Processing wastes containing nonferrous and platinum metals

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises blending the wastes with flux, smelting the blend, dividing melting products into slag and alloy containing copper and platinum metals. Sodium hydroxide is used as flux. Blending is carried out with copper at copper content of 80-30 wt %, flux content of 10-35 wt % and content of wastes of 10-35 wt %. Melting is conducted at 1100-1200°C for 10-20 min. Produced alloy is electrochemically dissolved in copper sulphate solution. Slag obtained in electrochemical dissolution contains platinum metals and is processed in sulfuric acid solution to remove impurities.

EFFECT: higher yield of platinum metals.

2 ex

 

The invention relates to the metallurgy of noble metals and can be used by enterprises to obtain non-ferrous, precious metals and their alloys obtained by recycling of electronic devices and parts, as well as for processing of defective products. This raw material has a significant impurity elements such as Nickel, cobalt, zinc, iron. These impurities significantly reduce the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of alloys and significantly complicate the process of recycling precious metals.

There is a method of recycling spent catalysts containing platinum metal based on aluminum oxide (U.S. Pat. RU # 2140999, publ. 10.11.1999,). The method consists of grinding, rihtovanie hydroxide of an alkali metal, sintering, water leaching SPECA with the transfer of sodium aluminate in solution, filtration and acid treatment of the solid residue with obtaining a concentrate of platinum metals, shredding lead to -3 mm, rihtovanie when the ratio of the hydroxide of alkaline metal catalyst (0,8-1,2):1, sintering at a temperature of 400-700°C for 1-2 h, water leaching in the presence of an alkaline reagent, and acid treatment at pH of 1.5-2.0 with the introduction of inorganic reductant.

The disadvantages of this method is the need for fine grinding of the source material is and, a high number of auxiliary reagents, the complexity of hardware design and low degree of extraction of platinum metals.

A method of refining disassembled battery scrap (U.S. Pat. RU # 2178008, publ. 10.01.2002 g), comprising the sequential two-stage melting metal and sulphate-oxide fraction on the rough lead-antimony alloy and Stano-slag waste product, melting disassembled battery scrap lead sulfide-sulfate sodium melt, melting the metal fraction in the first stage and melting sulphate-oxide fraction in the second stage are in continuously circulating the melt, and the circulation of the melt is carried out gaslift method and combined with oxidative or reductive treatment of the melt.

The disadvantages of this method is the need for two-stage melting, which leads to increased energy consumption and losses of precious metals.

A method of refining aluminium oxide-platinum catalysts, mainly containing rhenium (U.S. Pat. RU # 2204619, publ. 27.09.2005,). The method of processing is the initial firing of the catalyst in the temperature range 300-450°C for 2-3 h, leading to a more complete translation of the precious metals in solution with subsequent sulfide deposition of platinum and rhenium to thioacetal the house.

The disadvantages of this method include a large amount of solutions and the need for their disposal. Also the disadvantages of this method is sufficiently low degree of extraction of platinum metals.

A known method for processing wastes containing non-ferrous and platinum metals (A.S. SU # 1587069, publ. 23.08.1990,), selected as a prototype. The method includes blending the waste with flux, melting the mixture, separation of the liquid products of melting the slag and alloy containing platinum metals, grinding the alloy. Blending is carried out with the addition of nitrates of alkali metals or of potassium permanganate in the amount of 1-10% by weight of the waste, and the obtained molten alloy is injected additives selected from the group of carbon, silicon, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, metal carbides, to their content in the alloy of 0.1 to 1.0%. Extraction of metals in the alloy is 94% and 96% of platinum and palladium, respectively.

The disadvantage of this method is the relatively low degree of extraction of platinum metals.

The technical result is to increase the degree of extraction of platinum metals from waste containing non-ferrous and platinum metals.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method for processing wastes containing non-ferrous and platinum metals, including blending the waste with the flux melting of the charge, the division is of Reducto melt the slag and alloy, containing copper and platinum metals, as a flux using sodium hydroxide, blending is carried out with copper when the copper content 80-30 wt.%, flux 10-35 wt.% and waste 10-35 wt.%, melting is carried out at a temperature of 1100-1200°C for 10-20 min, the resulting alloy is subjected to electrochemical dissolution of copper sulphate solution, and the resulting slurry containing platinum metals, treated in sulfuric acid solution.

The blending of waste flux, which is used as sodium hydroxide, in the melt of pure copper provides the necessary conditions under which decreases the melting temperature of platinum and increases the diffusion rate, which allows you to put platinum and palladium from waste in the molten copper.

Maintenance melting at a temperature of 1100-1200°C ensures the melting of copper.

