# Control method for traction electric drive of multiwheel vehicle and device for its implementation

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to automotive industry and may be used in traction electric drives of independent pneumatic-tired vehicles. Method of wheel propulsive force control for multiwheel all-wheel-drive vehicle consists in setting parameter preset values for traction motor regulation, measuring their rotation speeds, processing measurement results with regard to curvature of movement trajectory, and correction of set values by signals proportional to differences between electric motor speeds and their calculated maximum permissible speeds. The device comprises traction motors, voltage converters, power source, motor speed sensors, preset values generators for the first and the second regulation parameter, units for correction of preset values of the first regulation parameter, movement direction generators, unit for motor speeds adjustment to one motor, unit for selection of minimal rotation speed from adjusted motor speeds, unit for calculation of corrective signals, unit for calculation of limit values of converter voltages regulation coefficients.

EFFECT: higher electric drive efficiency.

6 cl, 4 dwg

The invention relates to the field of transport engineering and can be used in traction drives offline pneumatic-tired vehicles, including off-road, such as wheeled tractors and trucks rough terrain.

A known method of controlling tractive effort of the wheel machines with mechanical drive (patent of the Republic of Belarus BY 5929 C1 IPC WC 41/00, 2004), which consists in the task of tangential forces on the wheels is proportional to the normal load on them, the measurement of effort, is actually implemented by the wheels of the vehicle, processing and analysis of the received signals, the regulation of Executive mechanisms of the machine according to the analysis results. But such regulation is in effect when the negative sign of the derivative of the tangent efforts on any wheel that is a sign of slippage of the wheel. Termination of slippage is achieved by mechanical braking respective wheels, which contributes, according to the authors, to maintain the degree of slippage in the work area at the limit of adhesion. This method of detection of slippage and maintain the degree of wheel slippage multiwheel vehicle can be realized with the application of the traction drive, and even greater economy and efficiency (by reducing the drive torque of the electric motor, and not through the use of mechanical braking). The disadvantage of this method of regulation is the difficulty of defining implemented traction and their derivatives in the real ranges of their possible changes. Even more significant disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of its application for off-road vehicles terrain and wheeled tractors. This is due to the fact that during the implementation of the traction wheels of these vehicles in off-road conditions, which is the standard operating conditions, there is no distinct maxima implemented traction depending on the degree of slippage of the wheels relative to the reference surface (see Nagpokhari, Ademaro. Universal transmission wheel-mounted machines increased unit capacity. M: "engineering", 1976, p.28, Fig.5), and therefore the derivative tractive effort of the wheels does not change sign throughout the possible range of changes in the degree of wheel slippage. Therefore, the use of changes of sign of the derivative traction to control the parameters of actuators such vehicles inefficient.

Known another method of regulating the tractive effort of the wheels multiwheel vehicles with electric drive, which consists in the task equally the s for all traction motors adjustable parameters and the formation of a specific algorithm to voltage motors,
measuring signals proportional to the frequencies of n_{i}rotation of the traction motors and the processing of measurement results, based on identifying the minimum of these n_{min}the calculation of the maximum allowable maximum (in terms of adhesion of all wheels with the supporting surface and at a maximum possible value of k_{1}defined by the ratio of maximum R_{max}and the minimum allowable R_{min}the rolling radii of the wheels) values of n_{lin}=kl·n_{min}, difference Δn_{i}=n_{i}-n_{lim}(between the measured values of the rotation speed of the wheels and the calculated maximum allowable value), identify those that exceed the value of n_{lim}and correction settings of the adjustable parameters of electric motors by signals proportional to Δn_{i}. This method is implemented in the transmission of the locomotive (Microprocessor-based automatic control system for a transmission of locomotives. Edited Avigliana, M.: "Route", 2004, p.153, 4.2). As parameters regulated by signals proportional to Δn_{i}in this way use of voltage sources, each of which feeds a corresponding traction motor DC series-wound. Upon the occurrence of slippage, any stake is Noah pair of the locomotive and the excess speed of the corresponding drive motor relative to the minimum rotation speed of electric motors more
than 3% of the supply voltage of the motor stalled wheel pair is reduced in proportion to the difference between the rotational speed of the motor, causing skidding wheel pair, and the maximum allowable rotational speed, which helps to limit the outbreak of slippage, and the implementation of slipping a pair of wheels traction, close to the limit under the terms of its grip on the rails.

A device that implements the specified method contains several traction DC motor connected to a common power source through individual rectifiers, sensors, frequency of rotation of the motors, the power allocation of the minimum of the measured speeds, blocks calculate the difference between the changed rotation speed and the minimum of them, blocks calculation of angles regulation of controlled rectifiers in the function of these differences.

A significant advantage of this method compared to previously considered is the ease of implementation of measurements of controlled parameters and invariance to the kind of dependence traction implemented slipping wheel, the degree of slippage relative to the reference surface. The disadvantage of this method is the low efficiency of its use on pneumatic-tired vehicles having substantially the more high permissible differences of frequencies of rotation of the traction motors, due to the kinematics of the movement of such vehicles on the turns. Therefore, to enable regulation of the considered way on these vehicles, it is necessary to increase the range of acceptable differences of frequencies of rotation of the motors up to 100÷200%, which will lead to unacceptably high loss of power to the slipping wheel when driving in a tight grip.

