Method to control mineralisation of irrigating water under trickle irrigation and device for its realisation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of land reclamation and may be used to improve quality of water under trickle irrigation of crops, when watering is done with water of high salt content. The method includes mixing of mineralised and distilled water. Production of irrigating water of required mineralisation is provided with the help of a device that separates irrigating water into two parts. One of the parts remains unchanged, and the other one is demineralised, with their subsequent mixing at the necessary proportion or without mixing, using each one separately. The device for method realisation comprises a body, an evaporating element, a condensate collector and a device for distillate drainage. The body is equipped with a hollow dismountable cover. The upper and lower surfaces of the cover are made as spherical from optically transparent material with different radii of curvature. The cover, when filled with irrigating water, forms a collective concave-convex lens, which focuses solar radiation at a focal plane. The evaporating element is made in the form of a detachable sleeve. Drainage of distillate and control of mineralisation of irrigating water is carried out with pipelines equipped with control devices and communicating with the cover cavity, environment and condensate collector. The collector is made in the form of a ring to form a circular inclined tray between the body and the ring, and this tray collects distillate.

EFFECT: invention provides for production of irrigating water with salt composition that minimises negative effect at structure of irrigated lands soil.

2 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of land reclamation, in particular irrigation and drainage, and can be used to improve water quality under drip method of irrigation of agricultural crops when irrigation is carried out with water with a high salt content.

The known method of dilution is very salty groundwater fresh river water with the aim of using them for irrigation. (Kostyakov. Fundamentals of reclamation / Angastaco. ): Symptoms, 1960. - 49).

The disadvantages of this method include the use of energy-consuming equipment (pumps, dispensers), several sources of irrigation, as well as the difficulty of obtaining water of the required quality.

Closest to the claimed method is a method periodic mixing of saline water and distilled water for watering plants (Bush Werner. Bonsai in our house / VBUS): Interbook, 1998. With 41-42), which includes individual single volumes of saline and distilled water, which are mixed in the estimated quantities to obtain the desired concentration of salts in irrigation water in a unit volume.

The disadvantages in terms of this method are its frequency and complexity of implementation, which consists in the necessity of using separate containers for saline and distilled water, and the presence of energy-intensive production is DSTV to obtain distilled water, its transport to the place of consumption, as well as the capacity for blending.

Also known mobile solar power plant for desalination (RU # 2401803, C02F 1/14, from 20.10.2010), carrying and storage of distillate containing a substrate of transparent film material, and the source of sea water, available under the film base material made with the formation of the conical surface, equipped with inflatable air chambers made of film material forming the ribs and connected to the substrate, while in the lower inner part of the basis for its perimeter is a receiver for collecting the distillate, which is a continuation of the base material and its ribs and having the form of an annular trough, and base provided with a means for sealing together with desalinated water to the distillate, and a stopper located in its top, intended for the discharge of the distillate from the cavity basics if necessary of its use.

The disadvantage of this solar systems is the need to have for it to work source of sea water, available under the film base material, the inability to control the salinity of water used for irrigation, as well as the technical complexity of delivering desalinated water to the plants.

Most blinkeredness solution in part of the claimed device is heloidesalinator (SU A.S. No. 717502, F24J 3/02, SU 1/06, C02F 1/14, BI # 7 25.02.80), comprising a housing, made in Vice elastic shell of optically transparent material stretched over an inflatable frame and forming sloping walls and the bottom, placed in the enclosure above the bottom of the hygroscopic evaporative element, the condensate collector and device for removal of distillate and teleradiology perforated screen mounted between the evaporative element and the bottom.

The disadvantages of heloidesalinator is the necessity of placing it on the surface of a pond or stream, as well as the inability to control the salinity of irrigation water to avoid leaching of the soil by watering with distilled water) and soil salinity (under irrigation with saline water) with the development process licitatii soil structure.

The task to be solved by the invention is to simplify the process of obtaining and supply of irrigation water required quality of the plants grown on plots with drip irrigation, also simplify operation and maintenance.

The technical result - obtaining irrigation water from salt composition that minimizes negative impacts on soil structure irrigated land.

The technical result in part of the method is achieved by receiving irrigation water is required salinity and chemical composition, varying in the interval from the natural composition to the distillate, is provided with a device carrying out the separation of irrigation water into two parts, one of which remains unchanged, and the other demineralized and their subsequent mixing in the desired proportions or without mixing, applying each separately, while the process of regulation of salinity of irrigation water is continuous and is limited by the size of the device.

The technical result in part of the device for controlling the salinity of irrigation water under drip irrigation, comprising a housing, evaporative element, the condensate collector and device for removal of distillate is achieved in that the hollow body is equipped with collapsible lid, the upper and lower surfaces of which are spherical of optically transparent material with different radii of curvature, and forming when filling irrigation water collecting concave-convex lens, a focusing solar radiation onto a focal plane, the stabilization of the situation which is carried out by means of the automatic water supply and placed in the evaporation element made in the form of removable evaporative glass, mounted in the lower part of the body while the extraction of the distillate and regulated the e salinity of irrigation water, supplied to the plants is carried out by pipeline, is equipped with a control device and communicating with the cavity of the cover, the external environment and the collection of condensate, made in the form of rings, presents a lateral surface of a truncated cone, with the formation between the casing and the ring circular inclined trough collecting distillate.

The invention is illustrated in the drawing, which shows a longitudinal section of the device.

Way to regulate the salinity of irrigation water under drip irrigation consists in obtaining irrigation water required mineralization ranging in the interval from the natural composition to the distillate, which is a division of irrigation water into two parts, one of which remains unchanged, and the other demineralized and their subsequent mixing in the desired proportions or without mixing, applying each separately, while the process of regulation of salinity of irrigation water is carried out continuously using a device that allows you to set one of three possible modes: irrigation irrigation water with natural salinity; irrigation demineralized water; irrigation irrigation water mixture with demineralized.

The device consists of an upper cover 1 and lower cover 2, the upper surface to the which is made of spherical optically transparent material (e.g. polystyrene, polycarbonate, polymethylmethacrylate, and others) with different curvature. When this spherical surface 3 of the cover 1 has a radius of curvature smaller than the spherical surface 4 of the cover 2. Covers 1 and 2 are connected by a threaded connection 5, resulting in between the covers is formed chamber 6, bounded by spherical surfaces 3 and 4, which create a collective body concave-convex lens 7. When filling the water chamber 6, the solar radiation 8 is assembled on the main optical axis 9 on the focal plane 10, separated from the collective concave-convex lens 7 to the focal distance f. The camera 6 is communicated through a pipe 11 with the supply of irrigation pipe 12 and pipe 13 that has a regulating device 14, communicating with the external environment and through a pipe 15 with the cavity of the housing 16. For regulating the flow of water through the pipes 13 and 15 are correspondingly placed regulating device 17 and 18. On the upper and lower edges of the housing 16 is made of a threaded connection 5 with the cover 2 and the removable evaporative element - evaporation glass 19.

On the inner surface of the housing 16 has a condensate collector 20, made in the form of a ring having a shape of a lateral surface of a truncated cone. Between the housing 16 and the collector of condensa the 20 forms a circular inclined chute 21, in the lower part of which is made from the receiving end of the pipe 22 has mounted on regulating device 23, which connects the circular inclined chute 21 with the pipe 13.

At the output of the pipeline 15 to overflow exception evaporative Cup 19, when the water level exceeds fPLthe focal plane 10, the bracket 24 posted by automatic water supply, consisting of a set on the axis of rotation 25 of the frame 26, one end of which is attached a float 27 and the other closing element 28 that overlaps the end of the pipe 15.

The housing 16, evaporative glass 19 and the cover 2 form a working chamber of the device, separated by a condensate collector 20 to the evaporator portion 29 and the condensing portion 30.

For the housings 16, evaporative Cup 19 and condensate collector 20 can be applied to low-pressure polyethylene, for spherical surfaces 3 and 4 can be applied to light-stabilized polystyrene or polymethylmethacrylate (organic glass); pipes 11, 13, 15 and 22 may be made of silicone, PVC or rubber; regulating devices 14, 17, 18 and 23 (on the pipes 13, 15 and 22) can be made of polyacetate. The diameter of the shell 16, the curvature of the spherical surfaces 3 and 4, and the diameter of the pipes 11, 13, 15 and 22 define the required production is Titulescu device to control the salinity of irrigation water.

The device operates as follows: before beginning work, all its elements are mounted on the housing 16 and carry out the filling of irrigation water body collectively concave-convex lens 7, excluding the presence of air in the chamber 6, which housing 16 is turned so that the pipe 11 connected to the supply of irrigation pipe 12, is directed downwards, and the head pipe 13 is facing up, with the regulating device 14 is open. After filling of the chamber 6 and the release of irrigation water from the head pipe 13, the regulating device 14 switch in the "closed" position and connect the pipe 13, this end is inserted into the cap, then the regulating device 14 is opened, and the housing 16 attached to its working position. As a result, the camera 6, limited by spherical surfaces 3 and 4, is formed a water-filled collective concave-convex lens 7 with the main optical axis 9 and the focal distance f. In the case when the salinity of irrigation water allows watering without damage to plants and the soil, water from the irrigation supply pipe 12 through the cavity of the chamber 6 through the pipe 13 reaches its discharge opening, where in the form of droplets is supplied to the plants.

If irrigation water has a high degree of mineralization, in the day time R is guiraudon device 17 pipeline block 13, and regulating device 18 open and the pipe 15 is passed irrigation water, which is collected in the evaporator Cup 19. When the float 27 automatic water supply to the evaporative glass 19 is in the lower position, and the locking element 28 at the top, which fully opens the pipe 15 and ensures the free flow of water in the evaporating Cup 19. The accumulation of water and achievements in the evaporation Cup 19 water level corresponding to the focal plane 10 of the collective concave-convex lens 7, the float 27 will be moved to its extreme upper position, and the locking element 28 in the lower position, which stops the flow of water in the evaporating Cup 19 of the pipe 15.

Focused water-filled collective concave-convex lens 7 solar radiation 8 at the level of the focal plane 10 will cause the concentrated heat release, accompanied by a warming of the water in the evaporation Cup 19 and intensive evaporation. Water vapor from the evaporating section 29 of the working chamber of the device rises in the condensation portion 30. Upon contact with the concave spherical surface 4 of the cover 2, having a lower temperature corresponding irrigation water, washing the spherical surface 4 inside the chamber 6, the steam condenses in the form of small in danych drops. Under the action of gravitational forces, and because of the slope of the concave spherical surface 4 to the side walls of the casing 16, the droplets move to them and flow into a circular inclined chute 21, forming the demineralized stream of irrigation water. While this mineralization of irrigation water formed from the condensation, is practically zero. Through the receiving end of the pipeline 22 demineralized water is fed sequentially into the pipes 22 and 13, where in the form of droplets is supplied to the plants.

But as watering only demineralized water is also undesirable plants and soil, it is necessary to have an optimal salinity of irrigation water. With this purpose, possible mixing of irrigation water with natural mineralized and demineralized and bringing water supplied to the plants to the desired optimum, while the salinity of the mixed water test meter. This regulating device 17, 23 and 18 is installed in the position that provides the desired salinity of the mixture flows demineralized water and irrigation water with natural mineralization.

Way to regulate the salinity of irrigation water under drip irrigation and device for its implementation, which is based on the principle of dilution of saline water demineralized, the floor is aamoi and sent to the plant by use of the present invention can simplify the process of applying irrigation water of high quality, to increase productivity, improve the ecological situation in the irrigated soils.

1. Way to regulate the salinity of irrigation water under drip irrigation, including the mixing of saline and distilled water, characterized in that the receipt of irrigation water required mineralization ranging in the interval from the natural composition to the distillate, is provided with a device carrying out the separation of irrigation water into two parts, one of which remains unchanged, and the other demineralized and their subsequent mixing in the desired proportions or without mixing, applying each separately, while the process of regulation of salinity of irrigation water is continuous.

2. A device for controlling the salinity of irrigation water under drip irrigation, comprising a housing, evaporative element, the condensate collector and device for removal of distillate, characterized in that the hollow body is equipped with collapsible lid, the upper and lower surfaces of which are spherical of optically transparent material with different radii of curvature, and forming when filling irrigation water collecting concave-convex lens, a focusing solar radiation onto a focal plane, hosted VM the CTE with automatic water supply stabilizing its position in the evaporation element made in the form of a removable Cup mounted in the lower part of the body, with the removal of the distillate and the regulation of salinity of irrigation water supplied to the plants, carried out by the pipeline is equipped with a control device and communicating with the cavity of the cover, the external environment and the collection of condensate, made in the form of rings, presents a lateral surface of a truncated cone, with the formation between the casing and the ring circular inclined trough collecting distillate.



 

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FIELD: agriculture.

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EFFECT: structure enables to increase efficiency of use of the device.

5 dwg

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3 cl, 36 dwg, 18 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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3 dwg

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FIELD: agriculture.

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EFFECT: design enables to mechanise switching of working modes of sprinkler and flushing of the finely divided sprinkler.

2 dwg

FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for drop irrigation of farm crops.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has cylindrical casing with inlet and outlet openings. Cylindrical casing has threaded covers and body. Valve and elastic cuff are movably positioned inside cavity of cylindrical casing. Apparatus is further equipped with additional cuff. Main and additional cuffs are provided with orifices. Valve is made in the form of concavo-concave lens arranged in spherical belt. Valve is manufactured from material having density smaller than density of water, in particular, valve may be made from cork of 0.2-0.3 t/m3 density. Valve is arranged in casing between cuffs and is adapted for alternating contacting through cuffs with projections oppositely arranged inside casing cavity. Projections are made in the form of spherical segments, with radius of spheres of segments being smaller than radius of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens. Difference between radii of projection sphere and that of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens is equal to thickness of elastic cuffs. Channels on apexes of cover and casing projections are extending in radial direction toward inlet and outlet openings.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.

4 cl, 4 dwg

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