Heat exchanger for atomising drier
SUBSTANCE: in a heat exchanger for an atomising drier, which includes a furnace, a drier housing with an atomiser, heat exchange tubes, according to the proposed invention, the heat exchanger is made in the form of a longitudinally finned tube and a finned tube connected to it, which is located in the furnace mixing chamber; at that, when the tube leaves the furnace, it passes into the shell and tube heat exchanger, the upper part of which consists of a housing in the form of three inclined tubes (15 degrees) leaving the tube, which are changed over to horizontal tubes, on each end of which one rosette is located, and each rosette includes seven tubes of the same diameter; at that, the housing walls are heat insulated with heat insulating material, for example Penofol, and the housing has three inlet and outlet branch pipes of the heated solution and a branch pipe for the tank emptying; at that, the unit is equipped with a pressure gauge, a safety valve and a heat carrier filling valve and has an excess pressure compensation line for heat carrier filling at the operating unit, which is equipped with the valve; besides, in the unit there is a return line of the circulating circuit and an expansion tank with a branch pipe, and the drier atomiser includes a hollow housing, which consists of a cylindrical part with external thread for connection to a nozzle of a liquid supplying distributing pipeline, a conical transient part and a cylindrical part with large size of diametrical section, and with internal threaded surface, and coaxially to the housing, in its lower part there fixed is a nozzle formed with cylindrical surface with external thread interacting with cylindrical part of the housing; at that, cylindrical surface of the nozzle is changed over to a conical surface and ends with an end blind partition wall perpendicular to the housing axis, with an orifice in its centre, which is axisymmetrical to the nozzle and consists of cylindrical and conical orifice holes connected in series; at that, larger diameter of conical hole is located on the blind partition wall of the nozzle; at that, the housing and the nozzle form three internal cylindrical chambers, which are coaxial to each other, and on the nozzle, on the side opposite to liquid supply, there is an additional row of orifices, which are formed at least with three pairs of mutually perpendicular vertical channels for passage of liquid and horizontal channels, which are crossed on a conical side surface of the nozzle and form outlet holes of each of the orifices; at that, pair channels are located at a right angle to each other in longitudinal planes of the housing, and conical side surface of the nozzle is made at angle to the top, which is equal to 90°.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency and economy of the heat exchanger operation and increasing production capacity of the drier.
The invention relates to a drying technique, in particular to installations for drying of solutions and suspensions, and can be used in chemical, food and other industries.
Known shell-and-tube heat exchanger according to the patent of Russian Federation №2306514, F28D 7/00, containing a distribution chamber with a cover connected to the casing, the tubes connected by walls with segmental cutouts, lens compensator and fitting for tube and pipe space (prototype).
The closest technical solution to the declared object is a spray dryer for drying solutions for RF patent No. 2337288, F26B 17/10 containing a drying chamber with a gas-feeding conduit and nozzle (prototype).
A disadvantage of the known heat exchanger is relatively low efficiency and high cost of manufacture and operation. A disadvantage of the known drying apparatus is that when the supply of the source material (solution, suspension) through the nozzle cannot achieve uniform drying of the source material and the accumulation of dried material on the walls of the drying chamber.
The technical result - increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of the heat exchanger and increasing the productivity of the dryer.
