Gas-turbine engine, test method of gas-turbine engine, production method of batch of gas-turbine engines (versions), and operating method of gas-turbine engine

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: test methods of gas-turbine engines (GTE) are described in the group of inventions. When performing test steps, alternation of modes is performed, which exceed as to duration the programmed flight time; at that, typical flight cycles are being pre-formed, on the basis of which damageability of the most loaded parts is determined. The required number of loading cycles during the test is determined based on the above. Full scope of tests is formed, including a quick change of cycles in the complete register from quick selection of maximum or full augmented power mode till complete stop of the engine, and then, representative cycle of continuous operation with multiple alteration of modes in the whole working spectrum with various span of range of the mode change, which exceeds the flight time at least by 5 times. Quick selection of maximum or augmented power mode in some part of the test cycle is performed at the rate of acceleration and discharge.

EFFECT: development of aircraft gas-turbine engines, their test methods, adjustments, pilot and industrial production and operation with increased reliability of test results at any of the steps from pilot and industrial specimen to industrial production.

8 cl

 

The group of inventions so linked as a single creative idea relates to the field of aircraft engine industry, namely to aircraft gas turbine engines of the type, methods of testing, pilot and industrial production and operation.

Known gas turbine engine made of double-circuit, includes a housing placed in it turbo-compressor unit comprising a compressor and turbine high and low pressure, at least one main combustion chamber, a jet nozzle system air supply and air cooling, hydraulic, fuel and lubrication systems, and monitoring systems and engine management (kliachkin A.L. Theory of air-jet engines. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1969, str-396).

There is a method of testing gas turbine engine, taking into account seasonal factors testing, including prescribed in the technical specifications operating time at maximum thrust in a stationary mode and variable modes with access to the specified maximum thrust with the current during the test the temperature of atmospheric air. In the final stage of testing the engine output at maximum thrust, increase the temperature of the air entering the engine to a value greater than the outer temperature of 50-180C, and give extra time and an extra outputs on the maximum thrust (EN 2210066 C1, publ. 10.08.2003).

There is a method of developing and testing aircraft engines, which consists in measuring the parameters on engine operating conditions and bringing them to standard atmospheric conditions, taking into account changes in the properties of the working fluid and geometric characteristics of the flow part of the engine when changing atmospheric conditions (Ulletin, Vojnovic. Characteristics and performance properties of aircraft turbojet engines. Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1979, s-137).

There is a method of developing and testing aircraft engine type gas turbine, including the development of preset modes, the control parameters and the assessment of the resource and reliability of the engine. To reduce the time of testing, the final design of the engines 10-20% of the tests carried out with the gas temperature before the turbine exceeding the maximum operating temperature of 45-65C (SU 1151075 A1, publ. 10.08.2004).

A known method for industrial production of aircraft gas turbine engines of the type including manufacturing and factory Assembly of power, control, command and Executive units, units and systems of the engine, including compressors, turbines, combustion air, fuel and oil system and engine management system (Kartashov, VA, Cachan YA, Dolmatov A.I., Brain SCI, Korenevsky DEATH Technologist who I production of aircraft engines Zaporozhye. Ed. Motor Sich, 2009 [textbook.]; 4.1 Assembly of aircraft engines, Section 3, p.26-61.

The known method of operation of aircraft engines, including maintenance operations, preflight preparation, starting, warm-up, the output provided by the rules of flight modes and shutdown of the engine, as well as prevention, current and capital repairs (Waitwindow, Vojnovic. Characteristics and performance properties of aircraft turbojet engines. Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1979, s-137).

The General disadvantages of the known technical solutions are increased labor and energy consumption testing and not enough high assessment of the resource and reliability of the engine in a wide range of flight regimes and operating conditions, due to non-maturity programs bring concrete results test results related to the standard operating conditions of the engine by known methods, which do not take into account with sufficient correctness change settings and modes of operation of the engine. This complicates the possibility of bringing experimental test parameters to the parameters as close as possible to the real structure and the specific value of the engine operating conditions during operation, at every stage of development, refining, pilot, serial etc the production and operation of aircraft engines.

