Raw mix for manufacturing of ceramic thermal insulating building materials
SUBSTANCE: raw mix contains the following components, wt %: argillites - 69.0-74.8; diopside-containing rock - 10-15; crushed glass - 9.5-10.5; building gypsum - 4.92-5.1; alumnium powder - 0.58-0.6; sodium hydroxide, 2H solution - 29.6-30.0% above 100%, of dry mixture, V/G - 0.42-0.45.
EFFECT: increased strength of porous items with preservation of their density and temperature of annealing.
The invention relates to the construction materials industry and can be used for the production of insulating ceramics.
Famous raw mixture comprising the ingredients the next time their ratio, wt.%: loam 20-25; aluminum powder 0,06-0,10; ground lime 0,7-1,0; shale - waste recycling of bituminous shale or waste rock 20-25; metallurgical carbonateitamin slag 22-23; superplasticizer based on sodium salts, the polycondensation product of naphthalenesulfonate and formaldehyde With 3 0,18-0,02; water - the rest (USSR Author's certificate No. 1678810 A1, priority date 27.04.1989, publication date 23.09.1991, the authors Burlakov G.S., and others, EN).
The disadvantage of the raw mix is a selection of aggressive gases during firing of ceramic mixtures using polymers, as well as increased density of the final product - 640 kg/m3.
Closest to the technical essence is adopted as the prototype of a raw material mixture consisting of clay component - loam, corrective additive zeolite when Vodopyanov respect To/G=0,8-1,0, astringent, while performing the role of alkaline additives, is it lime and additives of blowing agent is aluminum powder, in the following ratio, wt.%: loam - 83,3-75,4; zeolite 12,50-18,85; aluminum is the first powder - 0,08-0,11; ground lime 4,12-5,64 (RF Patent No. 2281268 C2, the priority date of 04.11.2004, date of publication, 10.08.2006, the authors Zavadsky VF and others, RU, prototype)
The disadvantage of the prototype is a low strength products at a density 440-640 kg/m3after firing at a temperature of 950°C - 2-2,2 MPa specified in the abstract of [Potro NB Porous ceramics (composition, technology, properties): author. dis...Kida. technology. Sciences / Nebuta. - Novosibirsk, 2004 - 24 C.].
The objective of the invention is to increase the strength of porous products while maintaining their firing temperature and density.
To solve the problem of raw mix for the production of ceramic insulation construction materials, including clay component, corrective additive, an alkaline additive, binder and the blowing agent is aluminum powder according to the invention, as the clay component it contains claystone, as a corrective additive - typedstream rock and glass, as an alkaline additive - 2 n sodium hydroxide solution as a binder - plaster construction, when Vodopyanov the ratio of 0.42-0.45 and the following ratio, wt.%:
|Dieselstrasse on the ode||10-15|
|Sodium hydroxide, 2N solution (over 100%)||29,6-30,0%|
To implement the invention in the raw material mixture used in the following components.
As clay rocks use mudstones Montenegrin (Khakassia), granulometric composition of which varies from coarse to disperse with the content of clay particles from 26.5 to 47.5%, sand from 45 to 50%. The chemical composition of mudstones is within the following limits, wt.%: SiO2- 51,86-58,12; Al2O3- 15,7-20,35; Fe2O3- 5,57-6,01; Cao - 1,73-3,17; MgO - 2,21-1,66; Na2O - 1,2-1,8;2O - 2,3-2,9, PPP - 8,2-12. The claystone is subjected to crushing, drying and grinding to pass through a sieve with a mesh size of less than 0,16 mm
As a corrective additives used typedstream breed and broken glass from a mixture of window and container glass, ground to the residue not more than 5% on a sieve with a mesh size of 0,063 mm
With the introduction of the clay suspension it supplements dieselstrasse rocks and broken glass facilitated the process wspanialy is due to the action of additives as atomically, accelerated recruitment process structural strength of foamed mass, which contributes to the decrease in precipitation porous mixture after expansion and reduction of the density value of the products. In the process of burning products additive dieselstrasse rocks, mainly composed of diopside (92-95%), exhibiting the properties structure-forming additives that enhance the durability of products while maintaining high porosity, and the addition of cullet as plantoprazole component contributes to low-temperature sintering products.
Table 1 shows the chemical composition used in the raw mix Montenegrin claystone (Khakassia), dieselstrasse rocks and broken glass.
As a blowing agent for polsacie raw mix used aluminum powder grade PAP - 2 (GOST 5494-95). The specific surface of the aluminum powder is 5500-6000 cm2/g, the content of active aluminum in it is 87-98,5%.