Uh what about the is achieved by in heat exchange apparatus for spray dryers containing the furnace, the body of the dryer with diffuser, heat exchanger tubes, heat exchanger made in the form of longitudinally finned tubes and connected with her finned tubes located in the mixing chamber of the furnace, the pipe coming from the furnace, passes into the shell and tube heat exchanger, the upper part of which consists of a housing in the form emerging from the pipe three inclined at an angle of 15° of the pipe, moving in a horizontal pipe, each end of which is located at the outlet, and each socket is published seven tubes of the same diameter, and the housing wall insulated insulating material, such as penofolom, and the case has three socket for input and output of the heated solution and the pipe for discharging capacity, this unit is equipped with pressure gauge, safety valve and faucet for a Gulf carrier and has a line compensation excess pressure for insulation insulating material, such as penofolom, and the case has three socket for input and output of the heated solution and the pipe for discharging capacity, this unit is equipped with pressure gauge, safety valve and faucet for a Gulf carrier and has a line compensation excess pressure for the Gulf of coolant when operating the m machine, which is equipped with a valve, in addition, the apparatus has a return line of the circulation loop and the expander with the nozzle, and the spray dryer includes a hollow body, which consists of a cylindrical part with an external thread for connecting to the fitting of the distribution piping, the inlet fluid, a conical transition part and the cylindrical part of the larger diametrical section and with the inner threaded surface and coaxially with the housing in its lower part fixed nozzle, formed by a cylindrical surface with an external thread cooperating with the cylindrical body portion, the cylindrical surface of the nozzle moves in a conical surface and a closed end, perpendicular to the axis housing, a blank wall, with the nozzle in its center, made an axisymmetric nozzle and consisting of cylindrical and conical throttle openings, connected in series, the greater the diameter of the conical hole is located on a remote wall of the nozzle, the housing and the nozzle consists of three coaxially between an internal cylindrical chamber, and the nozzle, the side opposite to inlet fluid performed an additional series of nozzles which are formed, at least three pairs of mutually perpendicular vertical channels for prog is Yes liquid and horizontal channels, which intersect on the conical side surface of the nozzle and form the outlet openings of each nozzle, with the pair of channels are at right angles to each other in the longitudinal planes of the body, and a conical side surface of the nozzle is made with an angle at the apex equal to 90°.
1 shows a General view of the heat exchanger, figure 2 presents the cross-section B-B figure 1 - lower part of the machine, zone heating and evaporation, figure 3 - spray dryers, figure 4 - diagram of the fine spray of liquid to the dryer.
The spray dryer (3) comprises a cylindrical drying chamber with the lower inlet of the heat carrier 25, which is supplied from the chamber 19 by a fan (not shown) through the duct 22, and on the bottom of the chamber scraper device 26 for the shipment of the finished product. Furnace 19 dryer contains mounted inside the heat exchanger 20, which is supplied to preheat the original solution from the tank 21, which then flows through the channel 23 of the heat exchanger 20 in the nozzle 24.
A fine spray of liquid (figure 4) contains a hollow body consisting of a cylindrical part 27 with an external thread for connecting to the fitting of the distribution pipeline for supplying a fluid, a tapered transition portion 28 of the cylindrical part 29 of the larger diametrical section, with the internal threaded surface.
Coaxially to the body, in its lower part fixed nozzle, formed by a cylindrical surface 32 with an external thread cooperating with the cylindrical portion 29 of the housing. The cylindrical surface 32 of the nozzle enters the conical surface 30 and a closed end, perpendicular to the axis of the housing, a blank wall 31 with the nozzle 36 at its center, made an axisymmetric nozzle and consisting of cylindrical and conical throttle openings, connected in series, the greater the diameter of the conical hole is located on a remote partition 31 of the nozzle.
The housing and the nozzle consists of three coaxially between an internal cylindrical chamber. The chamber 33 serves to supply fluid chamber 34 is the expansion chamber, the chamber 35 performs the function of the discharge chamber high pressure.
On the nozzle side opposite to the inlet fluid, performed an additional series of nozzles which are formed, at least three pairs of mutually perpendicular vertical channels 38 for the passage of fluid and horizontal channels 37, which intersect on the conical side surface 30 of the nozzle and form the outlet openings of each nozzle. The vertical channels 38 are connected with the cavity of the expansion chamber 34, and the horizontal Cana is s 37 - with the cavity of the discharge chamber 9. The pair of channels 37 and 38 are at right angles to each other in the longitudinal planes of the body. Conical lateral surface 30 of the nozzle is made with an angle at the apex equal to 90°.
Heat exchanger (figure 1 and 2), being hermetically sealed heat exchanger consists of longitudinally finned tubes 1 and connected to the same pipe 2 located in the mixing chamber of the furnace 14. Pipe 1, coming from the furnace 14, enters the similar shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The upper part of the heat exchanger consists of a housing 7, coming out of the pipe 1 three inclined (15°) pipe 3, moving in a horizontal pipe 4, at each end of which is located at the outlet 5. Due to the fact that the pipes 3 are tilted, does not create stagnant zones of the condensate. From each of the seven outlets out seven tubes 6 of the same diameter. The casing wall 7 insulated heat-insulating material 15, such as penofolom. The housing of the heat exchanger has three nozzles 11, 12, 13 for input and output of the heated solution and the pipe 14 for discharging capacity. The heat exchanger is equipped with 8 gauge, safety valve 9 and the valve for the Gulf of carrier 10. The heat exchanger has a line compensation excess pressure 17 for the Gulf of coolant when operating the apparatus. Line 17 is equipped with a valve 18. The design and the construction of the upper part of the heat exchanger enables you to evenly heat the solution, without resorting to forced mixing. The solution is continuously fed into the housing of the heat exchanger through pipe 12 and then either selected in the process through pipe 13, or is returned in the return line of the circulation loop through the expander 16 and the pipe 11.
