Method of making sheets from special magnesium-based alloys for electrochemical current sources

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for increasing quality of sheets and ruling out pollution originating in forming special magnesium alloys doped with high-toxicity light-volatile elements that form, in heating and forming, harmful oxides, and may be used in production of sheets for anodes of electrochemical current sources. Proposed method comprises placing round ingot in tubular shell, hearing the workpiece and its hot and warm rolling to requited sheet thickness.

EFFECT: higher quality of sheets and process efficiency.

5 tbl

 

The present invention relates to the field of processing by pressure special magnesium alloys, doped highly toxic legisprudence elements or forming by heating and deforming a hazardous oxides, and can be used in the manufacture of sheets for the anodes of electrochemical power sources.

A method of producing sheets of low-alloy magnesium alloys, including alloy MA-1 (see Magnesium alloys for the production of semi-finished products. M.: metallurgy, 1973. - s-130), which are used as anode material in electrochemical power sources. The main disadvantage of this method is the relatively low electrochemical properties of the resulting anodes that do not meet the increased requirements of the consumers. In this regard, developed new special magnesium alloys. The increase in the electrochemical properties of these alloys is achieved by doping such toxic elements as mercury, thallium, lead and other, related to 1 class of danger, and to prevent environmental pollution hazardous discharge when they are processed using the method of the protective cladding.

So, there is a method of producing sheets of special alloys based on magnesium, alloyed high is execname elements, adopted for the prototype, including the location of the ingot in a pipe of aluminum alloy and subsequent hot and final warm-rolling the billet into a heated rollers to the desired thickness of the sheet (see Patent RU 2253521). At the same time as the pipe material used aluminum alloys brand AD31 or ABB. Round ingot is placed in the pressed pipe with a gap of 0.5 to 2 mm, the length of which is greater than the length of the ingot (10÷30) % on each side. Round ingot after crimping the ends of the pipe is heated to a temperature (380÷420°C and subjected to preliminary hot rolling at a temperature of (140÷160)°With the rolls for several passes until the desired thickness of the rolled stock. Final warm rolling strips into sheets of the desired thickness is carried out by heating the billet to a temperature (360÷390)°C with a holding time in the furnace for 30 to 60 minutes on rolls heated to a temperature (120÷140°C with reductions (10÷30) % per pass. During warm rolling carry out intermediate heating of the workpiece. While cooling the workpiece by warm rolling provide not lower than 320°C.

As shown by the experience of serial production of sheets of these special magnesium alloys in a known manner, it has a number of serious drawbacks, including:

- breaks with the detached shell, welding the membrane to the rolls during hot rolling with emergency stop a hundred the and, limited production on the choice of material is commercially available extruded pipes of aluminium alloys used as cladding. The uneven distribution of plating, resulting in the exposure of the sheets of the base metal from the protective plating or its increased thickness.

- increased thickness of the obtained anode sheets of a special magnesium alloys and the low quality of their surface after removal of the plating method, chemical etching;

low yield;

- the high complexity of the production of sheets and their subsequent processing in the manufacture of power sources.

Object of the present invention is to provide a technology for obtaining high-quality sheets of a special magnesium alloys and ensure no pollution of the environment by toxic aerosols, oxides and other compounds containing mercury, thallium, lead.

This goal is achieved by the proposed method for the production of sheets of a special magnesium alloys for electrochemical power sources, including the location of the ingot from a special magnesium alloy wrapped in the form of an extruded tube, saccomanno with two sides that are different from the prototype that is used for this purpose, the pipe inner diameter (1,1÷1,3) diameter ingot and t is linoy wall (0,028÷0,040) diameter of the ingot, at the same time as the pipe material used aluminum alloys, deformation resistance which when thermomechanical parameters of hot rolling of the billet is (0,86÷1,15) resistance to deformation of a special magnesium alloy, hot rolling is performed across the axis of the casting of the ingot after heating the workpiece within (3÷15) hours on rolls heated to a temperature of (100÷120°C, with increasing private reductions from 17 to 25% in the initial stage of the process to achieve the total degree of deformation of at least 50%, and the final stage of the process until the desired thickness is carried out after kantowski of polarstate with private the reductions (25÷40) % when the temperature of the end of rolling is not less than 250°C.

Examples

In figure 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 presents tables with the experimental data on hot rolling of the billet to tackle the known and the proposed method using as a sheath material extruded tubes of different diameter and wall thickness, made of aluminum and low-alloyed aluminum alloys at different temperatures of the heating rolls, the duration of heating of billets, modes of reductions and schemes of hot rolling.

As the original piece used standard ingots of the alloys of the Mg-Hg and Mg-Tl with a diameter of 90±3 100±3 mm After crimping bars in the tubular shell of the billet-heating and to a temperature (400÷420°C. and subjected to hot rolling to tackle the desired thickness.

Analysis of the results of experiments to study the influence of the ratio of the inner diameter of the tubular shell and the diameter of the ingot on the quality of hot-rolled strip, is shown in figure 1, showed that the optimal size of the gap between the tubular sheath and the ingot of parent metal (special magnesium alloy) is achieved by using a pipe, the internal diameter of which is equal to (1,1÷1,3) diameter of the ingot (figure 1, item 2, 3, 4, 6, 8). When a smaller value of this indicator is observed the destruction of the shell (figure 1, item 1, 7), and when it exceeds this value does not completely fill the internal volume of the pipe base metal, resulting in unreasonably increased consumption of material of the shell (figure 1, item 5, 10).

When studying the effect of temperature of the heating rolls for hot rolling process and the quality of hot-rolled strip was established that, given the inability to use coolant greatest effect is achieved if the temperature of the rolls during hot rolling is in the range from 100 to 120°C (figure 2, item 5, 6, 7). When the temperature of the rolls is less than 100°C is more sharp decrease in the temperature of the rolled metal, especially in the final stage of the process, which leads to the decrease of its plasticity and, consequently, to the formation of cracks and gaps on the side edges of the strips (figure 2, item 8). PR is the temperature of the rolls more than 120°C begins the process of adhering a metal shell on the rolls ("salaminian" rolls), leading to deterioration of the surface quality of the resulting strips (2, 3, 4), and when the temperature of the rolls 140°C, in some cases welding the membrane to the working Valka emergency stop rolling mill (figure 2, item 1, 2).

Analysis of the experimental data obtained in the study of the influence of pipe material on the quality of hot-rolled steel and finished anode sheets (figure 3), has allowed to establish that if the deformation resistance of the aluminum alloy is (0,86÷1,15) resistance to deformation of a special magnesium alloy, it can successfully be used as the material of the shell (figure 3, item 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11). This requirement, in addition to alloy AD31 meet alloys HELL, AMC and AMG. At smaller values of this ratio observed increased thinning of the aluminum plating with exposure of the base metal (figure 3, item 3), and at large - the destruction of the aluminum plating with the formation of surface cracks due to high tensile stresses in the deformation zone (figure 3, item 6). Experiments on hot rolling of the billet to tackle and final warm rolling on the sheets has allowed to establish that the requirements for the total thickness of the cladding and intermetallic layers (≤0.15 mm) on each side of the sheet is performed, if the ratio of wall thickness to the diameter of the ingot is (0,028÷0,040) (Phi is .3, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11). At a lower value of this index is the thinning of plating violation of its continuity (figure 3, item 7, 12), which is unacceptable for the requirements of labor protection. The exceeding of this value leads to an increase in the thickness of the plating, does not meet the statutory requirements that involve increasing the complexity of its subsequent removal, irrational consumption of the sheath material, the deterioration of the surface quality and increased thickness of the obtained anode sheets (figure 3, item 1, 8).

The known method provides for the strict limitation of only heating temperature of the billet prior to hot rolling, but does not regulate the requirements for the duration of the heating. As shown by the experiments (figure 4), the optimal value of the duration of heating of billets from ingots with a diameter of 90 mm and 100 ranges from 3 to 15 hours (figure 4, item 2÷6).

With less duration of heating is not provided uniform heating of the metal throughout the volume of the ingot, resulting in the formation of a rough cracks in the early stages of rolling of the billet (figure 4, item 1). Exceeding the specified maximum duration of heating is also unacceptable due to the fact that prolonged heating caused by the sublimation and oxidation occurs depletion legisprudence alloying elements surface is the shaft of the layers of ingots and obtained from them anode sheets, that leads to a significant lowering of their electrochemical properties (figure 4, item 7) or to marriage by local naparvaram plating (figure 4, item 8).

In table 5 presents the results of experiments testing different modes of reductions and schemes of hot rolling of the billet. The principal feature of the proposed method is the use of intensive modes of reductions at all stages of the rolling process in combination with the obligatory change of direction of the rolling axis of the casting of the ingot, which is provided by the casting-off of polarstate when reaching a strictly limited degree of deformation.

The highest efficiency on the complexity, power consumption and yield provides a process of obtaining a hot-rolled strip (figure 5, item 8, 9, 13, 14), in which the rolling of billets in the initial stage of spend across the axis of casting an ingot with the increase of private reductions from 17 to 25% to achieve a total degree of deformation of at least 50%, and the final stage of the process until the desired thickness is carried out after kantowski of polarstate with private reductions (25÷40) % when the temperature of the end of rolling is not less than 250°C.

The excess of the specified modes of reductions in the initial (figure 5, item 10) or end (figure 5, item 11) stages of rolling cannot be recommended due to the decrease of the yield with simultaneous expansion of the labor, related to the need for additional surgery trimming the lateral edges of the strips to remove cracks. May not be recommended and conducting kantowski of polarstate due to insufficient development of cast structure at an earlier stage of the rolling process with a total degree of deformation less than 50% (figure 5, item 6, 12), also leading to lower yield and increased complexity.

Rolling of workpieces without kantowski with less intensive modes of reductions (figure 5, item 1, 3) leads to a sharp increase in labor and energy costs and to increase private reductions per pass up to (20÷25) % (figure 5, item 2, 4) - to a significant reduction of yield.

When the temperature of the end of the rolling less 250º due to a sharp decrease in ductility special magnesium alloys is the formation of cracks, which leads to reduced yield and increased complexity of the process (figure 5, item 2, 4, 15).

Thus, the presented data show that the process of rolling anode sheets of a special magnesium alloys clad with aluminum alloys, using the claimed parameters, is more effective in comparison with the known method as for the technical-economic indicators and the quality of the leaves.

Method for the production of sheets of alloys based on magnesium, legirovannykh legisprudence toxic elements or formed during heating and deformation dangerous for the environment oxides, including a preliminary location of the round ingot into the shell in the form of an extruded tube of aluminum alloy without sealing, hot rolling the workpiece transversely to the axis of the casting of the ingot at a temperature of 380 to 420°C in the initial stage, heating the pre-deformed preform and in the final stages of her final warm rolling with intermediate heating, characterized in that the ingot is placed in a tube with an inner diameter of 1.1÷1.3 ingot diameter and wall thickness 0,028÷0,040 diameter of the ingot, at the same time as the pipe material used aluminum alloys, deformation resistance which accounts for 0.86÷1.15 deformation resistance of the magnesium alloy in the initial stage hot rolling across the axis of the casting of the ingot is carried out after heating the workpiece within 3÷15 hours on rolls heated to a temperature of 100÷120°C with increasing private reductions from 17 to 25% to achieve a total degree of deformation of at least 50%, and the final stage of rolling to the desired thickness is carried out after kantowski of polarstate, with private reductions 25÷40 % when the temperature of the end of rolling is not less than 250°C.



 

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