The objective of the invention is to develop aircraft engine type gas turbine, means testing, adjustment, pilot and industrial production and operation with increased reliability of the test results at any stage from the pilot sample to production and flight operation of aircraft engines, including enabling the development of a typical flight cycles, defining resource and reliability of the engine in conditions as close to the real structure and the specific value of the engine operating conditions during operation.

The task in terms of method of testing gas turbine engine (GTE) is solved in that test, according to the invention, includes the alternation of modes when performing steps a test duration of operation of the gas turbine engine exceeding a software flight, which initially form a typical flight cycles and determine the defectiveness of the most loaded parts, on this basis determine the required number of loading cycles during the test, and then form a complete volume of testing, including the execution of a sequence of test cycles - quick access to the maximum or full-power mode, fast mode "small gas", shutdown, and long cycle p is bots with multiple interleaved modes over the entire operating range with different scale range change operation modes of the gas turbine engine, in excess of flight time in 56 times, with different scale range change modes of operation implemented by modifying the level drop of the gas in the specific test modes from beginner to the highest maximum or full forced operation mode of the gas turbine engine by moving the initial point of reference when executing the corresponding mode, taking the latter in one of the modes in the position corresponding to the level of "small gas", and in other modes in the intermediate or end positions, corresponding to different percentage or the full value of the maximum gas level or full forced mode, and quick access to the maximum or forced modes of the test cycle is carried out in the pace of pick-up and reset.

In this part of the test cycles can be performed without heating the mode "low gas" after startup.

Test cycle can be formed on the basis of flight cycles for combat and training applications gas turbine engine.

The task in terms of mode of production batch of gas turbine engines, which perform an experimental batch of the CCD, while producing at least the Assembly each test engine, including mount the chassis and powertrain of the engine, including the I compressor unit, turbine, jet nozzle, at least one combustion chamber, air and fuel and hydraulic oil systems, monitoring, command and control elements, units and systems, and test assembled an experienced GTD on resource definition and reliability in terms of multi-mode flight, is solved by the fact that, according to the invention, tests produce the above tests GTD, upon completion of the test program to analyze the results, eliminate the deficiencies, if necessary, make changes in the design or in the individual nodes of the CCD and is considered a prototype is made and appropriate given program.

The task in part of the gas turbine engine is solved by the fact that, according to the invention, the engine is made of multi-shaft, includes a housing placed in it by the compressor unit, at least the main combustion chamber, turbines, high and low pressure, jet nozzle, in addition, the engine includes an air system, hydraulic fuel and malinow system and the current system of monitoring the operation of all units of the engine, the control system comprising blocks collection, online processing of the current working information by issuing the commands, controls and subordinate ispolnitelyami and units listed systems, when this engine was tested by the method according to any of items 1-3 for the definition of a resource and reliability program playback conditions of flight operations, as close as possible to the real structure and the specific value of the specified modes of operation of gas turbine engine.

The task in terms of mode of production batch of gas turbine engines, in which at least a production factory Assembly of engines, each engine mount to the chassis and powertrain of the engine, including compressors, turbines, at least one combustion chamber, air and fuel and hydraulic oil systems, monitoring, command and control elements, blocks and systems and make a bench test serial gas turbine engines from the party identically produced GTE, is solved by the fact that, according to the invention, the test subject group of the engines of the industrial party GTE and produce test the above test method GTE on resource definition and reliability of commercially produced industrial engine and check their compliance with the specified values, if necessary, with subsequent transfer of the test results obtained in specific atmospheric and climatic conditions, to values corresponding to the mill is artnum atmospheric conditions, with the possibility of subsequent conversion of the end results, if necessary, to any other desired atmospheric and climatic conditions, which is a particular serial engine or party simultaneously produced identical gas turbine engines with the possible inclusion of such information in the technical documentation of the engine.