Heat exchanger operates as follows.
Located in the furnace 19 spray dryers part of the heat exchanger is filled with water above the lower cut pipe so that the pipe 2 worked on the evaporation of water, and not steam superheat. Under the influence of high temperature (about 600°C) in the mixing chamber of the furnace the liquid is heated, boils and turns to vapor (evaporates). It absorbs a large quantity of heat (heat of transformation), which steam is transferred to another over the cold end of the heat exchanger where the steam condenses and releases the absorbed heat, heating a solution. Next, the condensed liquid is again returned to the evaporation zone. Due to the fact that the pipes 3 are tilted, does not create stagnant zones of the condensate. Top design of the heat exchanger enables you to evenly heat the solution, without resorting to forced mixing. The solution is continuously fed into the housing of the heat exchanger through pipe 12 and then either selected in the process through pipe 13, or return is moved in the return line of the circulation loop through the expander 16 and the pipe 11.
Heat exchanger is a device that combines actually a hermetically sealed heat exchanger, similar to a heat pipe filled with distilled water, and the capacity to heat the working fluid to the boiling point, operating in flow mode. A distinctive feature of this heat exchanger is that it overlaps with the main gas flow is only 3%, thereby creating tangible obstacles for the passage of gas in the dryer and not affecting the gas flow.
The atomizer is installed in a working condition in a vertical position. When the flow of the liquid in the casing under the action of pressure difference of 0.4-0.8 MPa in the channels 37 and 38 are formed counter flow of liquid, rushing to the exhaust outlets of the nozzles formed by these channels.
After the collision of fluid flow in the channels 37 and 38 and out through the outlet nozzles, the formation of fan-shaped gas-liquid flow in the form of a shroud, ie the mechanism of fragmentation of liquid droplets, but generated palaeobotany flow deviates from the horizontal plane at a greater angle in the range from 45 to 60°, in the direction towards the Central area of the irrigated surface located directly below the nozzle 36 in a remote partition 31 of the nozzle. This distribution of the sprayed jidkosti.bole to improve the uniformity of spray liquid over the Central part of the irrigated surface.
We offer a fine spray may be used in devices of chemical technology in power for spraying fuel, and machinery industries, which require the generation of sputtered fine of fluid flow in closed and in open space.
In the operating mode to set the temperature, the pressure in the lower part of the heat exchanger 460÷480°C, in the top - 50÷60°C. the Performance of heat transfer is 70,000÷80000 kcal/hour.
Heat exchanger for spray dryers containing the furnace, the body of the dryer with diffuser, heat exchanger tubes, wherein the heat exchanger is made in the form of longitudinally finned tubes and connected with her finned tubes located in the mixing chamber of the furnace, the pipe coming from the furnace, passes into the shell and tube heat exchanger, the upper part of which consists of a housing in the form emerging from the pipe three inclined at an angle of 15° of the pipe, moving in a horizontal pipe, each end of which is located at the outlet, and each socket is published seven tubes of the same diameter and wall the body insulated by insulation material, such as penofolom, and the case has three socket for input and output of the heated solution and the pipe for emptying the tank, if e is ω apparatus equipped with a pressure gauge, the safety valve and the faucet for a Gulf carrier, and has a line compensation excess pressure for the Gulf of fluid at the working apparatus, which is equipped with a valve, in addition, the apparatus has a return line of the circulation loop and the expander with the nozzle, and the spray dryer includes a hollow body, which consists of a cylindrical part with an external thread for connecting to the fitting of the distribution piping, the inlet fluid, a conical transition part and the cylindrical part of the larger diametrical section, and with an inner threaded surface and coaxially with the housing in its lower part fixed nozzle, formed by a cylindrical surface with an external thread interacting with the cylindrical body portion, the cylindrical surface of the nozzle moves in a conical surface and a closed end, perpendicular to the axis of the housing, a blank wall, with the nozzle in its center, made an axisymmetric nozzle and consisting of cylindrical and conical throttle openings, connected in series, the greater the diameter of the conical hole is located on a remote wall of the nozzle, the housing and the nozzle form a three coaxially between an internal cylindrical chamber, and the nozzle, the side opposite to odvody fluid, performed an additional series of nozzles which are formed, at least three pairs of mutually perpendicular vertical channels for the passage of fluid and horizontal channels that intersect on the conical side surface of the nozzle and form the outlet openings of each nozzle, with the pair of channels are at right angles to each other in the longitudinal planes of the body, and a conical side surface of the nozzle is made with an angle at the apex equal to 90°.
SUBSTANCE: in a heat exchange pipe that includes a tubular workpiece, on the inner surface of which longitudinal slots are made and on the outer surface of which a hollow core with longitudinal slots is made, fins are inserted on one side into slots of the tubular workpiece, and on the other side into the core slots. Tubular workpiece is oriented relative to the core so that their longitudinal slots can be offset relative to each other through the specified angle α. Fins are made in the form of flat parts; each fin consists of two straight-line components, one of which has a longitudinal pointed end section in the interface zone with the second component provided with a mating wedge-shaped part. Low-melting inserts are arranged in slots of the tubular workpiece and the core. Fin component with the mating wedge-shaped part consists of two symmetrical longitudinal parts. Angle of taper of the longitudinal end section of one fin component is less than aperture angle of the wedge-shaped slot of the second fin component.
EFFECT: increasing safety of the device under conditions of increased temperatures or a fire; reducing manufacturing working hours.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a heat exchanger comprising a jacket with supply and drain nozzles, with a tubular system fixed inside, with supply and drain nozzles, damping-elastic elements and an impact unit, the tubular system is made of two and more coil pipes with rectilinear initial and end sections, the impact unit is made with an outlet channel, with a yoke having a rocking axis: and inlet channels with dart valves on stems in the quantity of coil pipes, each of inlet channels is connected with the outlet channel via dart valves arranged on stems in them as capable of reciprocal movement between channels of inlet and the channel of outlet of the impact unit, and joined with arms of the yoke installed with the rocking axis in the outlet channel of the impact unit, rectilinear initial sections of coil pipes of the tubular system are connected to the supply nozzle of the tubular system via damping-elastic elements, and rectilinear end sections of the coil pipes are connected to the appropriate channels of the impact unit inlet.
EFFECT: higher energy efficiency of a heat exchanger by intensification of heat transfer, reduced metal intensity and increased overhaul period of operation.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for being used as single-block marine high-duty nuclear power plants with high unit power, which operate in varying load mode. Liquid-metal carrier is used in the proposed reactor. Besides, different arrangement patterns of heat transfer to liquid of the second circuit are located inside the reactor housing. The proposed device includes an integral active zone, a nuclear reaction control system and a protection system, steam generators and heat exchangers, heat carrier pumping pumps, and biological protection. At that, an electromagnetic pump is installed in the heat carrier circuit when heat is being transferred in steam generator; the above pump is coaxially attached to lower part of vertically located steam generator, and in the heat carrier circuit when heat carrier is being transferred in heat exchanger the provision is made for its connection to lower part of heat exchanger by means of a pipeline and location that is parallel to vertically located heat exchanger. Heat carrier flow is arranged in upward direction through active reactor zone.
EFFECT: optimisation of heat exchange in mode of varying loads and obtaining optimum weight and dimensional parameters of nuclear power plants as a whole, being the part of the ship.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchange device comprising a lower part - a heating and evaporation zone and an upper part - a cooling and condensation zone, a body with heat-insulated walls and nozzles for supply and drain of a heated solution, comprises a longitudinally ribbed pipe located in a mixing chamber of a furnace, at the same time the ribbed pipe exiting the furnace goes into a shell and tube heat exchanger, which comprises a body, three pipes exiting from the ribbed pipe at the angle of 15 degrees, changing into horizontal pipes, at each end of which there is a socket, and seven tubes of identical diametre exit from the each socket, besides, body walls are heat-insulated with a heat insulation material, for instance, penofol, and the body comprises three nozzles for supply and drain of the heated solution and a nozzle for emptying a reservoir, at the same time the device is equipped with a pressure gauge, a safety valve and a tap for coolant filling and has a line of excessive pressure compensation for coolant filling with the device on, which is equipped with a valve, besides, in the device there is a reverse line of the circulating circuit and an expander with a nozzle.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency, reliability and effectiveness of device operation.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises stages whereat tubular case is arranged inside synthetic gas cooler to connect set of plates to said case to facilitate steam generation in synthetic gas cooler. At least one first plate with, at least, one length larger than that of second length. Said plate features nonlinear geometry and is inclined to synthetic gas cooler wall. Invention covers also the design of synthetic gas cooler and that of multiple plates therein.
