Method to pick monolith of soils enriched with stony material, for filtration tests

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method is carried out by means of heading of containers, such as a cutting cylinder, onto a monolith. At the same time previously the soil is sampled. For this purpose a site is chosen, and in its centre a circular trench is dug with depth of not more than by 25 mm lower than the height of the cutting cylinder, belting the untouched soil, representing a truncated cone in shape, the diameter of the upper base of which is by 10…15 cm more than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder, and the diameter of the lower base is more than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder by 15…25 cm. From the soil left untouched the monolith is cut with the diameter of at least by 6 mm smaller than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder and the height that is at least by 25 mm smaller than the cylinder height. At the same time the cylinder is periodically put on the monolith, using it as a template to monitor the diameter of the cut monolith. After cutting of the monolith and putting of the cutting cylinder on it, the cylinder is pushed into soil, until its upper layer levels with the monolith surface. In the space between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder and the outer surface of the monolith four Z-shaped supporting monolith-supporting plates are inserted with height equal to 3/4 of the cutting cylinder height. Evenly they are distributed along the cylinder perimetre and put on its upper edge. The slot between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder, the soil monolith and its supporting plates is filled with a molten waterproof material, having lower temperature of melting, for instance, a mineral wax. Afterwards the monolith is cut at the bottom at the lower edge of the cylinder, it is installed on the solid surface, packed and delivered to the area of filtration tests performance.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of soil filtration coefficient detection and accuracy of establishment of land reclamation system parameters, efficiency of using reclaimed soils, expanded zone of application of monoliths for detection of filtration coefficient.

3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the reclamation of land and can be used in studies of permeability rocky soil, as well as when carrying out engineering-geological and soil surveys for construction and drainage of the land, when using reclaimed lands, implementation of environmental measures, for example when the device is impervious clothing settlers from glinobeton, and when determining the permeability drainage layer roads.

According to GOST 12071-84 (item 1.1) the monolith is a sample of the soil undisturbed (natural) addition.

In the non-Chernozem zone, in the areas of distribution of moraine sediments on aluvia indigenous species are well represented in the soil profile which is enriched with rocky material. In these conditions, even with a relatively small content in soils stony separateness (about 10...20%) and with their $ 30...50 mm the application of traditional methods for the determination of water-physical and filtration properties of soils is not possible. To determine the density of the addition of stony soils in their natural state and their humidity and calculation of porosity known methods developed FR Seidelmann (Zaidelman FR Reclamation of waterlogged soils Chernozem zone of the RSFSR: the Reference book. - M.: Kolos, 1981. - P.53...56).

To determine the permeability of the soil is known device Darcy (Chugaev P.P. Hydraulics / Vol. 2. - L.: Energy, 1971. - S...444) and the method for determining the permeability of soil macro-grained rock for filler in this device soils: the investigated soil is poured into the cylinder layers and compacted by tamping (Patent SU 1641942 A1, CL. E02D 1/00 and G01N 15/08, 1991). A disadvantage of the known laboratory device and method is that in the study of disturbed natural structure of the soil, which leads to a significant reduction in the accuracy of determination of permeability is usually to inflate its value.

There is a method of determining the permeability of the soil samples placed in the ring (cylinder) instrument, equipped with a system of inlet and exhaust fluid and measuring the filtration flow rate and pressure, which are used then to calculate the magnitude of the filtration coefficient (Maslov NN. Fundamentals of soil mechanics and engineering Geology. - M.: Higher school, 1968. - S...172). It is also known development of this method lies in the creation of the upward seepage flow, reducing the possibility of influence on the permeability of soil trapped air (Capowski EVGENIY Laboratory work on the soil and soil mechanics. - M.: Nedra, 1975. - S, 137).

Known methods of selection of the monolith in the vertical and the horizontal directions by pushing the ring with a pointed bottom end of a triangular shape in the soil or only in the vertical direction on the principle of lowering the well with the only difference, the soil chosen from the outer side ring-cylinder. In soils enriched rocky material, these methods do not apply: when applying substantially disturb the natural composition of soils. Therefore, in accordance with GOST 12071-84 (p) macro-grained rock monoliths of soil is allowed to select the method of draping containers to the sample (prototype). For the selection of monoliths, have maintained a form without rigid packaging as packaging use cutter ring (GOST 5180-84, p). In this case, as a rule, between the inner surface of the cylinder and the outer surface of the monolith is formed a gap of considerable size, which creates significant difficulties when using such a monolith for determining the coefficient of the filter.

A device for determining the permeability of the surface layer of bottom sediments of the reservoir in the field (Patent RU 2015505 C1, CL. G01N 15/08 and E02D 1/00, 1994), which uses a cylinder with a pointed bottom end. To eliminate contact of the filter on the inner wall of the cylinder is fixed, the flexible shell, the surface of which, facing the inside of the cylinder, covered with a layer of grease with the formation of the sealed gap communicated with the pressure source.

Considering the device is intended for determining the coefficient is istratii fine granulometric composition of bottom sediments. When using elastic shell to eliminate contact of the filter when determining the permeability of soil, enriched rocky material, monoliths (see below) contact filtering between the shell and soil in full persists. She continues to take place, resulting in higher values of permeability of the soil, enriched with rocky material.

There is a method of determining the permeability of a soil impervious screen (A.S. SU 1625922 A1, CL. EV 3/16, 1991), in which sampling in the vertical direction on the principle of lowering the well, to eliminate contact filtering, using a suspension of more fine soil, the soil sample. In the case of soils, enriched rocky material, use water concentrated solution from the clay soil to fill the wall space, as is the use of film, mentioned above, did not give a positive result. Contact filtering due to the considerable size of the cracks continued to take place. In addition, as the application of the film, and concentrated solution from the clay soil is difficult to hold the monolith in the cylinder when moving it.

The problem solved by this invention is in the owl is the improvement of the method of selection of the monolith soil, enriched stony material for the filtration tests, excluding wall (contact) filtering.

The technical result obtained from the solution of the set task is to improve the accuracy of determination of permeability of soils, enriched rocky material, monoliths by eliminating errors that occur due to changes in the selection of the monolith permeability of soil in contact with the rigid walls of the cylinder, and improve the accuracy of identification of parameters of drainage systems and effective use of reclaimed soils, as well as expanding the area of application of monoliths for determining the filtration rate of the soil, enriched with rocky material.

Put in the invention the problem is solved by the fact that the method of selection of the monolith soil, enriched stony material for filtration tests carried out by draping containers, which use a cutting cylinder, a monolith. Pre-exercise screening sample of soil, which selected the site and in the centre of her tear circular transace depth of not less than 25 mm lower height of the cutting cylinder encircling the pristine soils, representing in the form of a truncated cone, the diameter of the upper base which is 10...15 cm is more the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder, while the diameter of the lower base of the larger internal diameter of the cutting cylinder 15...25 cm, then from intact soil cut monolith diameter not less than 6 mm smaller inner diameter of the cutting cylinder and a height of not less than 25 mm lower height of the cylinder, with the cylinder periodically put on the monolith, using it as a template to control the diameter of the cut of the monolith, and after cutting of the monolith and sitting on him cutting cylinder is pushed into the soil until its top edge is even with the surface of the monolith, and then in the space between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder and the outer surface of the monolith insert four Z-shaped supporting monolith plate height equal to 3/4 of the height of the cutting cylinder, evenly distribute them around the perimeter of the cylinder and put on its top edge, then the gap between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder, the soil monolith and its supporting plates is filled with molten waterproof material having a low melting point, such as azamerica, after which the monolith is cut from the bottom along the bottom edge of the cylinder, install it on a hard surface, Packed and delivered to the venue of the filtration tests.

When determining coefficie is the filtration area of the filter take the appropriate diameter of the monolith soil equal to the inner diameter of the cylinder minus twice the slot width and twice the depth of penetration of waterproof material in the soil monolith. The width of the gap and the depth of penetration of the molten waterproof material in the soil is determined after completion of the filtration works in the process of destruction of the monolith. In the destruction of the soil monolith waterproof material is not thrown away, and leave for reuse.

In soils enriched rocky material, monolith taken by his cut. Known methods of pushing (push) cylinder and selection of the monolith on the principle of lowering the well in rocky soils do not provide a selection of high-quality sample and the required accuracy of the determination of the filtration coefficient. Therefore, the following technology clippings, selection and preparation of the monolith to the filtration tests.

Choose the platform and tear circular transace depth of not less than 25 mm lower height of the cylinder. In the center of the trench is left untouched soils, representing in the form of a truncated cone, the diameter of the upper base which is 10...15 cm larger than the inner diameter of the cylinder, and the diameter of the lower base - more than 15...25 cm

The soil in the form of a truncated cone cuts the monolith is without damage and the cylinder that acts as a template, a size close to the size of the cylinder. As of the cut sample with a diameter of not less than 6 mm smaller internal diameter of the cylinder is periodically lowered to the sample. And it continues up until the bottom end of the cylinder reaches the bottom transace.

It should be emphasized that when cutting monolith in soils enriched rocky material, on the border of the lower edge of the cylinder, as a rule, often gets rocky material, complicating cutting monolith soil. Deleting rocky material on the outer surface of the sample remain shell. As a result, the surface of the monolith are extremely uneven, alignment, it leads to a large gap between the inner surface of the cylinder and the monolith.

After completion of the cutting of the monolith with the specified dimensions on it put on the cylinder, press the cylinder into the soil until its top edge is even with the surface of the monolith, in the space between the inner surface of the cylinder and the outer surface of the monolith insert four Z-shaped supporting monolith plate height equal to 3/4 of the height of the cylinder, evenly distribute them around the perimeter of the cylinder and put on its top edge, then the gap between the inner surface of the cylinder supporting the monolith square is tinami and soil monolith filled with molten waterproof material, having a low melting point, such as azamerica - paraffin with the addition of 35...50% by weight of tar, the monolith is cut from the bottom along the bottom edge of the cylinder, place it on a plate, bagged, and transported to the laboratory for filtration tests.

At high ambient air temperature and a large width of the slit may softening of waterproof material and the slipping of the monolith along the cylinder wall when his careless transfer. To resolve this includes installation of perimeter cylinder four Z-shaped supporting monolith plates.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings illustrating the inventive method. Figure 1 shows a vertical section on the stage of completion of the cutting of the monolith: 1 - soils enriched rocky material 2, 3 - cylinder. Figure 2 - the stage of completion of nadavlivanii cylinder 3 full depth and installation support monolith four Z-shaped plates 4, evenly distributed around the perimeter of the cylinder 3. Figure 3 is the same at the stage of completion of the fill water-resistant material 5 the gap between the inner surface of the cylinder 3, the soil monolith and its supporting plates 4.

The inventive method of selection of the monolith soil, enriched stony material for filtration ispy is any includes the following operations:

1. Site selection and passage circular transace depth of not less than 25 mm lower height of the cylinder. In the center of transace left untouched soils, representing in the form of a truncated cone, the diameter of the upper base which is 10...15 cm larger than the inner diameter of the cylinder, and the diameter of the lower base - more than 15...25 cm

2. Cut from intact soil monolith with a diameter of not less than 6 mm smaller internal diameter of the cylinder and a height of not less than 25 mm lower height of the cylinder (figure 1). When this cylinder is periodically put on the monolith, using it as a template to control the diameter of the cut of the monolith.

3. Putting the cutting cylinder 3, after reaching the bottom edge of the cut monolith bottom circular transace on the monolith.

4. The pressing cylinder 3 in the soil so that the top edge of the cylinder is equal to the surface of the monolith (figure 2). This eliminates the possibility of leakage pour molten waterproof material (see item 6 below) outside of the cylinder.

5. Insert in the space between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder and the outer surface of the monolith four Z-shaped supporting monolith plate 4 by a height equal to 3/4 of the height of the cutting cylinder, evenly distribute them around the perimeter of the cylinder and put on its top edge.

6. The gap between the inner surface of the cylinder, a monolith of soil and its supporting plates having a width of not less than 3 mm, is filled with molten waterproof material 5 with a low melting point (figure 3).

7. Cut the monolith from below the lower edge of the cylinder, install it on a hard surface, pack, deliver to the venue of the filtration tests.

Spend filtration operations, after the dismantling of the filtration device, destroy the monolith soil, while setting the thickness of waterproof material filled between the inner surface of the cylinder and the soil monolith, the width of the slit, and the penetration of waterproof material in the soil - depth; waterproof material is not thrown away, and leave for reuse; - determine the area of the fluid filtration through the soil monolith and calculated values of the coefficient of the filter.

The inventive method applied in the determination of permeability of more than 500 monoliths require draining soil Tver region, enriched rocky material. Determination of permeability of soil on the monoliths, selected by the proposed method and the known way by pushing the cylinder into the soil, confirm the ILO exception when applying the proposed method, the influence of the contact filter on the end result. The value of the coefficient filter for loamy need draining stony soils, installed on the monoliths, selected by the proposed method, usually 3 or more times lower than the established on the monoliths, selected by way of pushing the cylinder into the soil, which, of course, affect the accuracy of identification of parameters of drainage systems and the efficient use of reclaimed lands.

The method of selection of the monolith soil, enriched stony material for filtration tests by draping containers, which use a cutting cylinder, a monolith, wherein the pre-exercise screening sample of soil, which selected the site and in the centre of her tear circular transace depth of not less than 25 mm lower height of the cutting cylinder encircling the pristine soils, representing in the form of a truncated cone, the diameter of the upper base which is 10...15 cm larger than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder, and the diameter of the lower base larger than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder 15...25 cm, after which of the intact soil cut monolith diameter not less than 6 mm smaller inner diameter of the cutting cylinder is echoes and a height of not less than 25 mm lower height of the cylinder, when this cylinder is periodically put on the monolith, using it as a template to control the diameter of the cut of the monolith, and after cutting of the monolith and sitting on him cutting cylinder is pushed into the soil until its top edge is even with the surface of the monolith, and then in the space between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder and the outer surface of the monolith insert four Z-shaped supporting monolith plate height equal to 3/4 of the height of the cutting cylinder, evenly distribute them around the perimeter of the cylinder and put on its top edge, then the gap between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder, the soil monolith and its supporting plates pour melted waterproof material having a low melting point, such as azamerica, after which the monolith is cut from the bottom along the bottom edge of the cylinder, install it on a hard surface, Packed and delivered to the venue of the filtration tests.



 

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FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to test soils with static and dynamic load consists in the fact that soil testing is done in steps or continuously with the specified speed of screw stamp movement from the specified load stage with account of deformation due to bend of hollow rod segments. At the same time the device for realisation of the specified method comprises a screw stamp, a hollow pump rod made of segments, a loading accessory, measurement accessories, made in the form of a linear displacement sensor, and a loading mechanism. Besides, inside each segment of the hollow rod there is a sensor unit, comprising an inclination sensor with digital output and a transceiver. Sensor units are connected into a single sensor network and send information along radio frequency to each other and to a remote computer.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurements of screw stamp subsidence, expansion of functional capabilities and higher efficiency of soil testing in field conditions.

11 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method for erection of a vertical drain includes drilling of a well with simultaneous fixation of its walls with a casing pipe, where a casing filter string is lowered. Previously, before lowering of the filter string, a perforated pipe of smaller diameter is lowered into the well, and inside this pipe a filter pipe is lowered, which has been previously perforated and wrapped into a net of non-ferrous metal. Geotextile is wrapped onto the net, which is fixed by a copper wire. The perforated and filter pipes are aligned so that the distance between the inner wall of the perforated pipe and the filter pipe is identical along whole circumference. Then the space between the pipes is filled in layers with a sand and gravel mixture. A well pump is installed inside the filter pipe with installation of coupling pipes and electric cables. Afterwards the casing pipe is withdrawn from the well, and a conductor is arranged from the earth surface.

EFFECT: increased reliability of drain operation.

1 dwg

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