Electrochemical dissolution obtained after melting an alloy containing copper and platinum group metals, copper sulphate solution provides the most complete separation of copper and platinum.

Processing the obtained slurry containing platinum metals in sulfuric acid with an air supply provides purification from impurities, such as copper oxide.

The use of sulfuric acid for cleaning sludge containing platinum metals, due to the fact that in addition to platinum and palladium, it is OK the ID of copper, which in sulfuric acid behaves as follows:

2Cu+O2=2CuO

2CuO+H2SO4=2CuSO4+2H2O

The method is as follows. Use of industrial waste containing non-ferrous and platinum metals, namely platinum and palladium. In the furnace download pure copper and heated to a temperature of 1100-1200°C. To melt the copper top load flux, which is used as the sodium hydroxide content of copper 80-30 wt.%, flux 10-35 wt.% and waste 10-35 wt.%. The flux load of industrial waste containing non-ferrous and platinum metals. After downloading all the components in the melt is stirred and lead smelting, for example, in an induction furnace at a temperature of 1100-1200°C for 10-20 minutes At this time the maximum transition platinum and palladium from waste in the molten copper. Thanks to this method of melting decreases the melting temperature of platinum and palladium, increases the speed of diffusion transfer platinum group metals in the molten copper, which contributes to more complete transition of these metals from waste in the molten copper and impurities contained in the waste is removed in the form of slag.

Next, the resulting alloy of copper and platinum group metals as the anode sent to electrochemical dissolution in a solution of 60-100 g/l of copper sulfate and 20-40 g/l of copper sulfate and 30 g/l of sulfuric is islote. The current strength of 0.7-1.0 A. during electrochemical dissolution receive copper cathode and sludge containing platinum, palladium and up to 10-20 % of copper oxide. The resulting copper is used for the charge in the smelting, and the slurry containing platinum and palladium, is treated in a solution of sulfuric acid and purified from the copper oxide.

Example 1. As an industrial waste containing non-ferrous and platinum metals, use dry capacitors containing CaO Of 25.6 %, MgO of 14.9 %, Ni of 0.59 %, Zn of 0.05 %, Fe and 1.54 %, Sn 2,31 %, Pb 2,49 %, non-metallic impurities, Pl 2,8 %, Pt of 0.8 %.

Copper in the amount of 100 g load in induction furnace, heated to a temperature of 1100°C. In the molten copper is added 15 g of a flux, which is used as the sodium hydroxide NaOH when the copper content 80-30 wt.%, flux 10-35 wt.% and waste 10-35 wt.% and 15 g of industrial waste.. Melt thoroughly mixed and maintained at a temperature of 1100°C for 15 minutes in an induction furnace.

The fusion gain an alloy of copper and platinum group metals and slag. An alloy of copper and platinum group metals are used as the anode in the electrochemical dissolution in a solution of 60-100 g/l of copper sulfate and 20-40 g/l of sulfuric acid. The current strength of 0.7 to 1.0 A. the result is copper cathode purity of 99.9% and a slurry containing about 80 % of platinum and palladium. A slurry containing platinum and palladium, is treated in a solution of sulfuric acid with an air supply. Retrieve the increase of industrial waste of platinum and palladium is 96% and 98%, respectively. Remove palladium and platinum are known hydrometallurgical methods, other nonferrous metals from industrial wastes pass into the slag.

Example 2. As an industrial waste containing non-ferrous and platinum metals, use dry capacitors containing CaO Of 25.6 %, MgO of 14.9 %, Ni of 0.59 %, Zn of 0.05 %, Fe and 1.54 %, Sn 2,31 %, Pb 2,49 %, non-metallic impurities, Pl 2,8 %, Pt of 0.8 %.

Copper in the amount of 100 g load in induction furnace, heated to a temperature of 1150°C. In a melt of copper add 40 g of flux, which is used as the sodium hydroxide NaOH when the copper content 80-30 wt.%, flux 10-35 wt.% and waste 10-35 wt.% and 40 g of industrial waste. The melt is thoroughly mixed and maintained at a temperature of 1150°C for 20 minutes. The fusion gain an alloy of copper and platinum group metals and slag. An alloy of copper and platinum group metals are used as the anode in the electrochemical dissolution of 60-100 g/l of copper sulfate and 20-40 copper sulfate and 30 g/l of sulfuric acid. The current strength of 0.7 to 1.0 A. the result is copper cathode purity of 99.9% and a slurry containing about 80 % of platinum and palladium. A slurry containing platinum and palladium, is treated in a solution of sulfuric acid with an air supply. Extraction of platinum and palladium is 96% and 98%, respectively.