EFFECT: perfected method.
20 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: air cooling unit of ABC GI sectional type with cylindrical displacers consists of steam supply header, several rows of inclined or vertical heat exchange tubes, condensate collection header and cylindrical displacers.
EFFECT: fundamental improvement of the design of sectional unit with air cooling due to improved efficiency of the surface use.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchange unit contains housing in the form of flattened cone with heads; inlet and outlet branch pipes of heat carriers to tube and inter-tube space, tube sheets in the holes of which there fixed along concentrical circles and inclined to axis of the units are tubes in the form of flattened cones, vertical central pipe for location of thermocouples; at that, tubes in the form of flattened cone have simultaneous inclination relative to the unit axis and in the direction about the unit axis.
EFFECT: improving heat exchange intensity at low metal consumption.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: vortex heat exchange element containing cylindrical heat exchange tubes coaxially located one in the other, in each of which there installed are at least two vortex tubes; at that, one vortex tube is installed at the section inlet, and the other one is installed at the distance between them, which is determined by complete damping of rotational movement of vortex flow at complete heat load, has the packs of ribs on cylindrical pipe of large diameter along external surface in each section determined with complete damping of rotational movement of vortex flow; at that, distance between ribs in each pack decreases. At that, inlet of heat carriers to each of sections of large-diameter pipe and internal pipe is made either on one and the same side, or on opposite sides in relation to flow movement, thus ensuring both counter-flow and direct-flow scheme of heat carrier movement in the element; internal pipe with cylindrical surfaces is made from bimetal; at that, material of internal pipe surface on the side of hot heat carrier has heat conductivity coefficient which is by 2.0-2.5 times more than material of surface of internal pipe on the side of cold heat carrier.
EFFECT: heat exchange intensification is achieved by uniform distribution of heat flow.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger-reactor comprises a vessel in the form of a truncated cone, with a surface concave towards its vertical axis with bottoms, nozzle for coolant inlet and outlet from tube and shell spaces. Inside the vessel 1 there is a tube bundle arranged, comprising at least two rows of cone-shaped pipes fixed with ends in holes of plates along concentric circumferences. Tubes are installed with an inclination simultaneously in two directions: with an inclination to a vertical axis of the vessel and with an additional inclination arranged by displacement of ends in a circumferential direction, i.e. along arcs of circumferences of their installation in tube plates. At the same time inclination angles are arranged within the limits of 0.5-50.0 degrees from the vertical plane stretching via the vertical axis of the vessel.
EFFECT: no necessity to increase input parameters of a coolant, which helps to save thermal and electric power.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a vertical shell-and-tube evaporator with an overheater, comprising a bundle of inner heat exchange tubes and external tubes installed coaxially with a circular through gap relatively to each other, installed in a cylindrical vessel, having a lower nozzle of heated coolant inlet and an upper nozzle to discharge the latter, as well as upper and lower grids to connect ends of inner tubes and a grid for fixation of external tubes, a cover and a bottom with nozzles for supply and drain of the cooled coolant, the external tubes with their grid are moved upwards from the lower grid by height sufficient to transfer the heated coolant into gaseous condition on the produced open heating surface of the external tubes.
EFFECT: reduced dimensions and weight of a shell-and-tube evaporator.
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to chemical-pharmaceutical composition and represents method of lyophilisation of particles, which contain frozen liquid and have contained in them pharmaceutical composition, including provision of heat-conducting container, which has bottom and side walls; filling container with a layer of particles, with the layer including multiple strata of particles and having aspect ratio mot less than 1; providing source of heat above upper stratum of particles, with source of heat having surface facing upper stratum of the layer, where said surface is characterised by emissivity factor equal, at least, 0.4; impact on container-filling particles with pressure lower than atmospheric pressure; heating at least container bottom and said surface to conduct heat to particles in order to ensure sublimation of frozen liquid at pressure lower than atmospheric pressure; ceasing conduction of heat to particles after sublimation of frozen liquid.