Ensuring alkaline mixture reaches the change of sodium hydroxide, which is injected in the form of a 2N solution in excess of 100% of the dry mixture.
As the binder, providing a consolidation of the porous structure of the mixture after foaming, apply gypsum building brand G-6 meeting the requirements of GOST 1308-81, the beginning of the seizure, which extending t is 3-11 min, the end - 7-15 minutes
The technology of manufacture of the raw material mixture is carried out according to the following scheme.
In pre-cooked mudstones add plaster construction standard fineness of grind, fine typedstream rocks and broken glass and mix them in a dry condition. Then the mixture is injected heated to 50-60°C water and the required amount of 2 n sodium hydroxide solution, then add aluminum powder. Stirring is carried out until a homogeneous fluid mass. Received watery-viscous mass is poured into a mold, filling its volume to 2/3 of the height to sample and determine their properties. The process of polsacie and heaves mass lasts 30-40 minutes and Then the sample is subjected to drying at a temperature of 70-90°With a duration of 10-12 hours. After drying, forms removed, and the product is calcined for 8 hours at a temperature of 950°C.
The compounds of the inventive mixtures and prototype are shown in table 2.
|Components||Content, wt.% of||Prototype %|
|Gypsum Mr. 6||4,53||4,92||5,01||5,10||of 5.29|
|Sodium hydroxide, 2 N.||29,4||29,6||29,8||30||30,2|
For example, to implement technical solutions - composition No. 2 crushed claystone in the amount of 69%, gypsum building brand G-6 - 4,92%, it is typedstream breed is 15% and it cullet to 10.5% was mixed in a dry state for 5 minutes, Heated to 50-60°C water at Vodopyanov the ratio of 0.42 and 2 n sodium hydroxide solution in the amount of 29.6% was introduced into the mixture and stirred for 2 min, then was added aluminum the best powder in the amount of 0.58% and stirred for another 2 min to obtain a homogeneous fluid mass. Then, the raw material mixture is poured into molds, filling to 2/3 of the height to get the samples and their testing in the mechanical strength and other properties. The process of polsacie and foaming lasted 35 minutes Later, the samples were dried at 70°C for 10 h, then immediately demoulded was subjected to annealing for 8 hours at a temperature of 950°C. the Prepared samples were tested to determine their properties.
Physico-mechanical properties of the products obtained from the following table 2 compositions shown in table 3.
|Properties||Indicators for composition||The placeholder|
|Firing temperature, °C||950||950||950||950||950||950|
|Compressive strength, MPa||2,7||a 4.9||4,1||3,7||1,9||2,0-2,2|
The results are shown in table 3, show that the proposed formulations of the inventive raw mixture have a higher strength products with the same density than known composition. Table 3 also shows that the product of the mixture ratio different from the ratio of components in the proposed structure, have lower strength and higher density (compositions No. 1 and No. 5).
Thus, the obtained raw material mixture is optimal composition for the manufacture of ceramic heat-insulating building material of high strength with density 440-550 kg/m3.
Raw mix for the production of ceramic insulation construction materials, including clay component, corrective additive, an alkaline additive, binder and the blowing agent is aluminum powder, characterized in that as the clay component it contains claystone, as a corrective additive - typedstream rock and glass, as an alkaline additive - nectar hydroxide NAT the Oia,
as knitting - plaster construction, when Vodopyanov the ratio of 0.42-0.45 and the following ratio, wt.%:
|Sodium hydroxide, nectar (over 100%)||29,6-30,0|
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for fabrication of gas concrete includes the following components, wt %: portland cement 140 - 150, lime 140 - 150, marshalite 480 - 520, gypsum 0.5 -1, aluminium powder 2.5 - 3, superplasticiser S-3 0.3 - 0.5, water 480 -520.
EFFECT: reduced time of autoclave treatment, increased strength of products from gas concrete.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of heat-insulating foamed building materials. Finely ground rock is mixed with mineral binder, correction additives, a foaming agent and water. The rock used is gaize, the mineral binder is slag-portland cement, the stabilising additive is a mixture of polyacrylamide gel and carbamide-formaldehyde liquid, taken in ratio of 1:1, and the fluxing agent is low-melting frit. The foaming agent is foaming agent PO-6TS or PB-2000. Before mixing, the gaize and frit are ground to specific surface area of 3500-4000 cm2/g. The stabilising additive is used to prepare foam. The moulded articles are fired at temperature of 950°C. Components of the initial mixture are in the following ratio, wt %: rock - 45.5-47.0; mineral binder - 6.5-7.0; stabilising additive - 0.8-0.9; fluxing agent - 15.0-17.0; foaming agent - 0.6 5-0.7; water - the balance.
EFFECT: low heat conductivity and sorption moistening, high strength and wider raw material base for producing foamed glass-ceramic articles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to structural materials, specifically to formation of pores in gypsum mixtures, and can be used in the industry of structural materials. In the method of preparing a gas-forming agent for formation of pores in gypsum mixtures, involving mixing calcium carbonate, aluminium sulphate and water, a prepared salt solution consisting of aluminium sulphate and water is mixed with calcium carbonate which is ground to specific surface area of 250-280 m2/kg, with the following ratio of dry components, wt %: aluminium sulphate 30-35.7, calcium carbonate 64.3-70.
EFFECT: obtaining foamed gypsum of low density and heat-conductivity.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of building materials and specifically to production of foam concrete. The method of producing a crude mixture for making foam concrete involves preparing a dry mixture from 500 DO portland cement and quartz sand, which is pre-dried and ground to specific surface area of not more than 2400 cm2/g, and simultaneously mixing with said portland cement in a mechanical activator, structuring water and adding a modifying additive - a combination of aluminosilicate microspheres and one- or multi-layered carbon nanotubes in ratio of 1:10, adding the obtained aqueous solution to the dry mixture and mixing for 5 minutes, adding aluminium powder, caustic soda and mixing for 3 minutes, with the following ratio of components, wt %: 500 DO portland cement 20-75, quartz sand 20-75, said modifying additive 0.1-6.0, aluminium powder 0.007-0.5, caustic soda (per dry substance) 0.0005-0.005, water - the balance. In the method of producing a crude mixture for making foam concrete, polypropylene or metal fibre can be added to the mixture in amount of 0.003%.
EFFECT: high safety of producing the crude mixture, high strength and frost-resistance of foam concrete.
2 cl, 1 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and can be used in making articles from foamed concrete. The method of producing foamed concrete involves preparation of a concrete mixture, adding a foaming agent - aluminium powder, ultrasonic treatment of the mixture, subsequent moulding and hardening. After preparation of the concrete mixture, resonator centres are formed therein in form of separate accumulations of fine particles, for which crude aluminium powder is added to the mixture and a low-speed mixing mode is set - blade rotational speed of 180 rpm. The mixture undergoes ultrasonic treatment, crude aluminium powder is added to the mixture and a high-speed mixing mode is set - blade rotational speed of 620 rpm. The invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: obtaining foamed concrete articles with improved structural and mechanical properties.
4 cl, 1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production porous aggregate for concrete. The mixture for making porous aggregate contains the following in wt %: montmorillonite clay 89.7-92.3; dolomite 6.0-9.0; sulphite-alcohol wort 1.3-1.7.
EFFECT: high frost resistance.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials, particularly foamed gypsum compositions used to make light heat-insulating materials with a porous structure. The composition for making foamed gypsum articles contains the following in wt %: gypsum plaster 29.0, phosphogypsum 29.0, nonionic surfactant OP-7 0.01, tartaric acid 0.1, iron sulphate 0.003, 25% aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution 0.01, dimethylvinylethynylcarbinol 0.001, water - the balance.
EFFECT: gypsum-based foamed material, having high strength, low specific weight, high heat-insulating and frost-resistance properties.
SUBSTANCE: composition of raw mix for manufacturing of nonautoclave-hardening aerated concrete contains the following components, wt %: portland cement 35.30-49.40, limestone 2.6-2.65, aluminium powder 0.06-0.10, calcium chloride 0.18-0.25, limestone crushed down to specific surface of 300-700 m2/kg 12.40-26.50, water - balance.
EFFECT: stabilisation of a process of aerated concrete mixture aeration, improved operational characteristics of an aerated concrete, reduction of its prime cost with simplification of mixture composition.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: aim of the invention is to produce materials having high heat and sound insulation, water vapour permeability, fire-resistance, light weight, as well as high adhesion to concrete, mortar and plaster and high compression strength.
EFFECT: improved technical characteristics.
16 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: artificial rock contains the following components, wt %: cement 12-15, quartz sand 25.4-30.2, ferrous oxide 1-1.5; ferrous hydroxide 1-1.5; quicklime 12-15, aluminium powder 0.1-0.3 and water heated to the temperature of 90-98°C, 40-45.
EFFECT: production of strong and ecologically safe artificial rock.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of silicates and compositions of ceramic mixtures which can be used to make floor tiles. The ceramic mixture for making floor tiles contains refractory clay, ground expanded pearlite, bentonite, ground natural diopside and silica gel, with the following ratio of components, wt %: refractory clay - 51.0-54.5; ground expanded pearlite - 9.0-13.0; bentonite - 22.0-26.0; ground natural diopside - 9.0-13.0; silica gel - 1.0-1.5.