Another disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of its use in asynchronous traction drive, so as to regulate the rotation speed of asynchronous motors of change applied thereto voltages ineffective (see Uchazeeu and other Power electronics. M.: MPEI Publishing house, 2007, s).

The technical problem to be solved in the present method and device is the realization of arbitrarily determined traction wheels of the vehicle when driving in conditions of adhesion of the wheels with the support surface and in tight clutch - implementation of the tractive effort of slipping wheels to levels that can produce the limiting speeds of the respective motors in predetermined limits. This reduces the power loss on the slippage of the wheels relative to the support surface and thereby increasing KP and performance of the transport operation, especially in conditions of pneumatic-tired vehicles, including off-road.

This task is solved with respect to mode control traction multiwheel drive vehicle, according to which at each moment of time, you set the values of the adjustable parameters of the traction motors and a specific algorithm to form a voltage motors, measure the rotational speed of n_{i}each motor, where i is the ordinal number of the motor, determine the magnitude and sign of the angle α that specifies the angular direction of movement of the vehicle about its longitudinal axis, calculate the speed of each motor, refer to the installation place of any one of the j-th motor according to the formula n_{p}=k_{p}·n_{i}where k_{p}- coefficient of reduction for the i-th wheel, then from the calculated n_{p}determine the minimum value of n_{prmp}calculate the maximum permissible maximum value of a given frequency of rotation of the motor according to the formula n_{plim}=(1,07÷1,20)·n_{prmp}and frequency difference Δn_{p}by the formula Δn_{p}=n_{p}-n_{plim}reduce the amount previously specified controlled parameter of each motor, which Δn_{p}>0, the value proportionally with the social relation Δn_{
p}/k_{p}and k_{p}=(µ_{j}/µ_{i})·(R_{Ki}/R_{j})·(R_{nj})/(R_{p}), µ_{i}, µ_{j}- the gear ratio of gears installed between the output shafts of the respective motors and axles driven their wheels, R_{i}, R_{j}- the certified value of the rolling radii of the respective wheels, R_{p,}R_{j}- designed by famous the kinematic ratios of the radii of the trajectories of rotation of the respective wheels in the function of the signal α and the design parameters of the vehicle.

When using a torque on the shafts of the traction motors as throttling parameters that can be set for electric motors different axles of the vehicle randomly, or in accordance with the results of previously executed optimization calculations previously defined signals setpoint torque of the electric motors, in which Δn_{p}>0, is reduced by subtracting from them the signals proportional relationship Δn_{p}/k_{p}.

When setting torque on the shafts of the traction induction motors the combination of relations (E_{i}/f_{i}) EMF E_{i}induced in the windings of electric motors, for frequencies f_{j}these EMF and frequency f_{syi}absolute slip for electric motors, to whom that Δn_{
p}>0, the previously specified f_{syi}the respective motors is reduced by subtracting from them the signals proportional relationship Δn_{p}/k_{p}.

When applying the proposed method and device in asynchronous drives with vector control (for example, patent RU (11) 2193814 (13) C2. The device and method of controlling an induction motor, NR 21/00), using regulation momentousness Iq and magnetizing Id components of the stator current of the motor, as the first parameter of the regulation the proposed method uses an active component of the stator current, and as the second parameter regulation - its magnetizing component. Earlier setpoints momentarily Iq_{i}components of the stator currents of the electric motors, in which Δn_{p}≥0, is reduced by subtracting from them the signals proportional relationship Δn_{p}/k_{p}.

When forming voltages U_{i}electric motors through converters, powered by the same DC power source with an output voltage of the IC, the voltage at the output of each transducer is determined by the formula:

where cu_{i}- the control factor of the i-th transducer (KPI=0÷1);

U_{max}- the maximum voltage at cu_{i}=1 (U_{max}=kcx·PI);

kcx - coefficient determined by the scheme of connection of the Converter.

With the high powered motors to the desired ratio (E_{i}/f_{i}for all motors can be provided by specifying the same value ratio (U_{max}/n_{max}for an electric motor having a maximum frequency of rotation n_{max}and the limit values of the coefficients cu_{i}other converters on the levels:

The device for carrying out the method comprises a traction drive, comprising at least two traction motors, each of which is connected by an appropriate voltage Converter having an input rotation speed of the electric motor, the input limiting voltage Converter and two entrance the job, accordingly, the first and second control parameters to a common power source, the speed sensors for traction motors, blocks, setting points, respectively, first and second throttle settings, blocks correction setting the first parameter to the regulation, each of which has a guide and corrective inputs, the unit setting the direction of movement, the block casting speeds of the motors to a single motor unit selection minimum signal unit calculating the correction signals, the unit of calculation of the limiting values of the coefficients regulation voltage converters, and the output of each speed sensor is connected to the input rotational speed of the motor corresponding to the transducer and to the corresponding inputs of the block is cast and block calculate the marginal values of the coefficients regulation voltage converters, each output of the block casting is connected to the corresponding inputs of the block allocation of the minimum signal and the block of calculation of the correction signals, each output of which is connected to an adjustment input of the corresponding block correction setting of the first parameter regulation that specifies an input connected to the corresponding output unit job of setting the first parameter regulation, o is d each error correction block is connected to the first driving input of the corresponding inverter, moreover, the output unit setting the direction of motion is connected with additional input block is cast, the output unit selection minimum signal is connected to an additional input of the calculation of the correction signals, each output unit of the calculation of the limiting values of the coefficients of the control voltages of the converters is connected to the input limiting voltage corresponding to voltage Converter, and the output unit job the second parameter regulation is connected with the second driving inputs voltage converters.

Specified cast of measured parameters to a single engine allows to exclude the influence of differences in speeds of wheels of different sides of the vehicle, caused by the movement in the rotation, as well as the impact of structural differences of the radii of the rolling wheels and the gear ratio of gears of different axles of the vehicle on the results of the comparison of frequencies of rotation given to one of the motors. Due to this difference between the speeds of the electric motors that drive with sufficient adhesion depend only on the differences in rolling radii R_{i}the respective wheels, when driving in tight coupling can testify about the degree of slippage of the individual to the EU relative to the reference surface.
Given the fact that the maximum relative differences of the radii of the rolling real vehicles regulated operational documentation and are within R_{max}/R_{min}=(1,05÷1,1), a sign of slippage of any of the wheels is exceeded, taking into account the possible calculation errors 1.07÷1.2 times given frequency of rotation of the corresponding motor relative to the minimum of the frequency of rotation. Use this feature makes it possible to reduce the value of the coefficient k1 determined by real range of possible differences of frequencies of rotation of the wheels when driving in rotation with 1,5÷2,0, even taking into account possible errors in calculation, to 1.07÷1,2.

The values of the torques on the shafts of motors (not voltage, as is done in the prototype) as parameters governed by the signals Δn_{p}/k_{p}that makes it possible to use this method in all modern traction drives, the regulation of which the calculations of torque on their shafts regardless of the types used in traction motors. In this case, all motors set the specific values of torque on their shafts, for example, proportional to the vertical load on the wheels, and when Δn_{PR/sub>
>0 set values of the torque corresponding to the motor is reduced by subtracting from them the signals proportional relationship Δnp/kp.}

Depending on the distribution of vertical loads between the axles of the vehicle determined by its design specified torques can be the same for all motors (with a uniform distribution of vertical loads between the axles) or proportional to the vertical load on the wheels (at non-uniform distribution of vertical loads between the axles), which are aligned coupling the capabilities of all wheels of the vehicle, thereby increasing the traction properties of the vehicle during its movement in tight grip.

When using asynchronous electric motors, the torque value of M_{i}on the shaft of each of which, as is well known (see Uchazeeu and other Power electronics. M.: MPEI Publishing house, 2007, s), is proportional to the product of the ratio (E_{i}/f_{i}) the first harmonic EMF E_{i}frequency f_{i}the frequency f_{si}absolute slip, setting the desired values of torque in this case may be provided with job specific (for all motors or motors of each axis) C is achene parameter (E/f)_{
y}and frequencies f_{syi}absolute slip.

When the deterioration of the terms of coupling any of the wheels and the increases in this regard, the measured and the present rotation speed of the corresponding electric signals setpoint f_{syi}motors that have Δn_{p}≥0 adjusted downward by subtracting from them the signals proportional relationship Δn_{p}/k_{p}.

The proposed method of regulation contributes in comparison with the prototype to reduce power loss on the slippage of the wheels when driving in tight coupling due to the fact that the comparison of the frequency of rotation of the motor to determine unacceptable slippage of the driven them wheels is carried out after the multiplication results of the measurement of the frequency of rotation on the discount rates and the adjustment of the adjustable parameters is a signal proportional to the difference between the speeds of the motors and the maximum allowable given speed after dividing the obtained results on appropriate discount rates. Using as parameters the control signals f_{s}and (E/f), or, respectively, momentarily and the magnetizing component of current consumed by the motor, Iq and Id,
allows you to apply the proposed method in traction drives with asynchronous motors, and the use of this torque the proposed method is applicable in traction drives with any type of electric motors

Regulation of the proposed method with respect to the vehicle, for example with the same vertical loads on each axis, the operation of the traction motors in the alignment mode implemented moments can be achieved by setting the same for all motors setpoint absolute slides f_{sy}and regulation of the relations of amplitudes E_{i}The EMF of the first harmonics of the windings of the motor to the frequency f_{i}these EMF thus, to operate the motor with magnetic fluxes corresponding to the previously calculated values of relationship (E/f)_{y}. While the frequency of the first harmonic voltages generated by the respective voltage converters can be calculated in accordance with the expression:

where p is the number of pairs of poles of e is extradigital.

