Method to operate nickel-hydrogen accumulator batteries of spacecraft power supply system (versions)

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in operation of nickel-hydrogen accumulator batteries (AB) in autonomous power supply systems (PSS) of spacecrafts (SC), functioning on a low circumferrestrial orbit. In case of abnormal operation of a charging-discharging device related to a failure of only a charging device, or only a discharging device or a charging-discharging device in general. For performance of a forming cycle of AB, an emergency bus is used with switching equipment controlled by one-off commands from a surface complex of control, at the same time in the first version of the failure the charge of the formed AB is carried out by means of its connection to any charging device of the operable charging-discharging device, which forms a subsystem with the "internal" AB, in the second version of the failure the formed AB is discharged by the discharging device of any operable charging-discharging device, which creates the subsystem with the "internal" AB, in the third version of the failure the formed AB is discharged and charged, using the charging and discharging devices of any operable charging and discharging device, creating the subsystem with the "internal" AB.

EFFECT: increased reliability of operation of a nickel-hydrogen accumulator battery and vitality of an SC as a whole.

3 cl, 2 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the electrical industry and can be used in the operation of a Nickel-hydrogen rechargeable batteries in a stand-alone power systems (EPS) SPACECRAFT will operate in low-earth orbit.

During the whole active life of the modern SPACECRAFT in low-earth orbit is 10,000 or more charge-discharge cycles of batteries and a similar mode of operation BOT best provide a Nickel-hydrogen rechargeable battery (NAB).

The peculiarity of NWAB is that all serial connected batteries are charged and discharged in the same amount of electric charge (a·h). In the ideal case, if the initial state of the batteries equally, there should be no change in their relative degrees of charge.

However, due to differences in the rate of self-discharge batteries connected in series acquire different state of charge. Any deviation caused by the dispersion of the initial characteristics of the discharge, the temperature gradient inside NWAB and aging process, can increase the variation in the degree of charge of the batteries, resulting in degradation of characteristics NVB, and moreover, in the absence of systems for balancing state of charge, which may degrade the reliability of NWAB. There are so-called "memory effect"associated with the reduction of the capacity of NWAB with long-term citation to a small depth (10-20)%. The reason for the decrease in capacity NAB is the crystallization of some part of the material of the electrodes of the batteries in the power of alienation for a long time from tikoobraznye chemical reaction. It is this depth of citation is selected in the operation AB in low-earth orbits (Vsemoguschii, Amisconde. Chemical current sources. M: Energoizdat, 1981). Therefore, to align the battery capacity, eliminate the so-called "memory effect" and assessment of AB must periodically recovery (molding) cycles, which represent almost a full discharge and charge the battery.

Known a method of operating a Nickel-hydrogen rechargeable battery according to the patent RU No. 2084055, IPC NM 10/44, according to which the charge NVAB limit based on the density of hydrogen is calculated based on the measured pressure and temperature of the batteries. This ensures the battery to the level (60-80)% of rated capacity.

The disadvantage of this method is the low reliability of the power system, since AB is not provided for molding cycles, and because of the unbalance of the batteries on the capacity of realnames AB is determined by the battery with the smallest capacity, that ultimately reduces the reliability of the AB.

Closest technical solution is a method of operating a rechargeable battery according to the patent RU No. 2289178 (analog), lies in the fact that conduct charge-discharge cycles, the control voltage of each battery and battery as a whole, define the current bit and the charge capacity and the charge current; a battery charging conduct direct current to the value (0.6 to 0.8) nominal capacity. Before the shadow geostationary orbit perform the recovery discharge-charge cycle AB, with AB discharged to the discharge resistance for 40-50 hours, and the charge stop after reducing the voltage of the battery to a predetermined value, then the battery is charged by plugging it into the existing scheme of SEC.

The disadvantage of this method is the low reliability of the BOT in particular and the lack of survivability of the SPACECRAFT as a whole. This is due to the fact that the process of rehabilitation discharge-charge (molding cycle) takes a long time, and this time the battery removed from normal operation. For geostationary orbits is acceptable, because the shadow of the orbit is 90 days in a year, the rest of the time the AC is on the lighted area of the orbit, the power is supplied by solar panels and decommissioning of the ne AB for a long time practically no effect on the survivability and reliability of the SPACECRAFT. For low earth orbit satellites decommissioning of one of the batteries for a long time can significantly reduce the durability and reliability of the AB, in particular, and CA in General, because the shadow areas of the orbit occur every hour and a half.

Known a method of operating a Nickel-hydrogen rechargeable battery of the power supply system of a spacecraft under the patent RU №2399122 (prototype), which consists in the fact that two or more battery cycleroute mode charge-discharge, asked on-Board automation system power supply, the degree of battery limit on the level of operation of the alarm pressure sensors, placed in a separate batteries, each rechargeable battery, control the parameters of each battery, such as current capacity, voltage, temperature, periodically forming loops AB by deep discharge, assess the condition of the battery periodically, e.g. once per 6-9 months, ban charge for one of AB, as bit loading using onboard equipment space vehicle criterion limit the depth of discharge selects the voltage AB, where a value of the boundary voltage level set in volts, equal to the number n, or (n+1) batteries akkumuelyatornoj battery, at which forbid charging, thereby including it in the standard work, value of the charge capacity of the actuation signal of the pressure sensor and the maximum voltage of the battery when the charge is determined in the process of completion of the molding cycle, is used to assess the condition of the battery and predicting its degradation, a similar sequence of operations is repeated for the subsequent AB, and the period of time from completion of the molding cycle one AB prior to the beginning of the molding cycle other AB is chosen based on the temperature regime of the moulded AB.

The disadvantage of the prototype is relatively low reliability of the power system, in particular the persistence of KA in General, in case of emergencies associated with abnormal functioning of one CDD, since the known method does not allow for conducting molding cycles all AB.

To abnormal operation CDD includes the following modes of operation (no operation): failure only bit devices; failure only charger; failure bit and chargers at the same time.

The aim of the invention is to increase the operating reliability of the Nickel-hydrogen rechargeable battery and survivability of the SPACECRAFT as a whole.

1. This objective is achieved in that the known method of operation of the Nickel-hydrogen rechargeable battery of the power supply system of the spacecraft, which consists in citing two or more battery mode battery charge-discharge, asked on-Board automation system, power supply, limit the extent of battery level trigger signal from pressure sensor placed in a separate batteries, each rechargeable battery, the control parameters of each of the battery, for example, electric current capacity, voltage, temperature, introduction periodically once every 6-9 months barring charge for one AB to perform the molding cycle, used as a bit of load on-Board equipment of the spacecraft, the selection criteria for limiting the depth of discharge voltages AB, the values of the charge capacity of the actuation signal the pressure sensor and the maximum voltage of the battery when the charge is determined in the process of completion of the molding cycle, to assess the condition of the battery and predicting its degradation, the repetition of the same sequence of operations for subsequent AB, wherein when the abnormal operation of the charge-discharge device associated with the failure of only charging device for carrying out the molding cycle AB use of an emergency bus with special switching equipment controlled by time the new commands from the ground control center, and the charge of moldable AB carried out by connecting it to any charger operable ZRU, forming a "private" AB subsystem, while disconnected from a given subsystem "own" AB translation mode "self-discharge" at the time of filling being formed AB to the actuation signal of the pressure sensor, and after filling moldable AB connect switchgear emergency bus to one of the functional CDD parallel to AB this subsystem for further functioning of the supply system.

2. This goal is achieved by the fact that in the known method of operation of the Nickel-hydrogen rechargeable battery of the power supply system of the spacecraft, which consists in citing two or more battery mode battery charge-discharge, asked on-Board automation system, power supply, limit the extent of battery level trigger signal from pressure sensor placed in a separate batteries, each rechargeable battery, the control parameters of each of the battery, for example, electric current capacity, voltage, temperature, introduction periodically once every 6-9 months barring charge for one AB to perform the molding cycle, used as a discharge the load on-Board equipment of the spacecraft, the selection criteria for limiting the depth of discharge voltages AB, the values of the charge capacity of the actuation signal of the pressure sensor and the maximum voltage of the battery when the charge is determined in the process of completion of the molding cycle, to assess the condition of the battery and predicting its degradation, the repetition of the same sequence of operations for subsequent AB, wherein when the abnormal operation of the charge-discharge device associated with failure only bit of the device for carrying out the molding cycle AB use of an emergency bus with special switching equipment controlled by single commands from the ground control center, and being formed AB discharge discharge devices of any workable ZRU, forming with the "native" AB subsystem, while disconnected from a given subsystem "own" AB translation mode "self-discharge" at the time of discharge being formed AB, after "discharge" moldable AB connect to "own" the information at the time of its replacement to the actuation signal of the pressure sensor, and after filling moldable AB connect switchgear emergency bus to one of the functional CDD parallel to AB this subsystem for further regular functioning of the power supply.

3. This goal is achieved by the fact that in the known method of operation of the Nickel-hydrogen rechargeable battery of the power supply system of the spacecraft, consisting of Cycling two or more battery mode battery charge-discharge, asked on-Board automation system, power supply, limit the extent of battery level trigger signal from pressure sensor placed in a separate batteries, each rechargeable battery, the control parameters of each of the battery, for example, electric current capacity, voltage, temperature, introduction periodically once every 6-9 months barring charge for one AB to perform the molding cycle, used as a bit loads of on-Board equipment of the spacecraft, the selection criteria for limiting the depth of discharge voltages AB, the values of the charge capacity of the actuation signal of the pressure sensor and the maximum voltage of the battery when the charge is determined in the process of completion of the molding cycle, to assess the condition of the battery and predicting its degradation, the repetition of the same sequence of operations for subsequent AB, wherein when the abnormal operation of the charge-discharge device SV is related to the failure of the entire ZRU, for carrying out the molding cycle AB use of an emergency bus with special switching equipment controlled by single commands from the ground control center, and being formed AB discharge and charge, using bit and charger any workable ZRU, forming with the "native" AB subsystem, while disconnected from a given subsystem "own" AB translation mode "self-discharge" at the time of discharge being formed AB and subsequent replacement moldable AB to the actuation signal of the pressure sensor, after filling moldable AB connect switchgear emergency bus to one of the functional CDD parallel to AB this subsystem for further the regular functioning of the supply system.

Figure 1 shows the idealized timeline changes the current capacity for moldable AB and AB functioning normally. Moldable AB cyclically discharged, reaching eventually to a state of deep discharge; then she charged depending on the illumination of the solar battery and consumed onboard equipment load. Functioning of the regular AB has a periodically changing the sequence diagram.

Figure 2 shows a simplified block diagram of the operation of the BOT, including during the molding cycle AB.

The system is the power supply which consists of a battery AB (AB, AB, AB) 1 fitted signal pressure sensors to disconnect the battery from charging, batteries, photovoltaic (BF) 2, complex automation and control voltage (REF), which includes discharge device RU (PN1, PY2, RU) 3, charger, memory (CH1, CH2, SU) 4, voltage regulator and automation (SLEEP) 5. On-Board equipment (BA) 6 may be powered by a RU (PN1, PY2, RU) 3 or SLEEP 5, and in the process of testing from a ground power source Enaethrough remote switch 7. Battery AB (AB, AB, AB) 1 before you start the AC charged auxiliary battery charger FZAR.

In a separate modes BOT RU (PN1, PY2, RU) 3 and SLEEP 5 can feed electric energy to the load together, which is BA 6. When abnormal operation of RU (PN1, PY2, RU) 3 or ZU (CH1, CH2, SU) 4 to change the configuration of the BOT can be used emergency bus switchgear 8. From the on-Board control system (BKU) 9 if necessary, to issue a single command (SC) to change the operating modes of the BOT, including the ROK, as the "no charge AB", "Restoring Cam", "Disable AB", "Off Thru from emergency bus". During normal working BOT rechargeable battery AB (AB, AB, AB) 1 charge of the light plot orbit, and on the shady part of AB (AB, AB, AB) 1 feed B is 6 stable RU (PN1, PY2, RU) 3 voltage. Battery PV 3 light plot provides a stable SLEEP 5 voltage BA 6 and simultaneously charges the battery (AB, AB, AB) 1. Nominal output voltage BOT is 28.5 Century From figure 2 it is seen that the "minus" bus AB is not interconnected and electrically connected with each other, so switching equipment 8 emergency bus provides configuration change Sep only " + " tire.

As a significant desynchronization of the parameters of the batteries AB (AB, AB, AB) 1 occurs after 6-9 months, the periodicity of molding cycles is selected once in 6-9 months. At this particular timing within 6-9 months can be set on the basis of other requirements, for example, in the period of minimum durations of the shadow orbit, etc.

Molding cycles are carried out in turn on one of the AB (AB, AB, AB) 1 in an arbitrary order, using the charge-discharge device (CDD) 10 consisting of RU (PN1, PY2, RU) 3 and a memory (CH1, CH2, SU) 4, and emergency bus switchgear 8 if necessary. The day before carrying out the molding cycle during normal operation of power systems perform information retrieval (figure 2 system telemetry control AC not shown) of the moldable AB (the maximum voltage at the charge, minimalinteraction at the discharge, the maximum current capacity when the sensor is actuated pressure, maximum temperature).

Ban charge moldable AB injected by issuing from the ground control center (GCC) through BKU 8 RK Ban "battery charging". In this case, the discharge being formed AB load (on-Board equipment 6) on the shadow portions of the orbit. Thus, stored in AB energy use for its intended purpose. The discharge being formed AB cycles (figure 1), because the action of RK "no charging" is not removed until the voltage across AB is n or (n+1), where n is the number of batteries in the battery. In this case there is full alignment characteristics of the batteries being formed AB. So for modern low-orbit SPACECRAFT used Nickel-hydrogen AB type NV-70, in which the number of batteries is 28 pieces, so in practice these AB discharge when conducting molding cycles to 29 C.

After completing the necessary deep discharge prohibition battery charging is removed by issuing the Republic of Kazakhstan "Restoring Cam" and moldable AB charge against the background of the regular functioning of the BOT on the sunlit portions of the orbit. The molding cycle is considered completed if moldable AB will be charged in full to the actuation signal of the pressure sensor (figure 2 signal pressure sensor not shown).

The effectiveness of formulas the th cycle assessed by comparing the characteristics of AB, obtained before and after molding cycles. Molding cycles is considered effective if their values maximum voltage during the charge, minimum voltage during discharge, and current capacity, at which the trigger signal of the pressure sensor, increased ceteris paribus. Changes in these parameters in the direction of their increase indicates the alignment of the voltages of the batteries and, as a consequence, the magnitude of the current capacity at which the alarm pressure sensor. Reducing the actuation signal of the pressure sensor in comparison with the similar parameter of the previous molding cycle indicates degradation of the electromotive force (EMF) of the individual batteries and AB in General.

This method of estimating the state of AB is very effective and is aimed at the determination of the degree of unbalance of the batteries quantitatively. Timely determination of the degree of unbalance of the batteries and hold the next molding cycle AB in General helps them to operate in a long time.

Improving the reliability of operation of the Nickel-hydrogen battery is also achieved by carrying out the molding cycle through every 6-9 months and bringing the depth of discharge to a level where razryazhenie AB will be equal to n or (n+1) Century In addition, the reliability of the AB is achieved by ensuring that necessary to stabilize the temperature regime molded AB pause between the two molding cycles. Indeed, as shown by operating experience AB, after conducting phthalo it is exposed to increased heating, and consequently, increased degradation. During the transition to conducting phthalo another AB, ceteris paribus, the unit load (current) other AB increases, and as a consequence, the degree of heating AB, including molded AB increases. Temperature molded AB practically stabilized, if the length of the pause between completion of phthalo this AB and before phthalo another AB is approximately 32-72 hours depending on the specific parameters of the formed AB.

The survivability of the system power supply and the AC as a whole is increased through the use of on-Board equipment as a load for forming AB, because only in this case being formed AB is not output from the system power supply and supports a given level of reliability of power supply system.

The active lifetime of modern SPACECRAFT are several years old and there is a certain probability of failure or only RU, or only a memory, or CDD in General. Moreover, all functional AB a is according to use in the composition of the BOT. For this purpose, can be used emergency bus switchgear 8. The damaged tire with the switching equipment 8 allows the molding cycle AB from the subsystem containing abnormally operating ZRU, thereby to increase the reliability of the BOT and the survivability of the SPACECRAFT as a whole.

Examples of the method of operation of a Nickel-hydrogen AB if there is any abnormal operation of one CDD Sep KA.

1. For example, there was a failure ZU ZRU subsystem 1 (SRU+AB). After identification of failure CH1 THRU battery A connected, for example, parallel AB to SRU. In this configuration, the BOT is functioning normally. For carrying out the molding cycle AB give RK "Restoring Cam", as RU1 THRU healthy. With this configuration, the BOT has the form shown in figure 2, i.e. AB connects to SRU and operates only in the discharge, because there is a failure CH1 THRU. After deep discharge AB (to reduce voltage UB to 29 In) give consistently RK: "Off AB", RC "Off THRU from emergency bus"RK "Off AB". Since the issuance of any RK are two switching power contacts, the Republic of Kazakhstan "Off AB" comes off AS from SRU (open contact S1-1) and connection THRU to emergency bus (contact S1-2); RK "Off THRU from awarenessin" SRU is disconnected from the emergency bus (open contact S1-3), and AM connected to the emergency bus (closed contact S1-4); of RK "Off AN" emergency bus connects THRU (closing contact S2-2), and AB disconnects from SRU (open contact S2-1). It turns out the BOT configuration, when A transferred in the mode of "self-discharge", and AM connected to SRU for regular functioning. In this mode the filling AS to the operation of the alarm sensor AB. The sequence RK "Restoring Cam", RC "Off AB", RC "Off THRU from emergency bus" and the Republic of Kazakhstan "Off THRU from emergency bus" leads connection AB to SRU parallel AB for further normal operation. When issuing the Republic of Kazakhstan "Off THRU from emergency bus" contact S2-3 open, contacts S2-4 is closed.

2. For example, there was a failure RU CS subsystem 1 (SRU+AB). After identification of failure RU1 THRU battery A connected, for example, parallel AB to SRU. In this configuration, the BOT is functioning normally. For carrying out the molding cycle AB give RK "Restoring Cam", as RU1 THRU unhealthy. This AB connects to SRU and operates only in the charging mode, because there is a failure of RU1 THRU. Then give consistently RK: "Off AB", RC "Off THRU from emergency bus"RK "Off AB". In RK "Off AB" comes off AS from SRU(open contact S1-1) and connection THRU to emergency bus (contact S1-2), in RK "Off THRU from emergency bus" SRU is disconnected from the emergency bus (open contact S1-3), and AB connected to the emergency bus (closed contact S1-4), RK "Off AN" emergency bus connects THRU (closing contact S2-2), and AB disconnects from SRU (open contact S2-1). It turns out the BOT configuration, when A transferred in the mode of "self-discharge", and AM connected to SRU for regular functioning. Then give the RK "no charge A" (open contact S2-3, closed contact S2-4). This AB through SRU is discharged to a voltage of 29 V, i.e. there is a molding cycle AB. After deep discharge issued RK "Restoring Cam". When this happens only charge AB as RU1 unhealthy and AB connects to SRU and operates normally. After filling AS to the operation of the alarm sensor issue consistently RK "Off AB", RC "Off THRU from emergency bus" and the Republic of Kazakhstan "Off THRU from emergency bus", which leads to the connection AS to SRU parallel AB for further normal operation.

3. For example, there was a failure CDD in General subsystem 1 (SRU+AB). After identification of failure SRU battery A connected, for example, parallel AB to SRU. In this configuration, the BOT is functioning normally. For carrying out the molding cycle AB issue of RK "is to restore the CAS", as SRU unhealthy. This AB connects to SRU and is not discharged and is not charged because there is a failure SRU. Then give consistently RK: "Off AB", RC "Off THRU from emergency bus"RK "Off AB". In RK "Off AB" comes off AS from SRU (open contact S1-1) and connection THRU to emergency bus (contact S1-2), RK "Off THRU from emergency bus" SRU is disconnected from the emergency bus (open contact S1-3), and AB connected to the emergency bus (closed contact S1-4), RK "Off AN" emergency bus connects THRU (closing contact S2-2), and AB disconnects from SRU (open contact S2-1). It turns out the BOT configuration, when A transferred in the mode of "self-discharge", and AM connected to SRU for regular functioning. Then give the RK "no charge AB". This THRU discharges AB to a voltage of 29 V, i.e. there is a molding cycle AB. After deep discharge issue consistently RK "Restoring Cam", RC "Off AB", RC "Off THRU from emergency bus"RK "Off AB". In this configuration, the BOT AB charged from SRU in the "charge-discharge". After filling AB to the actuation signal of the upper level sensor issue consistently RK "Off AB", RC "Off THRU from emergency bus" and RK "is disable THRU from emergency bus", resulting AB connected to SRU parallel AB for further normal operation.

Thus, the application of the proposed method of operating a Nickel-hydrogen rechargeable battery of the power supply system of the spacecraft will improve the reliability of the AB in particular and the survivability of the SPACECRAFT as a whole, as with the regular work of all CDD and abnormal operation of one charge-discharge device of a power system.

1. A method of operating a Nickel-hydrogen rechargeable batteries) power supply system of the spacecraft, namely, that two or more battery cycleroute mode charge-discharge, asked on-Board automation system power supply, the degree of battery limit on the level of operation of the alarm pressure sensors, placed in a separate batteries, each rechargeable battery, control the parameters of each battery, such as current capacity, voltage, temperature, periodically once in 6-9 months ban charge for one AB to perform the molding cycle, as bit loading using onboard equipment spacecraft a criterion of limiting the depth of discharge selects the voltage AB, is equal to n, or (n+1), where - the number of batteries in AB, and the values of the charge capacity of the actuation signal of the pressure sensor and the maximum voltage of the battery when the charge is determined in the process of completion of the molding cycle, is used to assess the condition of the battery and predicting its degradation, a similar sequence of operations is repeated for the subsequent AB, wherein when the abnormal operation of the charge-discharge device associated with the failure of only charging device for carrying out the molding cycle AB use of an emergency bus switching equipment controlled by single commands from the ground control center, and the charge of moldable AB carried out by connecting it to any charger operable ZRU, forming a "private" AB subsystem, while disconnected from a given subsystem "own" AB translation mode "self-discharge" at the time of filling being formed AB to the actuation signal of the pressure sensor, and after filling moldable AB connect switchgear emergency bus to one of the functional CDD parallel to AB this subsystem for further functioning of the supply system.

2. A method of operating a Nickel-hydrogen rechargeable batteries) power spacecraft, lies the present in two or more batteries cycleroute mode charge-discharge, asked on-Board automation system power supply, the degree of battery limit on the level of operation of the alarm pressure sensors, placed in a separate batteries, each rechargeable battery, control the parameters of each battery, such as current capacity, voltage, temperature, periodically once in 6-9 months ban charge for one AB to perform the molding cycle, as bit loading using onboard equipment space vehicle criterion limit the depth of discharge selects the voltage AB, is equal to n, or (n+1)In, where n is the number of batteries in AB, and the values of the charge capacity of the actuation signal of the pressure sensor and the maximum voltage of the battery when the charge is determined in the process of completion of the molding cycle, is used to assess the condition of the battery and predicting its degradation, a similar sequence of operations is repeated for the subsequent AB, wherein when the abnormal operation of the charge-discharge device associated with failure only bit of the device for carrying out the molding cycle AB use of an emergency bus switchgear manipulated the Oh, by single commands from the ground control center, and moldable AB discharge discharge devices of any workable ZRU, forming with the "native" AB subsystem, while disconnected from a given subsystem "own" AB translation mode "self-discharge" at the time of discharge being formed AB, after "discharge" moldable AB connect to "own" the information at the time of its replacement to the actuation signal of the pressure sensor, and after filling moldable AB connect switchgear emergency bus to one of the functional CDD parallel to AB this subsystem for further regular functioning of the supply system.

3. A method of operating a Nickel-hydrogen rechargeable batteries) power supply system of the spacecraft, namely, that two or more battery cycleroute mode charge-discharge, asked on-Board automation system power supply, the degree of battery limit on the level of operation of the alarm pressure sensors, placed in a separate batteries, each rechargeable battery, control the parameters of each battery, such as current capacity, voltage, temperature, periodically once in 6-9 months ban charge for one AB to perform the molding cycle, as the e bit load using onboard equipment spacecraft, the criterion for limiting the depth of discharge selects the voltage AB, is equal to n, or (n+1), where n is the number of batteries in AB, and the values of the charge capacity of the actuation signal of the pressure sensor and the maximum voltage of the battery when the charge is determined in the process of completion of the molding cycle, is used to assess the condition of the battery and predicting its degradation, a similar sequence of operations is repeated for the subsequent AB, wherein when the abnormal operation of the charge-discharge device associated with the failure of the entire CDD, for holding the molding cycle AB use of an emergency bus switching equipment controlled by one-time commands from the ground control center, and being formed AB discharge and charge, using bit and charger any workable ZRU, forming with the "native" AB subsystem, while disconnected from a given subsystem "own" AB translation mode "self-discharge" at the time of discharge being formed AB and subsequent replacement moldable AB to the actuation signal of the pressure sensor, after filling moldable AB connect switchgear emergency bus to one of the functional CDD parallel to AB this subsystem for further regular functioning of the system power supply.



 

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FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: method for operation of a lithium-ion accumulator battery in an autonomous power supply system consists in conductance of charges, storage in charged condition, recharges, whenever required, discharges, accumulators voltage control and accumulators periodical voltage balancing by way of selecting the accumulators with the lowest voltage, connection of the other accumulators to individual balancing resistors with subsequent disconnection of the corresponding resistors when voltage on the corresponding accumulators reaches the initially selected accumulator voltage level. According to the invention, upon completion or in the course of balancing one additionally performs the accumulators anticipatory voltage disbalancing relative to the initially selected accumulator voltage level.

EFFECT: simplification of operation and increased efficiency of usage of a lithium-ion accumulator battery in an autonomous power supply system.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: accumulators are charged with heteropolar current pulses with stabilised amplitudes of discharge and charge pulses at the ratio of amplitudes of discharge and charge pulses equal to 3÷4, with duration of a charge pulse equal to 200÷240 ms and a discharge pulse equal to 10÷20 ms with pauses between them equal to 0÷2 ms, amplitudes of the charge pulse are numerically equal to 0.2÷0.8 of the nominal capacitance, the charging process at the first cycles of capacitance generation is stopped when 250÷500% of the nominal capacitance has been sent to the accumulator, the charging process at subsequent cycles of capacitance generation is stopped when 120÷250% of the nominal capacitance has been sent to the accumulator, besides, the charging process at the first cycle of capacitance generation is stopped when 100% of the nominal capacitance has been sent to the accumulator, and the electrolyte is replaced, after which the charge is continued.

EFFECT: considerable reduction of a number of charge-discharge cycles of capacitance generation in closed nickel-cadmium accumulators and accumulator batteries.

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: method to operate lithium-ion accumulator batteries consists in conducting charges and boost charges, storage in a charged condition, monitoring voltage of accumulators and periodical balancing of accumulators by voltage. Accumulators are balanced by selecting an accumulator with the lowest voltage and discharging other accumulators to the preset final voltage level.

EFFECT: simplified operation and higher efficiency of using lithium-ion accumulator batteries in an autonomous power supply system.

1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: battery of n chemical cells is featured by use of safety fuses as electroconductive components. Each safety fuse has the following peculiarity: in case of short-circuiting of any i-th (i=1,2,3,…n) key element that shunts circuit of series-link i-th safety fuse and i-th chemical cell i-th safety fuse is destroyed by current generated by power of i-th chemical cell. Besides in battery of chemical cells circuit of series-link key element and resistor is connected in parallel to each key element; this circuit is used for voltage grading of chemical cells. All key elements of battery can be based on transistors, in particular, on FET-transistors. Battery of chemical cells contains also battery current sensors and voltage sensors for chemical cells, device controlling key elements that is equipped with in-built programmed microcontroller measuring current of the battery and voltage of chemical cells in compliance with installed program or commands coming from external control device.

EFFECT: reliability enhancement.

7 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: device (10) for transmission of electromagnetic energy includes charger (1) with contact surface (4) and generating spiral (2) that forms resonance circuit with condenser. Charger (1) should be manufactured preferably in the form of elongated bar where a number of charged electronic devices (5) can be placed. To ensure transmission of electromagnetic energy from charger (1) to electronic device (5) the latter should have pickup electric circuit preferably representing secondary resonance circuit in order to generate secondary alternating current. In order to fix position of electronic device (5) at charger (1) the charger is made with protrusion (3) along plane of contact surface (4). Electronic device (5) can have configuration that would allow hanging it to protrusion and remove it by movement towards arrow direction (6).

EFFECT: simplification and cost reduction for device with simultaneous reliability improvement.

15 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: device (10) for transmission of electromagnetic energy includes charger (1) with contact surface (4) and generating spiral (2) that forms resonance circuit with condenser. Charger (1) should be manufactured preferably in the form of elongated bar where a number of charged electronic devices (5) can be placed. To ensure transmission of electromagnetic energy from charger (1) to electronic device (5) the latter should have pickup electric circuit preferably representing secondary resonance circuit in order to generate secondary alternating current. In order to fix position of electronic device (5) at charger (1) the charger is made with protrusion (3) along plane of contact surface (4). Electronic device (5) can have configuration that would allow hanging it to protrusion and remove it by movement towards arrow direction (6).

EFFECT: simplification and cost reduction for device with simultaneous reliability improvement.

15 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in operation of nickel-hydrogen accumulator batteries (AB) in autonomous power supply systems (PSS) of spacecrafts (SC), functioning on a low circumferrestrial orbit. In case of abnormal operation of a charging-discharging device related to a failure of only a charging device, or only a discharging device or a charging-discharging device in general. For performance of a forming cycle of AB, an emergency bus is used with switching equipment controlled by one-off commands from a surface complex of control, at the same time in the first version of the failure the charge of the formed AB is carried out by means of its connection to any charging device of the operable charging-discharging device, which forms a subsystem with the "internal" AB, in the second version of the failure the formed AB is discharged by the discharging device of any operable charging-discharging device, which creates the subsystem with the "internal" AB, in the third version of the failure the formed AB is discharged and charged, using the charging and discharging devices of any operable charging and discharging device, creating the subsystem with the "internal" AB.

EFFECT: increased reliability of operation of a nickel-hydrogen accumulator battery and vitality of an SC as a whole.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: secondary current supplies such as batteries assembled of lithium-ionic accumulators.

SUBSTANCE: proposed battery of electrical energy accumulators interconnected by means of switches into single electric circuit has input for connecting charging device and applying control signals to switch control device, as well as one or more load-connection outputs that function for alternate connection of single electrical energy accumulators by means of switches as soon as respective control signal is applied; when connected to battery input, they are interconnected in parallel and when to its outputs, they use series or series-parallel circuit arrangement. Its connection to charging device involves series connection of electronic member such as resistor or electronic unit limiting or regulating its charging current to each single energy accumulator.

EFFECT: reduced voltage unbalance of accumulators during battery cycling.

10 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; storage batteries for off-line power supply systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for servicing metal-hydrogen storage batteries in off-line power supply system includes conduction of charge-discharge cycles, bypass of battery cells having lower capacity by means of discharging bypass diodes, and voltage measurements across each cell. Battery charge is commenced with open-circuit voltage measurement across each cell and if cell is found whose voltage is below specified value of their electrochemical pair, standard battery charge is made upon trickle charge that excludes explosion-hazard concentration of oxygen-hydrogen mixture; after that open-circuit voltage across cells is measured again, and if no cell whose voltage is below specified value of electrochemical pair is found, battery is placed on standard charge, otherwise trickle charge is repeated. In addition, open-circuit voltage of cells is repeatedly measured in 15 - 20 minutes after trickle charge of storage battery.

EFFECT: enhanced service life and operating reliability of storage battery.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; lead-acid cells and batteries of intermediate discharge class.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cells and batteries are of intermediate discharge class M according to up-to-date International Classification. Novelty is that active material of negative plates is doped with activating additive incorporating 2.5 to 3% of antimony, 0.4 to 0.5% of calcium oxides, and 0.07 to 0.08% of tin from total amount of negative-plate active material. Proposed method for charging the cell includes charge with current amounting to 110% of its value at five-hour discharge, ratio of end voltages at extreme sub-zero and super-zero temperatures being 1.15. Cell is charged prior to placing it in operation at normal temperature for 5 h with current equal to 110% of its value at five-hour discharge, then with 55% of this current.

EFFECT: enhanced output capacity of cell and battery assembled of such cells at low ambient temperatures after pre-charge and discharge at low electrolyte temperature.

4 cl

FIELD: electrical engineering; servicing nickel-hydrogen batteries in off-line power systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed nickel-hydrogen storage battery has n series-connected cells shorted out by means of bypass diodes in charge and discharge directions and by throwaway shorting devices. Proposed method includes conduction of charge-discharge cycles and shorting of defective cell by means of throwaway shorting device. Prior to shorting bypass diodes are checked for current carried by their circuits and check results are referred to in shorting the cell, heating elements of throwaway shorting device being inserted in bypass-diode circuits.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability and facilitated procedure of shorting defective cell.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; servicing lead cells or batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for servicing lead cell or battery includes alternation of discharge and charge pulses; pulsed discharge current is 0.5 - 0.9 C10A, pulsed charge current is 0.3 - 0.75 C10A; discharge pulse length equals charge pulse length and amounts to 5 - 10 min.

EFFECT: enhanced length of discharge-charge cycle at constant power of discharge pulse.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: electrical engineering; servicing metal-hydrogen batteries including their checking for tightness.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method for checking tightness of metal-hydrogen battery includes measurement of pressure within battery case and temperature on its surface; comparison of measured values with maximum permissible ones; estimation of its tightness by making sure that measured parameters are kept within permissible range; measurement of gas space volume; evaluation of battery case expansion ratio for measured temperatures and pressure; determination of battery degree of charge within which only hydrogen is liberated during charging period; battery charging within mentioned range at the same time measuring rated charge current and degree of battery charge within hydrogen liberation range; evaluation of mean volumetric temperature of hydrogen in battery case; evaluation of hydrogen flow due to electrochemical reaction Qech within battery by measured charge current and mentioned mean volumetric temperatures of hydrogen; evaluation of hydrogen barometric flow Qbar within battery by measured values of battery gas space volume, temperatures on its case, and pressure within case, evaluated expansion ratios of battery case for mentioned measured temperatures and pressures; battery tightness is found adequate if condition Qech - Qbar ≤ Qp, is satisfied, where Qp is permissible value of battery leakage. In this way in-service checking of battery tightness is made by hydrogen leakage within permissible level of battery sensitivity.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of in-service hydrogen leakage evaluation within permissible level of battery sensitivity.

1 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering; in-service tightness checkup of metal-hydrogen storage batteries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of battery case internal pressure and external temperature, comparison of measurement data with permissible values, and evaluation of battery tightness by compliance of measured parameters with specified range; novelty is measurement of gas density within battery space, evaluation of coefficients of thermal expansion of battery case for mentioned measured temperatures and pressures, evaluation of battery degree of charge within which hydrogen is liberated during battery charge so as to check battery for leakage, primary charging of battery in the range of its degree of charge within which only hydrogen is liberated, and measurement of rated charging current; in the process check leakage of hydrogen from battery gas space is made and additional calibrating value of charging current compensating for absolute statistical error in above-given measured parameters of battery and its charging current is determined by amount of leaks; check leakage is ceased upon exit from its tightness check range, whereupon battery is discharged; then, in the course of battery charges with rated current within degree of battery charge in which only hydrogen is liberated during its charging period, battery is given thermostatic control similar to its primary charge, mean volumetric temperature of hydrogen within battery is evaluated for given range, and electrochemical hydrogen flow within battery (Qech) is determined by charge currents measured during each recharge and by charge current variation value correction, as well as by definite values of mean volumetric hydrogen temperatures; at the same time, barometric hydrogen flow (Qbar) within battery is evaluated in same range, for same measured temperatures and pressures as during primary charge, as well as for definite coefficients of thermal expansion of battery case at mentioned measured temperatures and pressures within battery degree of charge in which only hydrogen is liberated during battery charge, and battery tightness is considered adequate provided condition Qech - Qbar < Qad is satisfied, where Qad is admissible leakage from battery.

EFFECT: provision for in-service tightness check of battery by hydrogen leakage within battery admissible sensitivity level.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device are used for charging storage batteries with full-wave rectified current limited by inductance coil. Charging device has bridge rectifier built around thyristors, double-section storage battery, current-limiting inductance coil, and thyristor voltage checkup and control unit. Inductance coil is made in the form of two inductive units inserted between like-polarity leads of bridge output terminals and storage battery terminals, and battery midpoint lead is connected to one of diagonally opposite output terminals of bridge through two-way conducting switch to provide for power-saving boost charge and trickle charge of storage battery at minimal power loss of device.

EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of charging device due to enhanced power factor and charge capacity.

2 cl, 7 dwg

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