EFFECT: invention ensures uniform drying of multiple layer of particles with obtaining homogenous product.
11 cl, 4 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: woods drying method involves location of electrodes (1) on opposite sides of woods (3) subject to drying, their contact with woods (3) and supply of electric energy to woods (3) from current source (2) through electrodes (1). At that, steam is generated from woods (3) liquid by means of electric energy, and drying result is controlled by means of voltage so that generated steam first in the central part of woods (3) displaces to the outside the liquid contained in woods (3) through wooden capillaries; at that, electrodes (1) are divided into several parts, and the power supply has the possibility of supplying the current to those electrodes with series pulses in the form of travelling waves. The device for implementation of the proposed method includes current source (2) and electrodes connected to it (1) and installed so that they can contact woods (3) subject to drying for passage of electric current through it. The device has the possibility of regulating the voltage to control the woods drying process so that the steam generated first in central part of woods (3) can displace to the outside the liquid contained in woods (3) through woods capillaries; at that, electrodes (1) are divided into several parts, and the current source has the possibility of supplying current to those electrodes with series pulses in the form of travelling waves.
EFFECT: invention shall provide quick and cheap drying of woods, and the device can be integrated into various production lines at saw mills and in wood industry, which produce sawn wood, rounded logs and ready-made items from woods.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: one first performs the sections preliminary vacuum treatment using an ejector vacuum pump till residual pressure is equal to 610 Pa, then one cools the external surface of the profile drum acting as the desublimator with electric current supplied onto the groups of thermoelectric modules placed on the internal surface of the profile drum which creates the required temperature gradient for vapours movement to the desublimator surface; then one supplies heat energy to the product using heaters, as a result moisture evaporation takes place at a residual pressure lower than 610 Pa; part of the moisture evaporated from the product is removed from the chamber via the ejector vacuum pump, the other part is adsorbed by the desublimator surface represented by a nanomaterial layer; release of evaporated moisture molecules takes place after the desublimator turning due to the thermoelectric modules connection polarity changing. In the vacuum-and-sublimation drier using nanomaterials and thermoelectric modules, including a drying chamber consisting of sections equipped with a nipple with a locking valve installed with the possibility to connect to a vacuum pump, the vacuum pump, the desublimator placed between the sections and a heater. The drying chamber is made of two sealed sections connected to the vacuum pump and separated with a plate wherein a profile drum representing the desublimator is horizontally installed so that to enable rotation; a nanomaterial layer is applied onto the drum external surface while independent groups of thermoelectric modules are installed on the internal surface.
EFFECT: evaporated moisture vapours capture effectiveness is enhanced; desublimation surface regeneration is ensured during the drier operation in a continuous mode; workload onto the vacuum pump is reduced due to depressurisation in the vacuum-and-sublimation chamber.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: device for removal of moisture in vacuum includes an evaporator with an electric heater and a liquid trap, a steam line, a horizontal and a vertical condensers, a pipe-line, a condensate receiver and a pump; the condensate receiver is equipped with a pressure sensor; positioned in the upper part of the evaporator is an optocouple; the vertical condenser is connected to the condensate receiver via a vacuum valve and a piezo sensor; the pressure sensor and the piezo sensor are connected to the electric heater via the control unit while the optocouple is connected to the electric heater and to the vacuum valve via the control unit.
EFFECT: common device efficiency enhancement due to the steam line protection from foam penetration into it and control over heating activation/deactivation in the automatic mode.
FIELD: woodworking industry.
SUBSTANCE: method of drying wood is implemented as follows: first the wood heating is carried out in a drying chamber 1 at an atmospheric pressure, and in the receiver 5 a vacuum to 0.90 atm. is created with a vacuum pump 6, then the pump is turned off, the receiver is connected via valves 8 with a drying chamber, the time is noted during which the vacuum is equalised in them, then the vacuum pump is switched on, and the vacuum is brought in the drying chamber to 0.90 atm., then the drying chamber is disconnected with the receiver using the valves, the time is noted during which the vacuum in the chamber is reduced to 0.30 atm., and, during this time, it is brought to 0.90 atm. with the vacuum pump in the receiver again, and the receiver is connected again to the drying chamber, the time is noted during which the vacuum is equalised in the chamber and in the receiver, the vacuum pump is switched on and the vacuum is brought in the drying chamber to 0.90 atm., the receiver is disconnected with the drying chamber and repeat the previous steps until the industrial wood achieves the given relative humidity. And each chamber 1 of the plant for drying is made of two horizontally adjacent sections - drying 3 and heat-ventilating 4 that have a common leakproof welded closed housing in the form of two cylindrical surfaces, interconnected by a generator, the inner girders of the chamber 1 are located inside the housing 1, made of profile pipes, and in the heat-ventilating compartment 4 the heat panel and the vent panel parallel to it are mounted along the entire length of the housing that are covered with metal sheets to form with the compartment housing the space which is open from one side to the lateral surface of the industrial wood, and from the other - to the input of stream of vapour-air mixture from the drying compartment to the fans.
EFFECT: reduced costs.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: multi-level chamber of infrared drying of vegetable products comprises a body with air ducts under a distribution grid, where filters, fans and heaters are serially installed, and a gate valve in the form of a window, at the same time height of each level formed by parallel mounted detachable trays, having a perforated bottom, is 2.3-2.5 times higher than the distance from the level tray to the row of evenly distributed infrared radiators arranged in the form of quartz tubes with a ceramic functional shell, the central spiral of which is connected to a source of power supply. The novelty is the fact that between infrared radiators in each row closed by reflectors at the ends there are de-energised quartz tubes installed with ceramic shells, which are arranged in the range of radiation with wavelength from 1.5 to 3.0 mcm, besides, the ratio of the infrared radiator installation height above the level tray to the pitch of their distribution in a row is set in the range of 1.1-1.2.
EFFECT: invention shall provide for automatic levelling in volume of heat energy levels, at the same time consumed power is reduced.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: autonomous device for drying of vegetation raw materials comprises a furnace 1, an electronic control unit 5, a drying chamber 13 with a tray 14 arranged for it for raw materials, an air blower 9 with air ducts, a Stirling engine 2, comprising a shaft 7, hot and cold cavities. The hot cavity is connected with the furnace 1, and the shaft 7 is mechanically connected with the generator 6, electrically connected via the electronic control unit 5 with the electric motor 8 of the air blower 9 drive, which by air ducts 10 and 12 via air heating pipes 11 arranged in the furnace is connected with the drying chamber 13, the tray 14 of which is connected to a vibrator 15, joined electrically via the electronic control unit 5 with the generator 6. The drying chamber 13 and the furnace 1 are equipped with temperature sensors 16 and 17 joined with the electronic control unit 5, besides, between the furnace 1 and the hot cavity of the Stirling engine 2 there is a gate 3 with a drive 4, connected via the electronic control unit 5 with the generator 6. The generator 6 excitation system is connected with the electronic control unit 5.
EFFECT: simplification of design and improved quality of drying.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed oven consists of carcass, muffle isolated from the latter by fibrous Insulation and air gap accommodating tubular heaters, covers supporting shutter, vent systems arranged inside muffle, oven doors tightly pressed against each other by latch. Vent systems have vent channels accommodating extra shutters. Holes are arranged in bottom vent channel top and lateral parts. Shutters on cover are arranged to control position by means of cable and hinges. Said shutters represent air duct with cover and are lined by heat insulation. Besides, IR-interlocking pickup is arranged on said cover and reflector arranged opposite the latter.
EFFECT: regular heating of muffle.
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: cryogenic vacuum-and sublimation installation with complex usage of inert gas includes a device for preliminary freezing of the product, a vacuum-and sublimation drier with a sealed drying chamber wherein a perforated drum and a heating element are positioned; the element is designed in the form of a coil installed in the bottom zone of the drum, its cross-section having the form of a segment; the heating element is the cooling agent cooler and is designed with the spacing between the tubes amounting to no more than 15 mm; the element inlet nipple is connected to the pump line of the desublimator cooling machine while the outlet nipple is connected to the low-pressure line of the cooling agent feed into the cooling machine; the drier chamber is connected to the vacuum-pumping system via the desublimator; the novelty is in the following: the device for preliminary freezing of the product is represented by a tunnel-type cryogenic fast-freezing aggregate (its frozen product feeding conveyor connected to the vacuum-and-sublimation drier doser, the drier heating element made of a material with high heat-conduction coefficient or a semi-permeable material) while the desublimator cooling machine is represented by a gas liquefaction machine working according to the Stirling reverse cycle principle; the machine nipple for feeding liquefied gas is connected to the desublimator represented by a nitrogen trap and to the fast-freezing aggregate nozzles; the nitrogen trap is installed between the vacuum-and- sublimation drier chamber and the vacuum pump; the exhaust gas outlet nipple of the cryogenic fast-freezing aggregate and the outlet nipple of the vacuum pump are connected to the inlet nipple of a membrane apparatus while its outlet nipple for inert gas cleared of impurities is connected to the automatic packaging device.
EFFECT: product fast freezing with cells preservation taking place within the whole bulk, enhancement of the sublimation process intensity due to ensuring highly efficient combined energy input to the product by varied methods.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: in continuous loose material drying device, trays of drying cabinet are made in the form of screw drums which have convex shape and concave shape, which are installed in turn one under the other. Screw drums of convex shape are made along the perimetre of three and more strips rolled in vertical plane and in-series connected to each other, having variable width of convex curved shape, rolled in vertical plane in longitudinal direction, bent along screw lines in transverse direction and bent along cuts, with chamfered walls in transverse and longitudinal direction, located in pairs at an angle to each other on both sides of strips so that there formed along the perimetre of drum are broken screw lines facing each other and broken screw surfaces with equal variable pitch throughout the drum length, and screw drums of concave shape are made of strips of variable width of concave shape, rolled in vertical plane in longitudinal direction, bent along screw lines in transverse direction and bent as to cuts, with chamfered walls in transverse-longitudinal direction, which are located at an angle to each other on both sides of strips so that broken screw lines and broken screw surfaces with variable pitch are formed along the perimetre of screw drum of concave shape and face each other.
EFFECT: improving the device design.
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: spraying drier includes cylinder-conical drying chamber, cylindrical housing, conical cover plate and bottom, heat carrier supply air pipeline enclosing the drier housing on the outer side. Drag-type device with drive shaft is arranged at the bottom; outer side of the housing is provided with a duct with cyclones, the output of which is connected via air pipeline to the inlet of fans installed on the cover plate of drying chamber, and pressure lines of fans are connected by means of connection pipes to scrubber, in the upper part of which a header with atomisers is located and connected to supply pipeline and pressure pump; heat carrier is supplied from air heater via the line to the air duct to be further supplied to drying chamber. Drag-type device represents a lever with the centre connected to drive shaft and shoulders which are inclined and parallel to generatrixes of conical surface of the bottom. Drags made from the material that is inert in relation to the initial solution - suspension are rigidly attached to the lever arms, and the drying chamber bottom has an attached conical duct, in the lower part of which an additional drag-type device made in the form of a lever the centre of which is connected to drive shaft, is located; besides, its arms are horizontal and parallel to horizontal surface of conical duct bottom, in which finished product collecting bin is located, and vibrator is installed in lower part. Atomiser consists of cylindrical part with external thread for connection to the nozzle of distributing pipeline supplying the solution, suspension, conical transient part and cylindrical part with large size of diametrical section, and with internal threaded surface. A nozzle is fixed in lower part of housing coaxially to it; the nozzle is formed with cylindrical surface with external thread interacting with cylindrical part of housing. Besides, cylindrical surface of nozzle passes to conical surface and ends with an end blind partition perpendicular to the housing axis, with an orifice made in its centre, which is asymmetrical to the nozzle and consists of cylindrical and conical orifice holes connected in series. Larger diameter of conical hole is located on blind partition wall of the nozzle. Housing and nozzle form three internal cylindrical chambers that are coaxial to each other, and the nozzle, on the side that is opposite to the suspension solution supply, is provided with an additional row of orifices which are formed at least with three pairs of mutually perpendicular vertical channels for solution, suspension passage and horizontal channels, which cross on conical side surface of the nozzle and form outlet holes of each orifice; at that, pair channels are located at right angle to each other in longitudinal planes of the housing, and conical side surface of the nozzle is provided at an angle at the apex, which is equal to 90°.
EFFECT: improving the plant productivity by reducing the dried material sticking to drying chamber walls.