Thus, the method provides a high degree of extraction of platinum metals from industrial the x waste containing non-ferrous and platinum metals.

Method for processing wastes containing non-ferrous and platinum metals, including blending the waste with flux, melting the mixture, separation of the products of smelting the slag and alloy containing copper and platinum metals, characterized in that as the flux using sodium hydroxide, blending is carried out with copper when the copper content 80-30 wt.%, flux 10-35 wt.% and waste 10-35 wt.%, melting is carried out at a temperature of 1100-1200°C for 10-20 min, the resulting alloy is subjected to electrochemical dissolution of copper sulphate solution, and the resulting slurry containing platinum metals, treated in sulfuric acid to remove impurities.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrometallurgy of noble metals, particularly, to extraction of silver from silver-bearing wastes and may be used in processing various complex metal stock (radio electronic and computer hardware scrap, etc). Proposed method comprises anodic dissolution of silver in water solution of complexing agent in controlled potential electrolysis with anode from initial stock and insoluble cathode. Sodium sulphate with concentration of 12-370 g/l is used as complexing agent. Anodic dissolution is performed at 18-50°C and anode potential of 0.40…0.74 V relative to normal hydrogen electrode. Note here that the process proceeds in closed-volume non-aggressive alkalescent medium.

EFFECT: selective extraction of silver, higher rate of silver dissolution, ruled out use of toxic substances.

5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves electrochemical stripping of silver in deionised water. Electrochemical stripping is carried out using silver in form of a fine powder with chemical purity 99.999% and particle size of up to 100 nm. The process is carried out in an electrolysis cell, inside of which there are electrodes in form of containers made from chemically neutral material which hold 100-150 g of the fine silver powder and, through a conductor which is in a chemically neutral cladding, supply constant voltage of 30-45 V. Electrolysis is carried out in conditions of cyclic variation of voltage polarity every 2 hours, and the solution is stirred twice a day until achieving silver concentration in the colloidal solution of 5.0-100.0 mg/l. The fraction of nanoparticles of silver metal ranges from 5 to 90% of the total concentration of silver in the solution, the fraction of nanoparticles with size from 2 to 15 nm ranges from 65 to 85% of the total volume of nanoparticles in the solution, the fraction of nanoparticles with size from 15 to 35 nm ranges from 15 to 35% respectively, the remaining fraction of total concentration of silver in the solution is composed of silver ions.

EFFECT: obtaining a stable colloidal solution of nanosilver.

6 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: concentrate is mixed with lead-containing materials, reducing agent and slag-forming fluxes. Concentrate melting is performed at temperature of 1100-1200°C so that gold-lead alloy is obtained. The formed gold-lead alloy is subject to electrolytic dissolution in nitric-acid electrolyte at anodic current density of 800-1500 A/m2 and continuous supply to electrolysis bath of fresh electrolyte containing 15-30 g/l HNO3 with the flow rate at which merchantable electrolyte leaving the bath includes 1-3 g/l HNO3 and 50-100 g/l Pb(NO3)2. At that, in order to prevent the lead reduction, cathode is separated from anode of anion exchange membrane. Gold is extracted to sludge, and lead is deposited from electrolyte in the form of hardly soluble salt that is returned to melting.

EFFECT: increasing gold extraction degree.

3 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to installation for extracting gold from components of computer. The installation consists of an electrolytic cell with an anode and cathode installed in a diaphragm separating internal space of the electrolytic cell. Also the electrolytic cell is made in form of a cooled steel bath of rectangular shape with corrosion-resistant insertion out of polypropylene. The ceramic diaphragm is removable and is installed by means of a frame made out of di-electric; the frame is attached to a flange of the electrolytic cell case; notably, the frame at the same time functions an anode holder.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of installation operation, also power and resource saving at processing scrap containing components of computer.

1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrometallurgical method of cleaning of gold-bearing cyanic solutions after desorption of gold from nonferrous metals before electric precipitation of gold. Method corresponds to that it is implemented treatment of solution by oxidising agent for destruction of cyanic complex of nonferrous metals and sedimentation of its compositions. In the capacity of oxidising agent it is used hydrogen peroxide with consumption not less than 4 l/m3. Treatment is implemented during 3-5 min at temperature 60 - 100°C.

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7 dwg, 7 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

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EFFECT: high rates of extraction of noble metals and essential reduction of electrolysis process life.