EFFECT: high wear resistance of articles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of silicates and compositions of mixtures for making stove tiles and heat resistant ceramic tiles. The mixture for making glazed tiles contains mullite, kaolin, zirconium oxide and marshalite, with the following ratio of components, wt %: mullite - 27-29; kaolin - 43-47; zirconium oxide - 4-6; marshalite - 20-24.
EFFECT: low firing temperature of articles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of facing tiles. The crude mixture for making facing tiles contains clay, coal ash, quartz sand, sodium oleate, carboxymethyl cellulose and liquid potassium glass, with the following ratio of components, wt %: clay - 73.5-74.0; coal ash - 10.0-15.0; quartz sand - 10.0-15.0; sodium oleate - 0.2-0.3; carboxymethyl cellulose - 0.2-0.3; liquid potassium glass - 0.5-1.0.
EFFECT: low firing temperature of articles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of silicates and compositions of ceramic mixtures for making brick. The ceramic mixture for making brick contains high-melting clay, quartzite, kaolin, zircon and wollastonite, with the following ratio of components, wt %: high-melting clay - 60.0-64.0; quartzite - 19.0-21.0, kaolin - 5.0-7.0; zircon - 5.0-7.0; wollastonite - 5.0-7.0.
EFFECT: high strength of articles.
SUBSTANCE: ceramic mass for brick production consists of clay, ground quartz glass, zircon and spodumene, with the following ratio of components, wt %: clay - 63.0-65.0; ground quartz glass - 13.0-17.0; zircon - 13.0-17.0; spodumene - 5.0-7.0.
EFFECT: improved frost resistance of items.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of silicates and compositions of ceramic mixtures for making brick. The ceramic mixture for making brick contains high-melting clay, quartzite, kaolin and sulphite-yeast wash, with the following ratio of components, wt %: high-melting clay - 78.5-79.5; quartzite - 14.0-20.0, kaolin - 1.0-5.0; sulphite-yeast wash - 0.5-1.5.
EFFECT: high frost resistance of articles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of silicates and compositions of ceramic mixtures for making brick. The ceramic mixture for making brick contains high-melting clay, quartzite, kaolin and silica gel, with the following ratio of components, wt %: high-melting clay - 65.7-88.0; quartzite - 10.0-30.0, kaolin - 1.5-3.0; silica gel - 0.5-1.3.
EFFECT: high frost resistance of brick.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions of ceramic mixtures which can be used in making articles for decorative and art and general purposes. The ceramic mixture contains plastic clay, kaolin, ground foamed pearlite and bone ash, with the following ratio of components, wt %: plastic clay - 46.0-54.0; kaolin - 8.0-10.0; ground foamed pearlite - 30.0-34.0; bone ash - 8.0-10.0.
EFFECT: low firing temperature of articles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of construction materials and ceramic mixtures for making brick and tiles. The ceramic mixture for making brick and tiles contains clay, ground dry scrap brick, ground fibre-glass wastes, spent grains from wine and cognac production and silica gel, with the following ratio of components, wt %: clay - 82.9-85.0; ground dry scrap brick - 0.1-1.,0; ground fibre-glass wastes - 10.0-15.0; spent grains from wine and cognac production - 1.0-1.5; silica gel - 1.0-1.5.
EFFECT: high water resistance of articles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions of ceramic mixtures which can be used in making sanitary ware. The ceramic mixture contains clay, kaolin, quartz sand, potsherd, cobalt sulphate and silica gel, with the following ratio of components, wt %: clay - 31.0-38.0; kaolin - 25.0-30.0; quartz sand - 6.0-8.0; potsherd - 22.98-24.96; cobalt sulphate - 0.02-0.04; silica gel - 6.0-8.0.
EFFECT: low firing temperature of articles.
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns manufacture of articles for heat-retention of furnace units and power equipment operated at surface temperatures up to 1100°C. Invention provides charge mixture containing, wt %: swollen vermiculite 20-60, refractory clay or kaolin 37-55, electrofilter dust 1-20, chamotte fraction below 0.063 mm 1-30, and structure-forming polyelectrolyte 3-5 (above 100%). Charge is moistened to form mass, which is aged in closed space for at least 24 h, molded into crude article, dried to residual moisture at most 5%, and fired at 1000-1100°C. Aforesaid polyelectrolyte is characterized by having carboxyl, amide, nitrile, and ester groups in polymer molecule.
EFFECT: reduced air and fire shrinkage and service deformations, raised softening point, simplified manufacture, and achieved absence of anisotropy of physicochemical and thermal characteristics with extremely low heat-conduction values.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex