Method of producing rubber mix
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-polluting method of producing rubber mix to be used in production of tires and general mechanical rubber goods. Proposed method comprises preliminary multistep processing of one or several ingredients selected from curing activator and cross-linking accelerator by ledges of the disc or discs inside percussion-type activator at 1000-10000 rpm. Then, they are added to the mix by appropriate mixers.
EFFECT: increased induction period at curing rate in primary period, late overcure, lower curing temperature, hence, lower costs.
The invention can be used in tire and rubber industry for more cheap and environmentally friendly products.
Known methods of preparation of the rubber mixtures is a mixture of rubber with the ingredients in the enclosed rubber periodic action [Phew, Aesome, Amochaev. The common technology of rubber. - M.: Chemistry, 1978, str-340] or continuous machines [Phew, Aesome, Amochaev. The common technology of rubber. - M.: Chemistry, 1978, str-342].
The closest is a method for preparing rubber compounds in the mill [Phew, Aesome, Amochaev. The common technology of rubber. - M.: Chemistry, 1978, str-325]. For this purpose, rubber and other ingredients load on the rolls rolls, which rotate in the direction of the gap between them. In the gap and in the layer of rubber over the gap is a mixture of ingredients with a rubber. Each of the input ingredients has its value. This ingredients can facilitate the preparation of rubber mixtures and improving its technological properties (processing AIDS); ingredients that affect vulcanization characteristics of rubber compounds (inhibitors of podocarpaceae, activators and accelerators of vulcanization, crosslinking agents), ingredients, performance rubber products (antioxidants, n is the fillers, adhesion promoters and the like). Thus, in the formulation of some parts of automobile tires, the number of ingredients in the rubber compound can be up to 12÷15, and the total mass they can be up to 80% by weight of rubber (rubber), in which they are entered. Some of these ingredients are very expensive and environmentally unsafe. So, vulcanization accelerators are potentially dangerous substances capable at elevated temperatures of vulcanization to turn into nitrosamines, which are carcinogens [Frolkova VG Sources of carcinogenic and toxic substances in the tire industry / Vgeraskov, Semkovo, MSA // Space. - 2000. No. 3. - p.65-74]. Zinc oxide, which a vulcanization activator, and typed in all recipes tire rubber at a dosage of at least 5% by weight of the rubber, when released into the soil and water poisoning them, and for this reason its use in rubber mixtures in Europe are legally limited. For this reason, a reduced dosage of this ingredient in the rubber compound is very important.
The disadvantages of the known method of producing rubber mixtures can be attributed to the fact that the regulation of vulcanization characteristics is carried out primarily by replacing some of the ingredients on the other. So, if you want to increase the induction period of the moderator of podocarpaceae CFT is left anhydride must be replaced by very expensive and environmentally unsafe, santogard PVI. In order to achieve optimum vulcanization for a shorter period, you need to replace the accelerator of vulcanization on a more active, which often leads to the reduction of the time of induction period and ultimately leads to premature podocarpaceae rubber mixture, which leads to a sharp decrease in the quality of the finished product, or even to marriage.
One of the major disadvantages of the known method of producing rubber compounds is the presence of reversion (prevalently), coming with its vulcanization. This phenomenon is manifested in the deterioration, sometimes very sharp, the best complex of physical and mechanical properties achieved in the optimum vulcanization. The traditional way of dealing with the reversion is or the introduction of additional ingredients in the rubber compound or decrease in the temperature of vulcanization, which leads to performance degradation vulcanizing equipment (presses, curing presses, boilers and so on). The introduction of an additional ingredient in the rubber mixture increases its value.
The task of the invention is to increase the cohesive strength of the rubber mixtures, expressed in the increase of the minimum torque, the reduction in the dosage of the ingredients of the rubber, which will reduce the cost of finished rubber products and improve environmental the kind of situation in their manufacture and operation; lowering the temperature of vulcanization of the rubber to make rubber compound is more adaptable for increasing the rate of vulcanization, which is expressed in the reduction of time to achieve optimum vulcanization and the lengthening of the time of occurrence of reversion.
The proposed method for rubber mixture is pre-processed ingredients (ingredients) for different purposes with subsequent introduction of it (them) with mixing equipment.
Processing ingredients (ingredients) is to create a multiple impact on him (them) ledges drive (s), rotating (rotating) inside the unit shock activator type with speed 1000-10000 rpm.
The processing is carried out using the apparatus of the shock activator type [Ihint. UDA - technology: problems and prospects. - Tallinn: Valgus, 1981 - p.26], for example using a dual device with a different form of protrusions. When this powder ingredients (ingredients) is subjected to a rapidly alternating counter-strikes ledges discs rotating in the opposite direction. The General flow of the powder particles moves from the center of the discs, which are loaded ingredient (ingredient), to the periphery, where are unloaded.
The task is solved by the fact that robotany therefore ingredient (ingredients) is inserted into the rubber mixture.
The technical problem can be solved using any equipment for mixing of rubber periodic operation of rotary type, roller machines, rubber continuous screw type.
The technical problem can be solved when using the apparatus of the shock activator type.
The technical solution is illustrated by the following examples of specific performance.
Example 1. The vulcanization activator ZnO 5,0 mass 100 mass rubber SKI-3 was previously proantivirus by a single pass through the mill, which was subjected to mechanical shock tabs disks, rotating towards each other with the number of rotations of each 3000 rpm thus Treated ZnO was introduced in the mill in standard rubber mixture based rubber SKI-3 [Guide reinsta. - M.: Chemistry, 1971, p.33-40], and prepared rubber mixture was subjected rheometrical testing vibrometer "Monsanto-100" at a temperature of 143°C. Similar rheometrical test was subjected to a standard rubber compound, which was introduced conventional ZnO.
The result of pre-treatment (mechanical activation) ZnO was manifested in the increase in the minimum torque (ML) of 12%, the maximum torque (MH) is 7.4%, which indicates more in the high degree of vulcanization in comparison with the conventional rubber mixture.
Example 2. Similar to example 1, but instead of ZnO mechanical activation was subjected to sulfur ground. Effect of mechanical activation of sulfur was manifested in the growth of ML 10.5%, MN 5.3%, increasing the rate of vulcanization in the main period of 38%. Thus for more than a short time can be achieved a higher degree of vulcanization of rubber.
Example 3. Similar to example 1, but instead of ZnO mechanical activation was subjected to pre-cooked mechanical mixture of ZnO and accelerator of vulcanization of diphenylguanidine (FGD) in a mass ratio of ZnO: FGD = 5,0:3,0.
Mechanically activated mixture of ZnO: FGD was introduced into the rubber mixture in an amount calculated as the ZnO content of 5.0 mass. parts per 100 mass rubber SKI-3. Effect of mechanical activation was evident in the significant growth of ML 30.6%, MN by 53.1%. The rate of vulcanization in the main period increased to 2.22 times.
Example 4. Similar to example 3, except that the ratio of ZnO: FGD was 3:3, and the number entered in the rubber mixture mechanically activated mixture of ZnO: FGD was based 3,0 masses. part of the ZnO 100 mass rubber SKI-3.
The joint effect of mechanical activation ZnO: FGD in the ratio 3:3 and reduced to 3.0 mass dosage ZnO manifested in the growth of ML in 38.9%, MN by 72.3%, vulcanization rate of 9%. In comparison with example 3 improved another measure of vulcanization, and they are the NGOs: increased induction period, during which can be processed at elevated temperatures the rubber mixture without fear of occurrence of premature podocarpaceae. This indicator (ts1) rose from 1,10 minutes to 1.50 minutes, which is 36.4%.
Example 5. Similar to example 3, except that the number entered in the rubber mixture mechanically activated mixture of ZnO: FGD was based 1.88 masses. parts per 100 mass. parts of rubber SKI-3.
The joint effect of mechanical activation ZnO: FGD in the ratio 5:3 and reduced to a 1.88 mass dosage ZnO manifested in the growth of ML by 25.9%, MN 41.3, vulcanization rate of 110%. The reduced dosage of ZnO in the composition of the rubber mixture to 1.88 mass further increased the induction period of 1.10 to 2.50 min minutes, that is 127% or more than 2 times.
In example 4, and, especially, in example 5, a preliminary mechanical activation of a mixture of ZnO: FGD helped to significantly reduce the dosage of ZnO in rubber compounds, and thus in the finished product that not only reduces the cost of the rubber product, but also makes it more environmentally friendly.
Example 6. Example 6 same as example 3, except that the temperature of vulcanization of the rubber mixture was 143°C and 165°C. the Effect of mechanical activation of a mixture of ZnO: FGD showed a significant increase in the induction period of vulcanization with ts1=0,34 min for normal mixture to 0,86 mi is the rubber mixtures based on mechanically activated mixture of ZnO: FGD, that is, this fact suggests that this mixture can be obtained and processed under more intense modes in which there is a strong warm-up. It is very important for industry RTI, when the temperature of vulcanization of rubber compounds in injection molding machines can reach up to 160°C and above.
The positive effect of mechanical activation in this example 6 was evident in the growth of ML in 56% and MN 16%.
Example 7. Similar to example 1, instead of ZnO mechanical activation was subjected to a mixture of altaxe (A - auxiliary vulcanization accelerator) and FGD (primary vulcanization accelerator) in a mass ratio of 1:5. Mechanically activated mixture And: FGD was introduced into the rubber mixture in an amount based content FGD 3.0 masses. parts per 100 mass. parts of rubber SKI-3. The positive effect of mechanical activation is manifested in the growth of MN by 18.7%.
Example 8. Similar to example 1, but instead of ZnO mechanical activation was subjected to a mixture of altaxe, FGD and sulfur - vulcanizing agent) in a mass ratio of A: FGD: S = 1:5:1,67. Mechanically activated mixture And: FGD: S was introduced into the rubber mixture in an amount based content FGD 3.0 masses. parts per 100 mass. parts of rubber SKI-3. The positive effect of mechanical activation is manifested in the growth of ML 15.6%, and MN by 26.5%.
Example 9. The vulcanization accelerator Sulfenamid C (N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolylsulfenamide is, SATS) in an amount of 0.7 wt. parts per 100 mass. parts of rubber SKI-3 was previously proantivirus by a single pass through the mill, which was subjected to mechanical shock tabs disks, rotating towards each other with the number of revolutions of 3000 rpm thus Treated SATS is entered on the rolls in rubber-based rubber SKI-3 [ASTM D3403. The magazine "Raw materials and technology of rubber industry": - 2007. No. 5. - p.75]. The temperature of vulcanization of the rubber mixture was 160°C. the Positive effect of mechanical activation SATS manifested in the growth of ML 52.6%, MN 28%. The magnitude of the induction period (ts1) grew by 42.3%.
Example 10. Similar to example 9, but the temperature vulcanization amounted to 143°C instead of 160°C. the Positive effect of mechanical activation SATS manifested in the growth of ML in 56%, MN 6%, ts140%.
Example 11. Similar to example 9, but instead of a vulcanization accelerator SATS was taken in the same amount of a vulcanization accelerator Sulfenamid T (N-tert-butyl-2-benzothiazolyl sulfenamid CAT). The positive effect of mechanical activation CAT manifested in the growth of ML in 44%, MN by 7.9%, ts1to 71.6 per cent. The time of occurrence of reversion reached 130 minutes instead of 24 minutes in conventional rubber compounds. The latter fact suggests the possibility of vulcanization large items (such as heavy-duty tires) during the long period of vulcanization without fear, that the outer layers tires prevulcanized and internal, on the contrary, neovolcanic.
Example 12. Similar to example 10, but instead SATS mechanical activation was subjected to a mechanical mixture of ZnO: SATS mass ratio of 5.0:0,7. Mechanically activated mixture of ZnO: SATS were introduced into the rubber mixture in an amount calculated as the ZnO content of 5.0 mass. parts per 100 mass. parts of rubber SKI-3. The positive effect of mechanical activation emerged in the growth induction period ts111.3%reduction in time achieve optimum vulcanization (t9012%.
Example 13. Similar to example 10, but instead SATS mechanical activation was subjected to a mechanical mixture of sulfur (S) and SATS in a mass ratio of 2.25:0,7. Mechanically activated mixture of sulfur S: SATS were introduced into the rubber mixture in the rate of sulfur 2.25 masses. parts per 100 mass. parts of rubber SKI-3. The positive effect of mechanical activation is manifested in the growth of ML in 56%, MN 6%, ts140%.
Example 14. Similar to example 9, but instead of SATS mechanical activation was subjected to a mechanical mixture of sulfur S, ZnO and SATS in a mass ratio of 2.25:5,0:0,7. Mechanically activated mixture was injected at the rate of sulfur 2.25 masses. parts per 100 mass. parts of rubber SKI-3. The positive effect of mechanical activation is manifested in the growth of ML in 39%, ts132%.
Example 15. Analogous to example , but instead of SATS mechanical activation was subjected to a mechanical mixture of sulfur, ZnO, SATS and moderator of podocarpaceae of santogard PVI (N-cyclohexylthiophthalimide) in a mass ratio of 2.25:5,0:0,7. Mechanically activated mixture was injected at the rate of sulfur 2.25 masses. parts per 100 mass. parts of rubber SKI-3. The positive effect of mechanical activation is manifested in the growth of ML 35%, MN 11.2%, ts19%.
Example 16. Similar to example 1 except that ZnO was processed in a disintegrator at a speed drives, 10,000 rpm Positive effect of mechanical activation was manifested in the increase in ML 13.8%, MN by 7.7%.
Example 17. Similar to example 1 except that ZnO was processed in the cage when the number of revolutions of the disk equal to 1000 rpm the Positive effect of mechanical activation was manifested in the increase in ML of 1.5%, MP 3.2%.
Example 18. Similar to example 1 except that ZnO was processed in the cage when the number of revolutions of the disk equal to 12000 rpm Positive effect of mechanical activation was not observed.
Example 19. Similar to example 1 except that ZnO was processed in the cage when the number of revolutions of the disk equal to 500 rpm Positive effect of mechanical activation was not observed.
The analysis of these examples leads to the following conclusions.
First, the preparation of rubber the mixtures according to the proposed method leads to growth (examples 1-8, 10, 15-17), sometimes very significant (examples 3, 4, 8) the degree of vulcanization (MN); induction period (ts1), which is important in the technology for massive rubber products (examples 4-6, 9-12, 13-15); the later the onset of reversion (example 11).
Secondly, the rubber mixtures based on mechanically activated ingredients have a greater rate of vulcanization in the main period (examples 2-5), which allows to achieve optimum vulcanization for a shorter period (example 12) and, in turn, improves the performance of the vulcanizing equipment. A higher rate of vulcanization of the rubber mixtures according to the present method also gives the opportunity to reduce the dosage of ingredients, which reduces the cost of the obtained rubber products and makes it more environmentally friendly (examples 4, 5)
Thirdly, the optimal number of revolutions of the drive cage is in the range 1000-10000 rpm (examples 1, 18-20).
A method of obtaining a rubber mixture comprising a preliminary multiple processing ingredient or ingredients of the rubber protrusions of the rotating disc or rotating discs inside the unit shock activator type and put in the mixture, characterized in that as subjected to preliminary processing of ingredients used one or more ingredients selected from AK is ivator vulcanization, cross-linking agent, vulcanization accelerator, vulcanization retarder, when this treatment is carried out with the speed of rotation of the disk or disks 1000-10000 rpm
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of producing elastomeric composites and composites obtained using said methods. The method involves mixing a first aqueous fluid medium containing elastomeric latex with a second aqueous fluid medium containing filler particles; stimulating coagulation of the elastomeric latex to obtain mother batch crumbs; bringing the level of water content of the mother batch crumbs to a value ranging from about 1 wt % to about 20 wt % to obtain an anhydrous coagulum; removing water from the anhydrous coagulum by exposing the anhydrous coagulum to mechanical energy, resulting in heating of the anhydrous coagulum due to friction, wherein the anhydrous coagulum reaches temperature from about 130°C to about 190°C, where the level of water content is reduced to a value from about 0.5% to about 3%, and where the entire reduction of the level of water content is achieved by evaporation to obtain a plasticised mother batch; and exposing the plasticised mother batch to mechanical energy of at least 0.3 MJ/kg, with further reduction of the level of water content.
EFFECT: invention reduces viscosity of mother batches, improves filler dispersion, simplifies preparation of mother batches for producing a vulcanised rubber product.
48 cl, 6 dwg, 22 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polymer nanoparticle having a nucleus/shell configuration with an interphase region between the nucleus and the shell, which contains at least one polymerised monomer selected from a polymerised nucleus monomer and a polymerised shell monomer. The nucleus of the polymer nanoparticle is uniformly cross-linked by at least one cross-linking agent. The average diameter of the polymer nanoparticles can be less than 250 nm. Described also is a rubber composition containing polymer nanoparticles and use thereof to make tyres, as well as methods of producing polymer nanoparticles. To form a uniformly cross-linked nucleus, polymerisation of the nucleus is carried out through step-by-step addition in several loads or batching synchronised amounts of the nucleus monomer and the cross-linking agent. The size, composition and/or configuration of the interphase region is varied, thereby achieving desirable physical and/or chemical properties of the resultant polymer nanoparticles and compositions to which the nanoparticles are added.
EFFECT: improved physical and chemical properties.
45 cl, 6 tbl, 7 ex, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to moulded elastomer articles made from a vulcanised composition of elastomer latex. Described is a vulcanised aqueous composition of synthetic latex rubber, which contains latex rubber, a vulcanising agent, an activator and an accelerator composition for synthetic latex rubber. The accelerator is obtained from a conjugated diane and, possibly, vinylaromatic copolymer and contains: (i) diethyl dithiocarbamate and (ii) diphenyl guanidine and does not contain any thiazole compounds. Weight ratio of components (i) and (ii) lies between 0.80 and 2.00. Described also is a method of making articles from the aqueous composition of synthetic latex. The method involves preparation of a latex dispersion or emulsion, holding the latex dispersion for up to 8 days, loading forms in form of an article into latex and vulcanisation of the latex present in that form.
EFFECT: cheap method based on water without the need for using novel expensive materials or equipment, use of smaller amounts of vulcanising agents and stabilisers.
10 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions for making elastomer films used in making synthetic gloves, and a method of making elastomer films and gloves. The composition contains a synthetic polymer, sulphur, a metal oxide cross-linking agent and water. Sulphur is in amount of 0.01-0.5 parts per 100 parts of the polymer (phr). Total concentration of solid substances in the composition is 5-20% of the mass of the composition and the said composition does not contain an accelerator. The method of making a multilayer elastomer film involves the following steps: (i) dipping a mould into the composition, (ii) drying the composition and (iii) dipping the mould into the composition in order to deposit an additional layer of the elastomer film composition onto the mould, (iv) optional repetition of steps (ii) and (iii) and (v) drying and curing the elastomer film. The average thickness of the layer is 6-90% of the average overall thickness of the multilayer film. The average overall thickness of the elastomer film is approximately 0.01-0.3 mm.
EFFECT: increased strength of the multilayer elastomer film, reduced amount of composition for making an ariticle and reduced allergic reactions during contact with the elastomer films.
24 cl, 10 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: polymer materials.
SUBSTANCE: sealant destined to seal metallic packaging joints contains, wt %: synthetic latex with 48-55% solids 100, carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt 2.045, mixture of polyethylene ethers of mono- and dialkylphenols 1.11, disperser (sodium tripolyphosphane) 0.37, casein 0.185, oleic acid 0.37, foam suppressor 0.407, pigment filler 5,92, and water 60.125.
EFFECT: increased viscosity, improved homogeneity, enhanced adhesion, reduced drying time.
FIELD: rubber industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions containing crude emulsion rubber, synthetic latex, or natural rubber latex subjected to oxidative, thermal, dynamic, and/or light-induced degradation. In particular, invention provides composition, containing (i) crude emulsion rubber, synthetic latex, or degraded natural rubber latex, (ii), as stabilizer, at least one compound of formula I: (I), wherein R1 is C9-C20-alkyl, and (iii), as another stabilizer, at least one compound of formula II: (II), wherein R2 is C8-C12-alkyl; R3 is hydrogen, C8-C12-alkyl, cyclohexyl, 1-methylcyclohexyl, benzyl, α-methylbenzyl, α,α-dimethylbenzyl, or -CH2-S-R2; R4 is C1-C12-alkyl, benzyl, α-methylbenzyl, α,α-dimethylbenzyl, or -CH2-S-R2; and R5 is hydrogen or methyl. Invention also describes a method of stabilizing indicated mixture of compounds I and II.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of stabilizer composition as compared to each of stabilizers used separately.
16 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a reactive mixture for coating moulded articles by reaction injection moulding. The reactive mixture contains at least 60 wt % (meth)acrylates with at least two double bonds, wherein content of at least one (meth)acrylate with three or more double bonds is at least 25 wt % of the weight of the reactive mixture. The reactive mixture contains at least one photoinitiator and at least one thermal initiator. Furthermore, the present invention describes a moulded article with a coating of the reactive mixture and a method for production thereof. The moulded article is obtained by reaction injection moulding and the moulded article contains at least one polymer selected from a group comprising polymethyl methacrylate, polymethacryl methylimide, a copolymer of styrene and acrylonitrile, a copolymer of styrene and maleic acid and copolymers of polymethyl methacrylate and a coating from the reactive mixture.
EFFECT: formation of a fast solidifying coating with scratch resistance and high strength of adhesion with the moulded article.
30 cl, 1 tbl, 19 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of producing electroconductive elastomeric composite material based on general or special-purpose rubber involves mixing 100 pts.wt rubber, 10-13 pts.wt vulcanising group, 20-25 pts.wt plasticiser, 10-25 pts.wt graphite and 25-60 pts.wt electroconductive technical carbon. Pressure curing is then carried out. After curing, the material is subjected to swelling in an organic solvent until achieving equilibrium swelling index and then held for 1 hour at 100-120°C after complete removal of solvent.
EFFECT: disclosed material has high electroconductivity.
2 tbl, 26 ex
SUBSTANCE: pipe is made from spatially cross-linked polyolefin composition which is obtained by cross-linking a polyolefin composition. The polyolefin composition contains a base resin which contains a cross-linkable olefin homo- or copolymer (A) which contains hydrolysable silicon-containing groups, and filler (B). The filler is selected from mineral glass filler, feldspar, barites and carbon fibres.
EFFECT: disclosed pipe has significantly improved hardness and modulus of elasticity in tension.
13 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: peroxide-cured thermoplastic vulcanisate contains thermoplastic and a non-halogenated elastomer. The thermoplastic is selected from a group comprising polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, a copolymer of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene, allyl resins, a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl alcohol, fluoroplastic, polyacetals, polyacrylates, polyacrylonitriles, polyamides, polyimides, polycarbonates, polyesters, polethylene oxide, polypropylene oxide, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene glycol, polyvinylidene chloride and mixtures thereof. The non-halogenated elastomer contains repeating units obtained from isobutene and 3.5 mol % repeating units obtained from isoprene.
EFFECT: disclosed thermoplastic vulcanisates can be used when producing moulded articles for applications which require high degree of purity, reduced hygroscopicity and preventing decolouration of the article.
20 cl, 2 dwg, 7 tbl, 18 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is a liquid graft polymer obtained using a method which involves reaction of a polymer of a C4-C7 monoolefin monomer and a C4-C14 multiolefin monomer which contains butyl rubber, in the presence of a material for conducting graft copolymerisation, which contains maleic anhydride, and a free-radical polymerisation initiator which contains an organic peroxide, wherein the liquid graft polymer has number-average molecular weight (Mn) from 150000 to 30000. Described is a vulcanised compound containing the described liquid graft polymer and a vulcanising agent based on a multi-functional amine. Described is a method of decomposing a non-liquid butyl polymer to a liquid butyl graft polymer, where the method involves reaction of a non-liquid butyl polymer of a C4-C7 monoolefin monomer and a C4-C14 multiolefin monomer which contains butyl rubber, in the presence of a material for conducting graft copolymerisation, which contains maleic anhydride, and a free-radical polymerisation initiator containing dicumyl peroxide, wherein the liquid graft polymer has number-average molecular weight (Mn) from 150000 to 30000.
EFFECT: liquid maleated butyl rubber is obtained.
16 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to a particle comprising a composition containing a matrix and a peroxide or azo radical initiator, as well as rubber-coated products, tyres, tyre treads and belts containing particle-elastomer systems. The particle is selected from aramid, polyester, polyamide, cellulose fibre and glass fibre. The matrix is selected from an extruded polymer, wax or mixture thereof.
EFFECT: invention improved mechanical properties - modulus of elasticity, hardness and wear-resistance.
20 cl, 37 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: thermoplastic elastomer composition is obtained through dynamic vulcanisation in a high-shearing mixer at high temperature. The composition contains dispersed particles of a first halogenated elastomer containing isobutylene, and dispersed particles of a second elastomer having a functional group capable of reacting with a polyamide and being grafted onto the polyamide. Particles of the first and second elastomers are dispersed in a continuous thermoplastic polyamide matrix. The method involves dispersion of a curing agent in the halogenated elastomer and obtaining a pre-formed, preferably granulated composition. Polyamide resin and optional light stabilisers are then fed into the mixer. Shearing action is applied and heating is carried out to melt the polyamide and obtain a mixture. A polyamide plasticiser is then added to reduce viscosity of the polyamide mixture. Granules of the pre-formed elastomer composition are then fed into the mixer and heating and shearing action is then applied. The second elastomer is fed and heating and shearing action is continued in order to disperse the second elastomer. After dynamic vulcanisation, the thermoplastic elastomer composition is discharged from the mixer.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain improved impermeability characteristics for gases and fluid media, strength and longevity.
20 cl, 9 tbl
SUBSTANCE: alkaline starch is gelled in the first zone (10) of an extruder. Phosphorus oxychloride is then added as a cross-linking agent in the second zone (11) of the extruder. Cross-linking of the obtained gelled starch with phosphorus oxychloride is carried out in the second and third zones (11, 12) of the extruder. The obtained cross-linked gelled starch is neutralised the fourth zone (13) of the extruder and extracted in the fifth zone (14) of the extruder. The method enables to improve and simplify the method of producing derivatives of cold water swelling cross-linked starch.
EFFECT: derivatives of cold water swelling starch which is cross-linked with phosphorus oxychloride which are more resistant to harsh pH values, temperatures and shearing forces are obtained as a result of more homogeneous chemical modification of starch.
13 cl, 4 tbl, 5 ex, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: rubber mixture contains the following in pts.wt per 100 pts.wt of the rubber mixture: butyl rubber polymer 50-98, olefin polymer of ethylene and at least one α-olefin 2-50, peroxide curing agent 2-5, and optionally at least one diene. Moulded articles are obtained from the rubber mixture.
EFFECT: invention increases hardness, extension and lowers gas and moisture permeability of the obtained articles.
9 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: rubber mixture for making moulded articles contains a peroxide curable butyl rubber composition prepared from a butyl rubber polymer, a polybutadiene rubber polymer with 70-95% vinyl groups in a 1,2-microstructure, a ternary ethylene-propylene-diene copolymer with weight ratio of ethylene links to propylene ranging from 40:60 to 65:35 and 1-10 parts of peroxide curing agent per 100 parts of the rubber mixture.
EFFECT: disclosed rubber articles have high Shore hardness, good extension and low gas and moisture permeability.
11 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to injection moulding of plastics. Initial polymer material is, first, subjected to heating and softening at permanent mixing and mincing, if required, in one continuous-operation cutter-compactor 1 at temperature below polymer fusion point and above vitrification point. Polymer mixing and heating is executed by, at least, one mixer and one mincer 12 with working edges acting on polymer material. Then, polymer is fed directly, with no intermediate step, into screw extruder 10 directly coupled with said cutter-compactor 1. Extruder screw 16 softens said polymer to make the melt to be injected into shaped part. Mixer and, if required, mincer 12 forces polymer into screw extruder loading zone 10.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and quality.
14 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: polymer material processing.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a receiving container or a cutting compactor where the processed material is loaded. The lower part of the receiving container has a discharge outlet. The receiving container is divided into at least two cylindrical chambers (6a, 6b, 6c, ...) separated from each other by the corresponding transitory bottoms (2', 2", ...). Each chamber (6a, 6b, 6c, ...) has at least one mixing or grinding element (7a, 7b, 7c, ...) capable of vertical axis rotation (8, 14), which interacts with the material. The special means (5', 5", ...) are implemented for change or transfer of softened, lump or unmelted material between the neighbouring chambers (6a, 6b, 6c, ...). The upper chamber or the chamber that lies above has larger diameter than the chambers (6b, 6c, ...) below.
EFFECT: improved homogeneity of the processed polymer material.
16 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fine-grained polyarylene ether ketone used for application on metallic and ceramic articles and producing composite materials. Fine-grained polyarylene ether ketone is obtained by grinding porous polyarylene ether ketone whose BET surface is greater than 4 m2/g. The porous polyarylene ether ketone is obtained during spontaneous setting of polyarylene ether ketone solution in high boiling point organic solvent, for example diphenyl sulphone.
EFFECT: method lowers the cost of grinding and increases output of the powder.
7 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: method includes processing of rubber crumb with thermoplastics in device of rotor type for high temperature shear grinding during heating by means of simultaneous exposure of processed material to pressure and shear stress. At that processing is carried out in two stages. At the first stage rubber crumb or mixture of rubber crumb and one thermoplastic with ratio of rubber crumb: thermoplastic or mixture of thermoplastics, equal to, weight % (99.5-90.0):(0.5-10.0), are processed under conditions that provide high temperature shear grinding of rubber crumb. At the second stage processing of product produced at the first stage is carried out in the presence of thermoplastic or mixture of thermoplastics with the following ratio - product produced at the first stage: thermoplastic or mixture of thermoplastics, equal to, weight % (2-90):(98-10). At that processing is carried out under conditions that provide high temperature shear grinding of thermoplastic or mixture of thermoplastics.
EFFECT: increase of extent of mixture uniformity and high physico-mechanical and other operational characteristics of coating.
14 cl, 1 tbl, 26 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of materials grinding, namely to devices for preparation of dispersed polymer material and may be used for grinding natural and synthetic polymer materials. Device for powder preparation from polymer material includes tightening chamber and grinding chamber in the form of cylindrical casings with loading and discharging openings. Inside the tightening chamber tightening auger is installed with spiral grooves on the surface. Depth of grooves is made as gradually reducing to the discharging opening. Tightening chamber casing is installed perpendicularly to the grinding chamber casing and is hermetically connected with its discharging opening to its inlet opening that is installed in the middle part of grinding chamber. In grinding chamber two milling rotors are installed, which are made with the possibility of ground polymer material movement from grinding chamber inlet opening to its discharging nozzles. Nozzles are installed in the opposite ends of grinding chamber. Between milling rotors tightening augers are installed coaxially with spiral grooves on their surfaces. Grinding chamber is equipped with cooling facilities.
EFFECT: increase of efficiency of process of powder production from polymer material and reduction of power inputs per production unit with preservation of high quality of grinding.
6 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex