 and the preliminary deformation of the sealing elements 9 are locking nut 7. In the process of tightening the Union nut 7 sealing elements 9 tightly compresses the core of the cable 3 and fixed relative to the upper housing 1. To avoid twisting of the cable conductor 3, the cable itself and the parts 4, 5, 6 needed when tightening the Union nut 7 to remain stationary relative to the upper housing 1 and the cap nut 7 should slip on the outer sleeve 5. For this purpose, the outer tapered sleeve 5 is made chamfer 10, which reduces the shoulder of the moment of friction force, and therefore the moment of friction force between the locking nut 7 and the outer tapered sleeve 5 in comparison with the moment of friction force between the upper housing 1 and the thrust washer 6. To avoid slippage of the inner tapered sleeve 4 and the thrust washer 6, the material of the thrust washer 6 is selected so that the wire armor logging cable 3 when tightening the Union nut 7 is pressed into the surface of the thrust washer 6. Because of the conical sleeve 4 and 5 are in contact tapered surfaces, the pressure on these surfaces, and, consequently, the frictional force between them will greatly exceed the pressure and the friction force between the locking nut 7 and the outer tapered sleeve 5 (the more, the smaller the angle of the cone), that approximates the shoulders of these forces gives the same ratio and their moments.

The conductive core geophysical ka is El 3 is connected to the pin contact 11, which is installed in the insulator 12, and the connection cable conductor 3 and the pin contact 11 of the wear sleeve 13 of insulating material, and the whole design is located in the lower body 2. The sleeve 13, during the soldering pin contact 11, is placed in the bore 14 of the upper shell 1, and after soldering is put on the insulator 12 and a thread connected to the upper housing 1. This sleeve 13 protects the solder joints from accidental short circuits on the housing of the cable tip, as well as through manual pairing with an insulator 12 increases the path length of the leakage current and prevents breakdown at high voltages. The sleeve 13 also serves as a stop perceiving the force of coupling with the socket, due to the threaded connection with the upper housing 1.

At the junction of the upper and lower housings 1 and 2 establish sealing elements 15. Union nut 16 serves for the mechanical connection of the cable lug and the wall outlet, and for sealing the connection establish sealing elements 17.

The socket is made in the form of a casing 18, which is pressed from one side of the socket 20 and the shank 21 for connection with the wires of the device (not shown), which is a hermetical input 19 (a utility model patent of the Russian Federation No. 42703 from 02.08.2004,). The mating surfaces of the inlet is screwed with 19 isolation also performed stepwise, which increases the path length of the leakage current, preventing breakdown at high voltages. For sealing the connection socket from the housing unit is provided sealing elements 22.

The inner cavity of the cable lug after Assembly is filled with a dielectric fluid through the gaps between the lower case 2 and the insulator 12 pin contact 11, and the air is expelled through the valve 23 located in the upper housing 1, after filling valve 23 is closed. Before joining the deepening of the outlet-side coupling fill dielectric fluid, is then inserted into the cable lug open valve 23, through which overlook the excess dielectric liquid, and tighten the cap nut 16, and the valve 23 is closed. The filling of the cable lug of the dielectric fluid in conjunction with the use of sealed sockets allows to increase the reliability of the instrument, so as to leak the internal cavity of the cable lug will not lead to failure of the device. Dielectric fluid practically does not change the volume when the pressure increases (unlike air) and, in the case of depressurization, prevents the penetration of the reservoir fluid into the internal cavity of the cable lug that prevents the closure of the live parts on the body, is that what are the equalization of pressure in the inner cavity of the connector with the environment.

The advantage of this hermetic electrical connector are small size in diameter, the diameter of the cap nut 16 is 23 mm vs. 36 mm minimum diameter of cable lugs and heads of probes according to GOST 14213-89, and a diameter of 28 mm and at least lugs cable type NC on TU 41-03-730-82. The length of the sealed electrical connector Assembly is 95 mm, this is achieved by placing the seal cable conductor immediately after the fastening elements of the armor of the cable, run the cable housing of the handpiece compound. Small size hermetic electrical connector can be used in confined dimensions, for example, in devices, through which the motor shaft or with the channel (set in the context of the tubing string).

1. Hermetic electrical connector containing a cable tip, socket, cap nut and the two conical surfaces for fixing armor logging cable, wherein the cable tip made of composite United by the thread of the upper and lower housings, with Union nut and two conical surfaces are attached to the upper part of the upper body, which made the hole to install the thrust washers and sealing elements, external to what usnei sleeve made chamfer, and thrust washer is made of metal with a lower hardness than the wire armor cable in the lower body is pin contact insulator on which the wear sleeve, protects against breakdown and serves as a stop perceiving the force of coupling with the socket, is made removable, in the form of a casing, in which are pressed from one side of the socket and shank, forming a hermetical input pair bushing, insulator and inlet is screwed performed stepwise, socket with cable tip is mechanically connected by means of a Union nut.

2. Sealed electrical connector according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains dielectric fluid that fills the inner cavity of the socket and the cable lug in the upper housing which is located the valve to remove air when entering the dielectric fluid.


Same patents:

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: tip for electrical connection contains sleeve (2) with cavity (9) partially filled with contact lubrication meant for introduction of electric cable (22) end in it and containing section (5) of crimping designed with possibility of its radial deforming. End includes also a plug (15) meant for confinement of contact lubrication (14) in cavity (9). Plug (15) has transverse membrane (16) designed with possibility of its destruction by electric cable (22) when it is being inserted in cavity (9). Plug (15) is at least one section located inside section (5) of crimping. Contact lubrication (14) is located between bottom part (12) of cavity (9) and membrane (16). Connection method includes a stage at which transverse membrane (16) is destroyed by end of electric cable (22) when it is being inserted in cavity (9).

EFFECT: improving airtightness of electrical connection after its crimping.

16 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: device is vertically fixed to a compressor or a pump for pumping of a condensate gas and/or liquid or to an inlet/outlet of a transformer. The device comprises an input unit to supply power through it to a compressor or a pump electric motor or to an inlet/outlet of a transformer; a funnel-shaped body with a body chamber, besides, the input unit is installed on the upper end of the chamber; a grid arranged across the longitudinal axis of the chamber, besides, the input unit is arranged above the grid, a filter arranged in a chamber under the grid and above the input hole into the electric motor body or the input/output hole of the transformer body, and also a metering unit passing inside the chamber from the input unit in direction towards the grid, but arranged at a certain distance from the grid.

EFFECT: higher stability of functioning, durability of a compressor or a pump and its electric motor.

34 cl, 10 dwg

Electric connector // 2457590

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: electric connector consists of a plug receptacle (1) with male contacts positioned (31) within its cavity and movable plug head (2) with female contacts (32) for electric conductors ends connection (25, 26). For fixation of the plug head in the plug receptacle with form closure a shape lock ring is applied that is fitted, with part of its cross section, into the plug head groove passing along the perimeter; during the electric connector locking the ring engages, with the rest of its cross section, into the groove arranged on the inner side surface of the plug receptacle. The shape of the lock ring and the grooves as well as the lock ring material are such that the plug head (2) is taken out of the plug receptacle (1) only by a pull force in excess of a certain threshold value. The plug head (2), connected in the same way, is fixed with its end in the congruent end of the plug movable body (3) with form closure ensured by the fixture ring (4). The force enabling the plug head taking out of the plug receptacle is less than the force retaining the plug head in the plug body with fixture ring connection.

EFFECT: detachable plug performing its function without damage to the plug.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in the demountable vacuum electrical connector the first and the third splits, mounted on a board with current-conducting paths, form an extension board rigidly installed on stands inside the flange. A groove is formed on the whole perimetre of the first hollow inside the flange, along the lower ridge of the side wall. The inner hollow of the flange with the extension board, above the level of recesses in the first split electric contacts is filled with a sealant. On the third body of the third split a cover is placed attached on the stands and the flange. Lobes with holes are arranged on the flange outside, on its sides. A pad for the tightening element fixation is envisaged on the flange surface around the first split. The connector counterpart is made on the plate of the appliance being sealed and includes a depression for the tightening element, mounting holes for the flange and the second split installed in the depression.

EFFECT: expanded field and enhanced efficiency of usage of unsealed standard multipin splits based on application of a demountable vacuum electric connector for physical appliances sealing.

8 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: subject of this invention is an electric connection slot comprising a plug (10), equipped with primary contacts (20), and a base (12), equipped with secondary contacts (24), made as capable of interaction with the primary contacts. The connection slot additionally comprises a valve (30), fixed on the base and arranged as capable of rotation between the closed position, in which it closes access to secondary contacts (24), and the open position, in which it opens access to the secondary contacts to provide for connection of the plug with the base, and a circular coupling (40), fixed on an electric cable (14), connected to the plug (10), and made as capable of movement between two extreme positions: the lower position, in which it closes the valve (30), when the plug and the base are connected, and the upper position, in which it opens access to the plug.

EFFECT: increased reliability and service life, due to prevention of ingress of contaminating foreign matters, such as liquids or dust, into the slot base.

9 cl, 9 dwg

Connecting node // 2443043

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the connecting nodes for connection of electric power cable (1) to the submarine pipeline (8) and/or disconnecting from it, in particular, for direct electric heating. Connective node contains envelope conical member (6) connected to the connective plate (2) on the surface of pipeline (8), reverse enveloped conical member (5) fixed on the end of power cable (1) and screw tightening device (70) for contact between envelope conical member (6) and enveloped conical member (5). Tightening device (70) includes first rod element (7) mage with possibility of entering the first socket (16) of envelope conical element (6) having the hole directed against the direction of the cone (12) of envelope conical element (6) and serving for location of first rod element (7) with first rod element (7) having tightening screw (7a), inner end (7c) of which is manufactured with possibility of contact with enveloped conical element (5) and outer end (7b) is available for connection and disconnection operations.

EFFECT: quick and safe connection of the cable to the pipeline and/or its disconnection.

11 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: connector assembly for connection of first and second conductors comprise base with section to accommodate first and second insert terminals and flap cap pivoted to case to cover said section. Cap has main part, section retaining conductors, and retainer. Section retaining conductors incorporates first and second conductor holders each intended for retaining and leveling relevant conductor relative to aforesaid base required for connecting electric conductor to retaining section of relevant insert terminal in closing proposed cap. Conductor holder clamping force is lower than that of insert terminal. Retainer allows securing cap to case with cap on closed position. In changing said in open position, first and second conductors are retained by first and second insert terminals on being released from first and second holders.

EFFECT: ease of use and proper connection.

15 cl, 26 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: submerged electric connector consists of coaxial socket and plug. Connector consists of coaxial socket and plug. Current-carrying thin-wall cylinders of connector are made in the form of shells entering each other, into the bottom of which central pins electrically connected to bottom are mounted. Inductance coils are arranged inside shells between cylinders and central pins on ferrite rings and connected to source and receiver of signal. When in closed position, both halves of connector represent short-circuited turn through which transformer connection between inductance coils of instrument and diving parts is performed.

EFFECT: increasing efficiency coefficient of connector and providing the possibility of using the connector in multiple-channel devices of transfer of electric energy from full electric isolation between channels at their close location irrespective of the fact whether halves of connectors are open or closed.

3 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device with housing (1), in which there installed is at least one contact pin (3), differs by the fact that pin (3) includes the section covered with sleeve (6) containing circular cylindrical outer surface; at that, sleeve is tightly attached to the pin and located in seat (20) of the housing, which is restricted with circular cylindrical wall (26). At that, sealing gasket (30) is installed between outer surface of sleeve and the wall restricting the seat.

EFFECT: improving tightness of connection between contact pins and housing.

8 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: explosion-proof plug-and-socket (1) comprises plug (2) and socket (3). Plug (2) comprises case (4) with at least two pins (6) arranged in plug insert (5), and socket (3) comprises case (7) with response sockets (9) arranged in socket insert (8). One of cases (4, 7) is equipped with external bush (10), which may be detachably joined to other case (7, 4). To provide for protection of "d" type, fire-resistant shell, and protection of type "e", higher safety, even prior to engagement of pins (6) into electric contact with sockets (9), between external bush (10) and other case (7, 4), the first clearance (11) is formed, and between external bush (10) and appropriate insert (4, 8) there is the second gap (12).

EFFECT: improved convenience of plug-and-socket handling, especially when disconnecting plug from socket, with preservation of its explosion-proof property.

17 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: plug connectors for cables of subsurface workings of mines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cable-terminating plug forms hollow plug socket of brass whose hollow section on cable end forms cable entry hole and has supporting collar that functions to support male connecting member projection in axial direction. Cable entry hole is provided with inner thread for turning in metal tetrahedron that has through hole for cable entry. Cable screen or armor can be placed between through hole and cable sheath to ensure adequate grounding of cable and cable plug. Inner space of plug socket is sealed by means of shaped part molded on cable sheath, on plug socket, and on polyhedron. Shaped part is also used for securing cable in axial direction on plug socket.

EFFECT: ability of long-time service in damp media due to reliable sealing attained by simple means.

13 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: cable jointing devices.

SUBSTANCE: cable jointing box provided with through duct to receive respective cable end mounts cup-shaped electric contact whose edge forms hold-down ring tightly enclosing reduced-diameter box section. Naked conducting member is placed between electric contact and box section. Hold-down ring is squeezed to tighten up joint between duct wall and cable sheath. Tightening sleeve is capable of holding two boxes, each being connected to cable through respective electric contacts. Sleeve provides for tight joint between interrelated cable parts in region bounded by sleeve and boxes.

EFFECT: enhanced quality of wire-to-cable joint.

8 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; drilling and servicing inclined and horizontal oil-gas wells.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cable connector specially designed to prevent ingress of conducting medium (drilling mud) into its interior thereby ensuring reliable insulation of contacts from environment and preventing electric current leakage (leakage resistance being minimum 50 - 100 Megohms), or poor contact between connector mating parts has pin section and jack section with contact members inside them, as well as membrane. Jack section is made in the form of cylindrical shroud with stepped inner space accommodating contacts made in the form of flexible split rings secured on flexible cross-arms, flexible membrane disposed at pin section joint, and spring-loaded sealing ring mounted within shroud for displacement. Inner space of jack section is filled with insulating liquid. Cylindrical pin section has conical end; diameter of pin cylindrical part is larger than inner diameter of sealing ring.

EFFECT: enhanced tightness and reliability of contact between mating parts of connector.

1 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed junction module has independent connecting member inserted in jacks which are connected to modular members incorporated in operating and protective equipment of transformer substations and power distribution systems. Each connecting member has external flexible shroud accommodating conducting ring wherein plurality of conducting parts are installed and passed through ring channels. Mentioned conducting parts are assembled in bundle for its axial displacement and turning in ring which makes it possible to wire and connect them to respective contact leads provided in jacks and related to each of adjacent members.

EFFECT: eliminated leakage of protective gas during junction due to reliable sealing and insulation of joint.

6 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; electrical connections to supply power to submersible pump motor for extracting stratum liquid.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cable extension-cord box of submersible motor cable line that suffers in operation high hydrostatic pressure and temperature has box proper accommodating cable fixed in position by means of fastening member; cable has conductors and terminal block provided with holes to receive cable lugs and conductors connected to them; at least one of joints between cable conductors and lugs is disposed in terminal block hole at distance L ≥ 0.5 d, where d is cable conductor diameter, from butt-end surface of block disposed closer to supporting member additionally installed in cable box and provided with holes to receive cable conductors.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and service life, enlarged functional capabilities of device.

20 cl, 8 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: devices for formation of electrical connections in vehicles; the repair kit is designated for repair of a failed electrical device of a vehicle connected to the vehicle electrical equipment system by several wires.

SUBSTANCE: the repair kit has a new electrical device installed instead of the failed one, several wires connected to the new electrical device and a built-up protective box designated for protection of the electrical connection made by joining of the wires of the new electrical device and the wires of the vehicle electrical equipment system. The built-up protective box has a body with several holes insulated from one another. The packing rings positioned in each hole of the body intended for arrangement of the new electrical device section of the connected respective wire of the vehicle electrical equipment system and the respective new electrical device form in fact a waterproof packing around the section of the wires connected to one another by joining. The protective built-up box has also a cover joined to the body. The claimed repair kit is preferably designated for replacement of the sensor of the content of oxygen in exhausted gases failed on the vehicle.

EFFECT: simplified aftersale servicing of the vehicle.

9 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: electric engineering, possible use during drilling and operation of slanting and horizontal oil-gas wells.

SUBSTANCE: cable socket for operation in conductive environment consists of rod and socket parts with holding assembly. Holding assembly is positioned in rod part of socket and includes spring-loaded bushing, internal diameter of which is greater than external diameter of socket part body, and holding elements, held together by resilient ring and in casing, which is pressed by spring to internal shelf of rod part body. Rod part additionally contains rotary cutoff plate and lever connected thereto, pinned on an axis.

EFFECT: reliable holding of cable socket, and also reliable connection of rod and socket parts at low force, applied to cable with socket held on its end, while disconnection occurs at distance 200-500 meters from force application point.

2 dwg

Sealed plug // 2292102

FIELD: instrumentation engineering; space-rocket technology, aeronautical engineering, and advanced radio electronic devices.]

SUBSTANCE: proposed sealed plug has metal shroud that incorporates cylindrical part being jointed, rectangular flange, and cylindrical wiring tail, as well as glass insulator installed within shroud and reinforced by dowel pins. Shroud accommodates intermediate steel ring assembled by tight fit, its inner diameter being equal to outer one of glass insulator. Plug shroud is built of two parts of which first one has cylindrical part being jointed and front end of rectangular flange abutting against the latter and made of light-mass metal alloys whose coefficient of linear expansion is close to that of steel, as well as second end of rectangular flange abutting against cylindrical wiring tail, and cylindrical wiring tail, both made of steel.

EFFECT: reduced size and mass at high degree of plug tightness.

1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed printed-circuit conductor 1 is provided with a number of jacks 2 for same number of terminals 3 to which magnet wires 8 are drawn by means of tool 11 to form junction by passing magnet wires 8 through terminals 3. Each jack or cavity 2 is separated from adjacent one by means of transverse partitions 4 and 4' which makes it possible to introduce sealing compound into respective cavity 2 of jack up to level 12 below input step 10 of magnet wires and above edge of terminals 3 so as to ensure that mentioned terminals and junction points between them and magnet wires 8 are immersed in sealing compound to prevent oxidation at junction points.

EFFECT: enhanced effective life of sealing compound.

8 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electrical connector and method for connecting coaxial cable lead to terminal.

SUBSTANCE: proposed connector has nut incorporating receiving port for connection to terminal. Nut also has circular clip. Connector also has base member one of whose ends is provided with projection to be inserted through clip hole. Other end of base member incorporates part of inner surface. Connector also has support with flange and body. Support is free to move for compressing external cable conductor and shell with support body and part of inner surface to obtain distal compression. Tightening nut with terminal compresses projection between support flange and circular clip to obtain proximal tightness.

EFFECT: enhanced tightness, reduced manufacturing and maintenance charges.

10 cl, 11 dwg