The first harmonic voltages U_{i}can be calculated in accordance with the expression:

where ΔU is the voltage drop in the windings of the stator (the impact of this parameter on the magnitude of the voltage Ui can be calculated for known values of phase current and frequency).

As follows from (4), regulations under this formula helps to increase voltage motors with higher speeds and lower voltages with lower speeds (regardless of the cause of the specified inequality speeds). This contributes to the restriction of the coefficient kp_{i}in accordance with (2). Therefore, with increasing speed and, accordingly, increase voltages U_{i}take action channels limitations kp_{i}voltage converters, which operate in conjunction with regulation (4). At low speeds and the straight sections of the regulation voltage Ui is performed primarily through (4), and at high speeds and regards Utah -
mainly by (2).

Based on the similarity of vector diagrams of the i-th and j-th electric motors under the regulation of their voltages U_{i}and U_{j}in accordance with (2) when setting them equal absolute values of the slides f_{si}=f_{sj}(similarity coefficient equal to the ratio of the voltages U_{i}/U_{j}), automatically ensures the equality E_{i}/f_{i}=E_{j}/f_{j}that, as stated above, encourages the alignment of the traction wheels of the vehicle when driving under conditions sufficient grip.

It should be noted that this similarity is only for high enough frequencies f_{i}in which the influence of the active resistance of the windings of electric motors, which do not depend on the frequency of the voltage Ui is insignificant in comparison with their inductive impedance, which is proportional to the frequency of this voltage.

The implementation of various aspects of traction motors if necessary, caused by the deterioration of the terms of coupling of the respective wheels of the vehicle (the same for all wheels passport values of the radii of the roller and the gear ratio of the gears) in straight-line motion can be provided by a change in the lower side of the signal f_{syi}the signal correction

where Δn_{i}=n_{i}-n_{lim}and n_{lim}- the maximum permissible rotational speed of the wheels, calculated taking into account possible technological differences of the radii of the rolling wheels:

The proposed method and device for its implementation are illustrated by figures figure 1-4. Figure 1 - dependence of the moments on the shafts asynchronous traction motors from their rotation frequencies calculated for the same values of the second parameter control (E/f)_{y}specifying the required values of the relations Ei/fi; figure 2 is a kinematic diagram showing the relationship of the linear velocity Vi of the movement of the wheels of the vehicle and its angular direction α of movement relative to the longitudinal axis; figure 3 - dependence of the variance of the real rotation speed of the traction motors and speeds are reduced to a single motor from turning radius R at a constant linear velocity of transport is private means;
figure 4 - block diagram of a device that implements the proposed method of regulation.

Presented in figure 1 dependence of M_{i}(n_{i}) calculated at Ei/fi=const for an induction motor 4-wheel tractor, causing the wheels are the same for all wheels passport values of the radii of the roller and the gear ratio of the gearbox, with its rectilinear movement.

When driving under conditions sufficient traction wheels of the tractor with the supporting surface with torques M_{1}=M_{2}=M_{3}=M_{4}=M_{y}on the shafts of the motors point 1, 2, 3 and 4 correspond to the frequency of rotation of the motors of the wheels of the rolling radii, the difference values of which (R1>R2>R3>R4) due to technological differences, points 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 correspond to possible modes of operation of the motors at slipping below their wheels, namely, point 1 corresponds to the motor with the minimum speed nmin=606 rpm, points 2-4 - motors with higher rotation frequencies, whose values do not exceed the maximum permissible values nlim=648 rpm (with the accepted value of the coefficient k1=1,07)corresponding to point 5. Points 6 and 7 correspond to the speeds of the two wheels, respectively, stalled, with varying degrees of slippage relative to the reference p is the surface in the absence of correction signals (f_{
i}=0), points 8 and 9 is similar in speed to the points 6 and 7, but when the effect of the correction signals fk_{i}defined by (5). If this limit value tractive effort of slipping wheels is proportional torques, respectively M8 and M9, the steady-state modes of operation of the motor, leading these slipping wheel will correspond to points 8 and 9. If extreme conditions clutch slipping wheels moments on the shafts leading their motors are the same and equal to, for example, M10, regulation of the proposed method will be to promote the same for both engines regimes corresponding to the point 10.

However, when driving in rotation calculated by using (5) signal f_{i}if the accepted value of the coefficient k_{i}can lead to undesirable reduction of the torque, implemented by the wheels of the outer side of a vehicle, and a corresponding deterioration of the traction properties of the drive. The elimination of this phenomenon can be provided by increasing coefficient k_{1}however, it is unacceptable, as when driving on turning in tight coupling is associated with a possible significant increase in power loss on the slip to the outer side.

This disadvantage is eliminated of blavod the OC to the comparison of the frequency of rotation to determine skidding of the wheels when the regulation under the proposed method is carried out after the multiplication results of the measurement of the frequency of rotation on the discount rates and the adjustment of the adjustable parameters on the results of this comparison is performed by signals proportional to the difference between the present values of the speeds compare motors, after dividing the values of these signals at appropriate discount rates.

The discount rates of rotation of the motor can be calculated from the ratios that take into account the relationship of the structural parameters (the width of the gauge In the base L, the geometric place of the wheels, the certified value of the rolling radii of the wheels and the gear ratio of gears mounted between the shafts of electric motors and axles driven them wheels) and the angular direction of movement of the vehicle about its longitudinal axis.

For example, in relation to the traction drive wheel 4-wheel tractor, the kinematic scheme of the movement of which is presented in figure 2, when the casting speed of all motors to the speed of the 4th motor factors bring the k_{i}can be calculated by the formula:

k_{PR1}=(µ_{4}/µ_{
)·(RK1/RK4)·(L·cosα-B/2·sinα)/(L+B/2·sinα·cosα);}

k_{AC2}=(µ_{4}/µ_{2})·(R_{K2}/R_{K4})·(L·cosα-B/2·sinα)/(L-B/2·sinα·cosα);

k_{AC3}=(µ_{4}/µ_{3})·(R_{K3}/R_{K4})·(L·cosα-B/2·sinα)/(L·cosα+B/2·sinα);

k_{p}=(µ_{4}/µ_{4})·(R_{K4}/R_{K4})=1.

As an example, figure 3 presents the dependence of the radius of rotation of the rear axle R=R_{GS}measured n_{1}n_{2}n_{3}n_{4}and given n_{PR1}n_{AC2}n_{AC3}n_{p}speeds calculated for the real tractor (with parameters: V=2.1 m; L=3.3 m; R_{1}=R_{2}=0,783 m; R_{3}=R_{4}=0,985 m; µ_{1}=µ_{2}=53; µ_{3}=µ_{4}=62,7) when moving with a constant translational velocity of the midpoint of the rear axle V_{PZO}=9 km/h under conditions sufficient clutch (without taking into account possible technological and operational differences of the values of the radii of the rolling wheels).

As follows from this figure, the measured values of the rotation speed of electric motors for sufficiently small values R when driving under conditions sufficient adhesion can in 2 and more times to exceed the minimum of them, and the speed of all motors at this the same all over the possible range of changes R: n_{PR1}=n_{AC2}=n_{AC3}=n_{p}. This allows to use the results when Anania given frequency of rotation for the detection engines,
speed does not correspond to the results of calculations performed for sufficient adhesion of all wheels with the support surface, and hence gives the possibility to determine the engines, causing slipping wheel.

It should be noted that the dependence of the moments on the shafts of the motors from their rotation frequencies, the same engine, similar to the dependencies presented in figure 1, but unlike the latter does not change when changing the curvature of the trajectory of the vehicle. Therefore, they can be used in assessing the effectiveness of the proposed technical solution is not only, as mentioned, in straight-line motion, but on the turns.

Due to the fact that in actual use, the above error defined technological and operational differences of the radii of the rolling wheels is in the range 7÷10%, the criterion of the commencement of slippage of any of the wheels may be exceeded by 7÷20% given frequency of rotation of the corresponding motor above the minimum calculated from the above speeds of other motors.

Thus, the ability to detect and deter slipping on the specified level using the proposed method expands in comparison with protot the POM possible field of application for regulation traction actuators pneumatic-tired machines.

Use torque M_{i}on the shafts of motors or frequency f_{si}as parameters governed by the signals Δn_{p}/k_{p}allows you to extend the scope of application of the proposed method for traction control of electric drives with any type of traction motors, including with asynchronous motors.

Presented in figure 4, the device comprises a source 1 power supply, voltage converters 2, 3, 4 and 5, the asynchronous traction motors 6, 7, 8 and 9, the sensors 10, 11, 12 and 13 of the motor, the block 14 calculation of the limiting values of the coefficients k_{pilim}regulation of voltage converters, block 15 setting the direction of movement of the block 16 to bring the frequency of rotation of the traction motors to the same kinematic parameters, block 17 the minimum signal unit 18 for calculating adjustment signals, block 19 of the second job parameters (E/f)_{y}the control unit 20 of the first job of throttling parameters f_{sy}electric motors front and f_{sy}motors rear axles, blocks 21 and 22 of the adjustment of the settings of the first throttling parameters respectively of the first and second motors, blocks 23 and 24 correction settings first-level control respectively the third and fourth motors.

Electropl the od works as follows.

From the source 1 to the power inputs voltage converters 2, 3, 4 and 5 filed feeding their voltage IC, and the control inputs of inverters receives signals, indicating that the frequency of rotation n_{i}the respective motors, the reference signals of the first and second control parameters, which are respectively the absolute slip f_{syi}that must be provided in the regulatory process, and the signal (E/f)_{y}it specifies the ratio of the EMF induced in the stator windings of each motor to the frequency of this EDS and also signals the limitations of the coefficients k_{plimi}voltage regulation.

It should be noted that when describing the operation was planned three-zone control parameters of the traction drive (Theory and calculation of the traction drive electric vehicles. Efremov I.S., etc. M.: Higher school", 1984, s). In the first zone (before the release mode power limits) automatic control system (ATS) specifies a constant value (E/f)_{y}f_{sy}and f_{sy}. In the second zone (up output mode limiting voltage) simultaneous and proportional regulation parameters f_{sy}and f_{sy}supported by the constancy of the power consumed from a source at a constant value (E/f_{
y}in the third (limiting voltage) regulation parameter (E/f)_{y}lets you change the motor rotational speed at a constant voltage power source and regulation parameters f_{sy}and f_{sy}supported by the constancy of power.

RAA providing these laws change the settings of the parameters (E/f)_{y}f_{sy}and f_{sy}assume similar SAR traction electric drive with one traction motor, the laws of relationship-defined settings these settings can be different (for example, designed to ensure maximum efficiency motors). The elements of the RAA, performing calculations and set these settings, not shown, so as not included in the subject of the proposed technical solution, ensuring the specified (e.g., uniform) distribution of traction between the wheels when driving under conditions sufficient coupling with the supporting surface and the effective limitation of slippage individual wheels when the deterioration of the conditions of the clutch.

When driving at low speeds the motors operate in the first zone regulation, which is maintained at a constant value of the magnetic flux, characterized by the maximum value of the second parameter control (E/f)_{y}set mn of the rising signal at the output of block 19,
connected to respective control inputs voltage converters 2-5. At low speeds the voltage on the windings of electric motors and, accordingly, the voltage at the outputs of the inverters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are small, so when driving in these modes, the channels of the limitations of the coefficients k_{pi}'t work. On the basis of information received at the control inputs of voltage converters 2, 3, 4 and 5 of the last form of voltage with frequency f_{i}determined from (3), and the current values of the first harmonics U_{i}determined from (4), served on the findings of the traction motors 6, 7, 8 and 9. While on the shafts of the motors are implemented in the frequency of rotation n_{i}and moments M_{i}=f(U_{i}f_{i}n_{i}).

Signals proportional to the rotation speed n_{1}n_{2}n_{3}and n_{4}measured by the speed sensors 10, 11, 12 and 13, serves to corresponding inputs of a block 16 of bringing on an additional input which receives the signal from the block 15 job direction. In block 16 the calculations for a given rotation speed according to the formula:

the results of which are served from the outputs of the block 16 to corresponding inputs of blocks 17 and 18.

In block 17 shows the frequency of rotation of all motors are compared with each other and is allocated the minimum of them, which is supplied to the auxiliary input unit 18. In unit 18 calculates the maximum allowable given the speed of electric motors

and the difference

In the same block 18 the signs of the signals Δn_{p}analyzed and for electric motors, in which Δn_{p}≥0, by analogy with (5) are calculated correction signals f_{ki}:

served on corrective inputs of the blocks 21, 22, 23 and 24 of the correction.

Let, for definiteness, the divergence of the rolling radii of the wheels does not exceed 7%. Then when driving under conditions sufficient coupling and the magnitude of the coefficient k_{1}=1,07 for all engines Δn_{p}≤0, and the signals f_{K1}f_{K2}f_{K3}and f_{K4}at the outputs of block 18 is equal to zero, resulting in blocks 21, 22, 23 and 24 correction to the inputs specify the first parameter regulation voltage converters 2 and 3 are reference signals setpoint absolute slip motors front axle f_{s1}=f_{s2}=f_{sy}and to the inputs of voltage converters 4 and 5, the reference signals setpoint absolute slip motors rear axle

f_{s3}=f_{s4}=f_{sy}.

In relation to the vehicle with a uniform distribution of vertical loads between its axis of reference with the output of block 20 of the same signals f_{sy}=f_{sy}and the condition E_{i}/f_{i}=(E/f)_{y}can be ensured alignment torque M_{i}electric motors and accurate to the differences in radii of the rolling wheels - aligning their tractive effort, which contributes to more complete use of the coupling weight of the vehicle.

With increasing speed and increasing the Institute of economy and management in accordance with these values kp_{
i}according to (2) start to operate channels limits of these parameters on the levels kp_{i}≤n_{i}/n_{max}that, as indicated above, may operate in conjunction with regulation (4) or without it.

Upon reaching the speed at which the actuator starts to work in the area of limitation of power, signals cap (not shown) simultaneous and proportional regulation f_{sy}and f_{sy}set the desired value of the power consumed by the drive. Setpoint parameter (E/f)_{y}is defined the same as in the first zone.

After reaching the speed at which the value of the coefficient k_{pi}becomes equal to 1 for at least one of the inverters 2-5, the drive goes to the third area of regulation. When working in this area to further increase the speed (which is known to be proportional to the frequency fi of the voltage powering the motor) when limited by (1) the value U_{i}and, therefore, the value of Ei can only be done by reducing the ratio of E_{i}/f_{i}specified by (E/f)_{y}. The required dependence of the change of the parameter (E/f)_{y}from speed signals provided by the RAA (not shown). Maintaining the required value of power consumed by the actuator is m,
is, as in the second zone, the simultaneous and proportional regulation parameters f_{sy}and f_{sy}.

Thus, the calculation of the signals f_{ki}correcting the absolute value of the slides f_{si}motors, taking into account the reduction of frequency of rotation of all motors to one of them in accordance with (10) provides all motors with the same parameter values E_{i}/fi=(E/f)_{y}and f_{si}=f_{sy}=f_{sy}when sufficient conditions for the traction wheels of the vehicle when the value of the coefficient k1=1.07, and calculated on the basis of possible differences of frequencies of rotation of the wheels due to differences in their radii rolling. This, in turn, provides all motors with the same parameter values E_{i}/fi=(E/f)_{y}and f_{si}=f_{sy}=f_{sy}The last is achieved by alignment of the moments of the output shafts of the traction motors and thereby the alignment of the traction force of all wheels not only in straight-line motion, but on the turns.

The operation of the traction drive in the tight grip of the wheels when the regulation in accordance with the proposed method, consider using the dependencies presented in figure 1.

When driving in tight grip of the wheels, etc is led,
for example, the second and fourth electric motors (under conditions sufficient clutch worked in points 2 and 4, respectively), the amount of torque M_{y}=360 N-m, asked for all motor parameters f_{sy}and f_{sy}may be higher than the marginal moments M_{lim}2 and M_{lim}4 (e.g., M_{lim}2=180 N·m, M_{lim}4=20 N·m), which can be realized by electric motors, leading these wheels. In this case, under the action of the difference of moments Δ2=360-180=180 N·m and Δ4=360-20=340 N·m corresponding wheels are slipping, resulting in increased signal n2 and n4 to the output speed sensors 11 and 13 and, respectively, the signals of n_{AC2}and n_{p}the outputs of the block 16 and the input unit 17. When exceeding n_{AC2}and p_{p}values of n_{plim}=k1·n_{prmp}appropriate signals Δn_{AC2}and Δn_{p}be positive, and the output unit 18 appear calculated by (10) correction signals f_{sk2}and f_{sk4}:

f_{sk2}=(p/60)·Δn_{AC2}/k_{AC2}and f_{sk4}=(p/60)·Δn_{p}/k_{p},

which are fed to the inputs of the blocks 22 and 24 correction, resulting in a corresponding inputs of voltage converters 3 and 5, the supply of the motors 7 and 9, serves adjusted signals:

f_{s2}=f_{sy}(p/60)·Δn_{AC2}/k_{AC2
and fs4=fsy(p/60)·Δnp/kp.}

This leads to the formation of the voltages applied to the findings of the second and fourth electric motors corresponding to the external characteristics of these motors, passing through the point 5, which, in turn, leads to a reduction of points on the shafts of the second and fourth motors to N·m and 20N·m, respectively.

The effectiveness of this method of limiting slippage when changes to the conditions of coupling of these tractor wheels can be evaluated to increase their speeds, due to the additional relative slippage δ2 and δ4:

δ_{2}=(n_{8}-n_{2})/n_{2}=(658-617)/617·100=6,65%;

δ4=(n_{9}-n_{4})/n_{4}=(664-644)/l050·100=3.1 per cent.

When restoring a clutch of any of the previously stalled wheel drag torque on the shaft of the corresponding motor increases, which leads to decrease its frequency of rotation n_{1}to the value corresponding to n_{lim}. When this is set to zero correction signal f_{ski}in the respective output unit 18, resulting in the reference signal frequency absolute slip at the output of the corresponding error correction block and the input of the corresponding inverter becomes equal to f_{sy}(or f_{sy}), and the torque M_{i}on the shaft is the motor
equal points on the shafts of motors nebukawa wheels. The presence of additional resistance torque caused by the increased slippage of the considered wheel at the moment of failure (when n_{p}=n_{lim}signal f_{ski}(and further, up until the wheel regains full coupling with the supporting surface), helps to reduce the frequency of rotation of the wheel to the level corresponding to the degree of slippage of the remaining nebukawa wheels.

The proposed method and device for its implementation is applicable for traction drives which require the uneven distribution of traction between the wheels of different axes, as well as for induction motor drives with vector control.

The required uneven distribution of tractive effort can be achieved by setting different parameter values f_{sy}(f_{sy}≠f_{sy}for motors of different axles of the vehicle.

When applying the method and device in asynchronous drives with vector control using regulation momentousness and magnetizing components of stator currents of the motor, as the first parameter of the regulation the proposed method should be used momentousness component of the current is of the commutator, and as the second parameter regulation - its magnetizing component.

Thus, the proposed method and device for its implementation secures the distribution of traction between the drive wheels of the vehicle when driving under conditions sufficient grip as straight-line and cornering, as well as an effective limitation of rotation of the slipping wheel by setting the setpoints adjustable parameters (E/f)_{Y}and f_{siy}and subsequent correction parameters f_{si}signals f_{si}adjusted to bring the speeds of all the motors to one of them.

1. The method of controlling traction multiwheel drive vehicle, according to which at each moment of time, you set the values of the adjustable parameters of the traction motors and a specific algorithm to form a voltage motors, measure the rotational speed of n_{i}each motor, where i is the ordinal number of the motor, determine the magnitude and sign of the angle α that specifies the angular direction of movement of the vehicle about its longitudinal axis, calculate the speed of each motor, refer to the installation place of any one of the j-th motor according to the formula n_{p}=_{
p}·n_{i}where k_{p}- coefficient of reduction for the i-th wheel, then calculated from the given frequency of rotation determine the minimum n_{prmp}calculate the permissible maximum value of a given frequency of rotation of the motor according to the formula n_{lim}=(1,07÷1,20)·n_{prmp}a frequency difference Δn_{p}by the formula Δn_{p}=n_{p}-n_{nplim}reduce the amount previously specified controlled parameter of each motor, which Δn_{p}>0, by an amount proportional to the ratio Δn_{p}/k_{p}and considering this form of the voltage of each motor, and k_{p}=(µ_{j}/µ_{i})·(RK_{i}/RK_{j})·(R_{j})/(R_{i}), where µ_{j}, µ_{i}- the gear ratio of gears installed between the output shafts of the respective motors and axles driven them wheels; RK_{i}, RK_{j}- the certified value of the rolling radii of the respective wheels; R_{i}, R_{j}- designed by famous the kinematic ratios of the radii of the trajectories of rotation of the respective wheels in the function of the signal α and the design parameters of the vehicle.

2. The control method according to claim 1, characterized in that the throttling settings use the torque on the shafts of the traction electric motor is the oil of the vehicle,
the distribution of torque between the different motors set arbitrarily, for example, in proportion to the distribution of vertical loads between the wheels of the vehicle, and the previously set values of the moments of electric motors, in which Δn_{p}>0, is reduced by subtracting from them the signals proportional relationship Δn_{p}/k_{p}.

3. The control method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the magnitude of the torque of the motor is specified by the combination of relations (E_{i}/f_{i}) EF Ei windings of the motor to the frequency fi of these EMF and frequency f_{syi}absolute slip, and when Δn_{p}>0, the previously set values of f_{syi}reduce by subtracting from them the signals proportional relationship Δn_{p}/k_{p}.

4. The control method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the torque on the shafts of the motors are set by a combination of specific values momentarily Iq and magnetizing Id components of the stator currents of the motor, and when Δn_{p}>0 previously set momentousness components of the currents of the respective motors is reduced by subtracting from them the signals proportional relationship Δn_{p}/k_{p}.

5. The control method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the traction drive with traction elektrodvigatel is s,
connected to a common source of DC power with an output voltage of Fe by appropriate transducers, in which the voltage U_{i}each motor formed in accordance with the formula U_{i}=k_{cx}·kp_{i}·PI, where k_{sh}is a coefficient determined by the scheme of connection of the Converter, kp_{i}- the ratio of voltage regulation of the i-th transducer equal to the ratio of the magnitude of the voltage U_{i}to the maximum possible magnitude of this voltage when kp_{i}=1, allocate the maximum of n_{max}from the measured speeds, calculate the relationship of n_{i}/n_{max}the measured rotation speed to the maximum of them, while the value of the coefficient regulating the voltage of each Converter limit in accordance with the formula:

cu_{i}≤n_{i}/n_{max}.

6. The device for implementing the method according to claims 1-5, containing the traction drive, comprising at least two traction motors, each of which is connected by an appropriate voltage Converter having an input rotation speed of the electric motor, the input limiting voltage Converter and two reference input, respectively, the first and second control parameters, to a common power source, sensors of rotation of the traction electric the engine, blocks setting points, respectively, first and second throttle settings, blocks correction setting the first parameter to the regulation, each of which has a guide and corrective inputs, the unit setting the direction of movement, the block casting speeds of the motors to a single motor unit selection minimum of the frequency of rotation of the motor, the unit of calculation of the correction signals, the unit of calculation of the limiting values of the coefficients regulation voltage converters, and the output of each speed sensor connected to the input rotational speed of the motor corresponding to the transducer and to the corresponding inputs of the block is cast and the unit of calculation of the limiting values of the coefficients regulation voltage converters, each output block casting is connected to the corresponding inputs of the block allocation of the minimum signal and the block of calculation of the correction signals, each output of which is connected to an adjustment input of the corresponding block correction setting of the first parameter regulation that specifies an input connected to the corresponding output unit job of setting the first parameter of the regulation, the output of each error correction block is connected to the first driving input of the corresponding converters the voltage, moreover, the output unit setting the direction of motion is connected with additional input block is cast, the output unit selection minimum signal is connected to an additional input of the calculation of the correction signals, each output unit of the calculation of the limiting values of the coefficients of the control voltages of the converters is connected to the input limiting voltage corresponding to voltage Converter, and the output unit job the second parameter regulation is connected with the second driving inputs voltage converters.

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