The task in terms of method of operating a gas turbine engine, in which each time before you start perform a readiness check of the engine to work, run, warm-up and output of the engine to be specified in the bylaws operating modes, periodically make routine inspections, repairs, and at least one major repair, is solved by the fact that, according to the invention, after the overhaul, the engine is subjected to bench testing the above test method GTE on resource definition and reliability of the engine, the results of which, if necessary, produce the post-repair adjustments and, if necessary, perform additional variant testing correlated with thematic content of the subsequent finishing and regulations subsequent stage of operation of the gas turbine engine.

After overhaul and/or subsequent finishing of atterberry engine can be subjected to the test on the surge and defining the boundaries of the gas-dynamic stability.

The technical result provided by the present set of features, is to develop a method of testing, which increases the reliability of the test results, which is achieved due to the developed invention interleaving modes when performing stages of testing, which the duration exceeds the software during the flight, while the pre-form a typical flight cycles on the basis of which the program determine the defectiveness of the most loaded parts and on this basis determine the required number of loading cycles during the test. Form the full scope of testing, including rapid change cycles in the full range from quick exit to the maximum or full-power mode to a full stop, and then a representative cycle of long-term work with multiple interleaved modes over the entire operating range with different scale range change modes greater than the flight time of not less than 5 times, and quick access to the maximum or forced mode on half of the test cycle is carried out in the pace of pick-up and reset. This allows to simplify the subsequent tests to increase the accuracy and to extend the representativeness of the evaluation of the resource and reliability of the engine at all stages of creation, debugging, production p is izvodstva and flight operation of gas turbine engines with the correct distribution representative estimates on a wide range of regional and seasonal conditions subsequent flight operation of the engine, performed in accordance with the invention.

The method of testing gas turbine engine includes interleaving modes when performing steps a test duration of operation of the engine exceeding a software flight. First, form a typical flight cycles and determine the defectiveness of the most loaded parts. On this basis determine the required number of loading cycles during the test. Then form the full scope of the tests, including the execution of a sequence of test cycles - quick access to the maximum or full-power mode. Fast reset mode "idling". The shutdown. Then do a cycle of continuous operation with multiple interleaved modes over the entire operating range with different scale range change operation modes of the gas turbine engine, which in the aggregate exceed the flight time 56 times. Different scale range change modes when testing gas turbine engine implemented by modifying the level drop of the gas in the specific test modes from beginner to the highest maximum or full forced operation mode of the gas turbine engine by moving the initial point of reference when executing the corresponding mode. The last take in one of the modes in the position corresponding to the level of "mA is initial gas". Other modes do with the starting point in the intermediate or end positions, which corresponds to a different percentage or the full value of the maximum gas level or full forced mode. Quick access to the maximum or forced modes of the test cycle is carried out in the pace of pick-up and reset.

Part of test cycles when testing gas turbine engine is carried out without heating in the idling mode after startup.

Test cycle when testing gas turbine engine formed on the basis of flight cycles for combat and training applications of the engine.

In the production method of the party of gas turbine engines have experienced party GTE. Produce, at least, the Assembly each test engine, including mount chassis and powertrain engine including a compressor unit, turbine, jet nozzle, at least one combustion chamber, air and fuel and hydraulic oil systems, monitoring, command and control elements, units and systems. Test mounted the experienced GTD on resource definition and reliability in terms of multi-mode flight. Tests produced by the above test method GTE. Upon completion of the test program to analyze the gender of the obtained results. Eliminate the identified deficiencies. If necessary, make changes in the design or in the individual nodes of the CCD and is considered a prototype is made and appropriate given program.

Gas turbine engine shaft made. The engine includes a housing with inside compressor block at least the primary combustion chamber, turbines high and low pressure jet nozzle. The engine includes an air system, hydraulic fuel and malinow system and the current system of monitoring the operation of all units of the engine, the control system comprising blocks collection, online processing of the current working information by issuing the commands, controls and subordinate Executive units and units of the listed systems. The engine tested by the above test method GTE on resource definition and reliability program playback conditions of flight operations, as close as possible to the real structure and the specific value of the specified modes of operation of gas turbine engine.

In the production method of the party of gas turbine engines operate at least a production factory Assembly engines. Each engine is mounted to the chassis and powertrain of the engine, including compressors, turbines, not less than Comodo the combustion chamber, air and fuel and hydraulic oil systems, monitoring, command and control elements, units and systems. Produce bench test serial gas turbine engines from the party identically manufactured by GTE. Test expose the group to engines of the industrial party GTE and produce tested by the above test method GTE on resource definition and reliability of commercially produced industrial engine and check their compliance with the specified values. If necessary, translate the test results obtained in specific atmospheric and climatic conditions, to values corresponding to standard atmospheric conditions, with the possibility of subsequent conversion of the end results, if necessary, to any other desired atmospheric and climatic conditions, which is a particular serial engine or party simultaneously produced identical gas turbine engines with the possible inclusion of such information in the technical documentation of the engine.

In the method of operating a gas turbine engine before each run perform a readiness check of the engine to work. Run, warm-up and output of the engine to be specified in the bylaws operating modes. Periodically produce prophylact the ical examinations, current repairs, as well as at least one major overhaul. After the overhaul, the engine is subjected to bench testing the above test method GTE on resource definition and reliability of the engine. According to test results, if necessary, produce the post-repair adjustments and, if necessary, variant perform additional tests, correlated with thematic content of the subsequent finishing and regulations subsequent stage of operation of the gas turbine engine.

After major repairs and/or subsequent refinement of the gas turbine engine is tested for surge and defining the boundaries of the gas-dynamic stability.

An example of the method for testing gas turbine engine (GTE).

The test subject GTE with project resource 500 hours total time to first overhaul. In the specified resource set time 20 h at maximum conditions, of which 5 hours on full power mode. Form typical flight cycles (TPC) and set the desired time of operation of the engine 1 h, equivalent to a flight time of the aircraft (LA) according to TPC. On the basis of the TPC calculations determine the defectiveness of the most loaded parts. On this basis determine the required equivalent is on the damageability of the number of cycles during testing. In this embodiment take the next load test cycles - performance 700 (400+300) runs with output respectively the maximum and forced modes, as well as 400 pickups from small gas (MG) and maximum (Max.) and 300 from 0,8 Max. until forced (FMR) mode.

Set the factor for the desired number of test load cycles and time K=1,2.

Form the full amount of resource testing and developing a program to test:

1. The total operation time when conducting fatigue tests take 500*1,2=600 h, the mean time to maximum mode are (20-5)*1,2=18 h, and the forced mode 5*1,2=6 o'clock

2. Take the duration of the test phase 5 h, and determine the number five stages 600:5=120.

3. Set the number of launches taking into account the safety factor 700*1,2=840, as well as from MG to Max 400*1,2=480 and from 0.8 Max up to HUF 300*1,2=360.

4. Each five-hour step 840 includes:120=7, pickups from idle to Max 480:120=4 and pickups from 0,8 Max up to Four 360:120=3, and the mean time to maximum and forced modes 18*60:120=9 minutes 360:120=3 minutes

5. Set the sequence of test cycles - quick access to the maximum or full-power mode, a quick reset to idle and stop. Then PR is dusmatrivajut cycle continuous operation with multiple alternating load cycles with amplitude ranges of regime change from MG to Max and 0.8 Max up to Four within a specified higher volume testing stages.

Perform tests GTD regarding this program. Then carry out the defect detection engine and the analysis of test results, which shall decide on the recognition engine has stood the test.

The above sequence of tests of gas turbine engines used at all stages from the development of experimental designs to production, operation and repair of engines.

1. The method of testing gas turbine engine (GTE), characterized in that includes the alternation of modes when performing steps a test duration of operation of the gas turbine engine exceeding a software flight, which initially form a typical flight cycles and determine the defectiveness of the most loaded parts, on this basis determine the required number of loading cycles during the test, and then form a complete volume of testing, including the execution of a sequence of test cycles - quick access to the maximum or full-power mode, fast mode "small gas", stop and cycle continuous operation with multiple interleaved modes over the entire operating range with different scale range change operation modes of the gas turbine engine, in excess of flight time in 56 times, with different scale ranges and the changes of modes of operation implement, changing the level drop of the gas in the specific test modes from beginner to the highest maximum or full forced operation mode of the gas turbine engine by moving the initial point of reference when executing the corresponding mode, taking the latter in one of the modes in the position corresponding to the level of "small gas", and in other modes in the intermediate or end positions, corresponding to different percentage or the full value of the maximum gas level or full forced mode, and quick access to the maximum or forced modes of the test cycle is carried out in the pace of pick-up and reset.

2. The method of testing gas turbine engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the part of the test cycles exercise without warming up at the idling after startup.

3. The method of testing gas turbine engine according to claim 1, wherein the test cycle is formed based on flight cycles for combat and training applications gas turbine engine.

4. The production method of the party of gas turbine engines, which perform an experimental batch of the CCD, thus producing an Assembly of at least one experienced engine, including mount chassis and powertrain engine including a compressor unit, turbine, reacti the Noah nozzle, not less than one combustion chamber, air and fuel and hydraulic oil systems, monitoring, command and control elements, units and systems, and test assembled an experienced GTD on resource definition and reliability, characterized in that the tests produced by the method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, upon completion of the test program to analyze the results, eliminate the identified deficiencies.

5. Gas turbine engine, characterized in that the shaft, includes a housing placed in it by the compressor unit, at least the main combustion chamber, turbines, high and low pressure, jet nozzle, in addition, the engine includes an air system, as well as fuel and hydraulic oil systems, and systems for monitoring the operation of all units of the engine, the control system comprising blocks collection, online processing of the current working information by issuing the commands, controls and subordinate Executive units and units mentioned above, when the engine is tested by the method according to any one of claims 1 to 3 the definition of a resource and reliability program playback conditions of flight operations, as close as possible to the real structure and the specific value of the specified modes of gasturb the frame of the engine.

6. The production method of the party of gas turbine engines, in which at least a production factory Assembly of engines, each engine mount to the chassis and powertrain of the engine, including compressors, turbines, at least one combustion chamber, air and fuel and hydraulic oil systems, monitoring, command and control elements, blocks and systems and make a bench test serial gas turbine engines from the party identically produced GTE, characterized in that the test subject, at least one engine of the industrial party GTE and produce the test method according to any one of claims 1 to 3 resource definition and reliability of commercially produced industrial engine and check their compliance with the specified values, if necessary, with subsequent transfer of the test results obtained in specific atmospheric and climatic conditions, to values corresponding to standard atmospheric conditions, with the possibility of subsequent conversion of the end results, if necessary, to any other desired atmospheric and climatic conditions, which is a particular serial engine or party simultaneously produced identical gas turbine engines with the possibility of the essential introduction to the specified information in the technical documentation of the engine.

7. A method of operating a gas turbine engine, in which each time before you start perform a readiness check of the engine to work, run, warm-up and output of the engine to be specified in the bylaws operating modes, periodically make routine inspections, repairs, and at least one major overhaul, characterized in that after the overhaul, the engine is subjected to bench testing the method according to any one of claims 1 to 3 resource definition and reliability of the engine, the results of which, if necessary, produce the post-repair adjustments and, if necessary, variant perform additional tests, correlated with thematic content of the post-repair finishing and regulations subsequent stage of operation of the gas turbine engine.

8. A method of operating a gas turbine engine according to claim 7, characterized in that after major repairs and/or subsequent refinement of the gas turbine engine is tested for surge and defining the boundaries of the gas-dynamic stability.



 

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2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: running ground repair of bypass gas-turbine engines; replacement of front case of fan module.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes dismantling of engine and replacement of defective front case of fan. Technological ring is mounted and technological plunger is placed along axis of engine; said plunger is provided with bracket and dial indicator. By rotating the plunger, end play of surface of technological ring relative to axis of rotation of plunger is measured by means of dial indicator. Then, partial dismantling of engine is performed, viz.: separation of afterburner with adjustable nozzle, mixer housing with rear case of second loop, body of turbine supports together with cone, low-pressure turbine rotor and fan fairing with inductor. Technological ring is mounted on rear flange of low-pressure turbine nozzle assembly. Technological plunger is mounted in front and rear trunnions of fan rotor and bracket with dial indicator is secured on technological plunger near technological ring. Besides that, radial run-out of inner circular surface of technological ring relative to axis of rotation of plunger is measured. Defective front case of fan is replaced with standard one and again end play and radial run-out of technological ring surfaces are measured. If measurements are within tolerable limits, front case may be engaged with engine.

EFFECT: facilitated procedure of replacement of front case of fan.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: experimental hydrodynamics.

SUBSTANCE: submergible hydraulic drive has braking disks mounted on hubs instead of axially aligned screw propellers. Two face washers are coaxially mounted at the outer faces of disks with a spaced relation to each other. The washers are interconnected over periphery through ties for permitting axial space to be adjusted. The periphery interface zone of the washers receives rim washers which are mounted to provide an axial space between them and to form a casing with the rim which is penetrable for fluid in the radial direction. The axial space between the faces of the rim washers is equal or less than the thickness of the boundary layer on the face of the braking disk.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

1 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: compressors; surge protection devices of turbocompressors.

SUBSTANCE: invention makes it possible to improve quality of diagnosing of surging, thus increasing sphere of practical application of equipment. Proposed method of diagnosing of surging is based on usage of covariation of signals from pickups whose measured parameters present surges with correlation. Used as criteria of revealing of surge is result of comparison pf parameter of surge equal to covariation of signals of measured parameter with threshold value. System to reveal surging contains compression parameters pickups 2 and 3 installed on compressor plant 1, low-pass filters 4, 5, and 9, summers 6 and 7, multiplier 8, comparator 10 and switch off delay element 11.

EFFECT: enlarged sphere of application.

9 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: proposed method is used for testing forced injection internal combustion engines provided with electric control of fuel delivery without external loading of engine.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of number of free racing cycles during definite period of time. Engine operating at minimum idling revolutions is shifted to free racing mode by abrupt motion of fuel delivery control member to maximum position; fuel delivery is discontinued periodically when high limit crankshaft rotational speed is attained. As soon as rotational speed of engine crankshaft reduces to low limit, fuel delivery is cut-in. The magnitudes thus obtained are compared with standard ones for estimation of state of engine.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of testing.

1 dwg

FIELD: equipment for production, storage and transportation of oil and gas.

SUBSTANCE: method of usage includes incoming control of technical condition of production equipment before usage. Datum reference points are selected from parameters including points having limit values to create initial database for monitoring degradation processes in production equipment during total period of usage. The operation servicing, technical monitoring and diagnostics are conducted to reveal character of changes in reference points of equipment depending on mode and duration of usage. Technical monitoring is conducted in specific time period without shutting technological process down. Estimation of regressive processes is made taking meanings of reference points into account as well as analysis of usage conditions. Real values of parameters of reference points are compared with meanings of reference points of initially determined incoming control. In case the controlled parameters correspond to conditions of usage, the longer usage is declared. If the parameters do not correspond to the conditions then the urgent diagnostics should be conducted. During diagnosis real technical condition of production equipment is evaluated and conditions of prolongation of usage are defined, as well as risk of longer usage. Diagnosis determines necessity of repair works or unsuitability of equipment is declared. If production equipment is declared suitable for longer usage, then the declaration of production safe is developed.

EFFECT: improved truth of data; improved reliability of diagnosis.

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