6 cl, 1 tbl, 17 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy of noble metals and can be used on enterprises of repeated metallurgy for processing of radio-electronic scrap and at extraction of gold or silver from wastes of electronic and electrochemical industries, particularly to extraction method of noble metals from wastes of radio-electronic industry. Method includes receiving from wastes of copper-nickel anodes, containing admixtures of noble metals, its electrolytic anodic dissolutionc by copper sedimentation on cathode, receiving of nickel solution and sludge with noble metals. Additionally anodic dissolution is implemented from the anode, consisting 6-10% of iron, at placement of cathode and anode in separate reticulate diaphragms for creation of cathode and anode chambers with stand in it chlorine-containing electrolyte. Received electrolyte during the process of electrolysis from cathode chamber is directed into the anode chamber.

EFFECT: increasing of anode dissolution rate.

2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy, electrolysis.

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1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: nanotechnologies.

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EFFECT: chances to obtain nanoparticles of necessary structure and composition by adjusting anode potential value.

4 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: nanotechnologies.

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EFFECT: chances to obtain nanoparticles of necessary structure and composition by adjusting anode potential value.

5 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

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4 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: solid or melted substances are loaded on graphite body heated, at least, partially, inductively. Reducing agents are introduced therein, other than graphite carbon to collect flowing reduced and/or gasified melt. Note here that reducing agents are introduced along with solid or melted loaded particles. Said reducing agents represent natural gas, coal dust, brown coal dust, hydrocarbons, hydrogen, carbon oxide and/or ammonia to be introduced together with steam, oxygen, carbon dioxide and/or halogens or halogen hydrides.

EFFECT: simplified process.

18 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises smelting initial material to produce vitreous arsenic trisulfide. Arsenic-bearing sulfide cake is subjected to neutralisation given its moisture content does not exceed 0.5%. Smelting is performed in protective capsule preformed from liquid dump slag at 350-400°C using the heat of said dump slag. Then, buffer layer of heat-insulation material is formed on the surface of obtained cake melt. Now, said protective capsule is sealed by coating its surface with buffer layer of liquid dump slag to be hardened thereafter. Aforesaid heat-insulation layer represents crushed slag and/or quartz sand and/or undersized crushed stone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed furnace comprises body arranged at welded frame and composed of refractory outer lateral, front and rear end walls, accumulation wall and inclined platform confined by hearth and walls, crown, working and spare drain notches, working and slag opening shutters, rotary bowl and gas duct. Furnace has outer heat insulation of walls consisting of asbestos grit, dual layer of refractory mats and dual layer of asbestos cardboard sheets. Accumulation bath and inclined platform are made from corundum blocks laid on the layers of asbestos cardboard and light brick. Furnace frame is filled with concrete with filler from fireclay and asbestos grit. Crown above inclined platform and bath has heat-insulation plaster above which dual layer of refractory heat-insulation mats is laid. One lateral wall of the furnace if provided with two injection eight-mixer medium-pressure burners directed at angle to inclined platform while another lateral wall is furnished with on injection eight-mixer burner directed at angle to inclined platform and another 17-mixer reheat chamber directed to furnace hearth lined by refractory bricks to house sin-mixed gas injection burner, air blower, and waste gas heater arranged above said chamber. Notches in lateral wall for release of fused metal are made in fast-replace notch bricks.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, reduced heat losses.

7 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: furnace includes a housing formed with side, front and rear external end refractory walls, a storage bath that is restricted with a bottom and walls, an inclined platform, an arch, a drain tap-hole and a gas duct. The housing is arranged on a welded concrete-cast frame with filler from diatomite chips and provided with two heat-insulating layers from light brick and asbestos board plates under the bottom, two heat-insulating layers from light brick and four layers of asbestos board plates under the inclined platform. The storage bath and the inclined platform are made of mullite-corundum blocks MKP-72 laid on three layers of asbestos board and have packing from diatomite chips, which are mixed with crushed asbestos chips. The furnace has lower and upper large arches located one above another so that a gap for a flue gas duct is formed between them. The furnace is equipped with a rotating chute having the possibility of being turned during liquid metal pouring and having an intermediate nose, a rotating bowl with a shaft welded in its lower part, the end of which is pressed into an inner shell of a ball bearing, and its outer shell is fixed in a bracket fixed in the rear wall of the furnace; at that, a long pouring nose with two handles is welded to the turning bowl for series pouring of metal molten in the furnace to the pouring equipment located in the service sector at an angle of 140°. Front wall of the furnace is provided with a row of injection burners of intermediate pressure, out of which two eight-mixer burners with long flame are directed on edges to the charge contained on the inclined platform and to the bath with molten metal, one burner BIGm 2-6 and two burners BIGm 2-12 are directed to the charge.

EFFECT: high furnace capacity, reduction of heat losses and melting loss and possible environmentally safe remelting of aluminium scraps.

7 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cleaning of scraps by acid treatment with removal of manganese dioxide. Then, deoxidation of cleaned scraps, its hydration, grinding, dehydration at increased temperature is performed so that tantalum hydride powder is agglomerated and tantalum capacitor powder is obtained. At that, acid treatment is performed at room temperature using the solution containing 100-300 g/l of sulphuric acid and 110-300 g/l of hydrogen dioxide, or the solution containing 30-150 g/l of hydrochloric acid and 75-225 g/l of hydrogen dioxide. Scrap hydration is performed by treatment using the solution of hydrofluoric acid with concentration of 1-5%. The obtained capacitor tantalum powder provides specific charge of up to 7300 mcC/g, breakdown voltage of more than 200 V and leakage current of 0.0001-0.0003 mcA/mcC when being used in anodes of tantalum oxide-semiconductor capacitors.

EFFECT: reduction of energy intensity and improvement of environmental friendliness of the process at its simultaneous simplification.

3 cl, 6 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flotation of man-made stock. Method of flotation of sulfide ores of nonferrous and noble metals comprises conditioning crushed ore with dithiophosphate solution or other sulfhydric collectors in lime medium and flotation. Note here that for reduction in floatability of pyrite and increase in extraction of metal up to 10 wt % of thiourea ((NH2)2CO) or its derivatives are preliminary introduced in the solution of dithiophosphate as a modifying agent. Then, pulp from ore is conditioned, first, with modified dithiophosphate at pH 8.5-9.0 for 3-5 minutes and, then, with, xanthate at pH over 9.0 for 1.0 minute. Then flotation of sulphides of nonferrous metals and mineral forms of noble metals at input of modified of dithiophosphate and xanthate varying from 1:3 to 3:1, respectively.

EFFECT: reduced floatability of pyrite and other iron sulphides, increased floatability of nonferrous metal minerals, native gold particles and its exposed concretions with sulphides.

3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to regeneration of secondary metal-bearing raw material, including to electrochemical processing of metal wastes of tungsten-copper alloys containing 7-50% Cu. The above method involves anodic oxidation of wastes in 10-15% of ammonia solution under action of direct current. At that, the oxidation process is performed with addition to the solution of 0.1-0.5 M NaOH or 0.1-0.5 M KOH at current density of 1000-3000 A/m2.

EFFECT: improvement of metal extraction at minimum electric power consumption and effective separation of tungsten and copper.

2 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: red sludge is melted in a fuel-oxygen skull melting unit, iron is reduced with carbon-bearing reducing agent, and the produced metal and slag are output separately. In addition, sludge is heated and dried in a drying device till humidity is 6-10% with the heat of exhaust gases of the melting unit with the temperature of 1750-1850°C with addition to wet sludge of 3-6% of the weight of lime production wastes. Dried sludge is loaded by means of a sealed loading device from the drying device onto molten slag heated to 1640-1680°C, at the speed of 1.2-1.4 tons per 1 m2 of the heel of molten slag per hour. Reduction of iron from molten charge is performed by means of carbon-bearing materials loaded onto the slag in the quantity providing the content of iron oxides in the final reduced slag within 3-5%. Separate drainage of melting products is performed continuously or periodically, thus maintaining vibrations of the molten metal level in the melting unit of not more than by 200-300 mm by changing the drain speed and the quantity of melting products.

EFFECT: creation of high-efficiency single-stage processing process of red sludges and simplification of the processing process.

8 cl, 3 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises extracting essential part of rhenium from catalyst by direct contact between catalyst and one or more polar non-acid, in fact, anhydrous organic solvents. In contact with solvent, solution is formed containing said polar non-acid organic solvent and extracted rhenium. Note here that said polar non-acid organic solvent with molar structure that contains one or more atoms of oxygen, nitrogen and/or halogen.

EFFECT: simplified and cheaper process, selectivity of rhenium extraction.

23 cl, 2 tbl, 11 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises selective flotation, gold extraction from flotation wastes, biological oxidation of concentrate, neutralisation and gold extraction. Note here that selective oxidation is carried out with isolation of arsenopyrite and pyrrotine concentrates and tailings. Gold is extracted from tailings by gravity. Biological oxidation is performed in two steps. At first step arsenopyrite concentrate is fed while, at second step, pyrrotine concentrate is fed. Sulphides and elemental sulfur are extracted from biological oxidation pulp to be divided into solid and liquid phases for solid phase to be neutralised. Now, gold is extracted separately from said solid and liquid phases.

EFFECT: lower costs, simplified process.

4 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

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