Use of l-carnosine for producing nanopreparation possessing antihypoxic and antioxidant activity

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: what is presented is the use of L-carnosine for making a nanopreparation having antihypoxic and antioxidant activity combined with a combination of substances selected from the group of phospholipids, non-polar lipids in the following ratio, wt %: L-carnosine - 1.1-1.2, non-polar lipids such as triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acids, DL-α-Tocopherol - 1.2-2.5, phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin - 95.3-96.3 for preparing a drug having antihypoxic and antioxidant activity. The drug can be presented in the form of liposomes containing L-carnosine.

EFFECT: invention provides higher stability of L-carnosine and its lifetime up to three days with underlying higher effectiveness in small doses, as well as to improve the cerebral ischemia tolerance, the recovery after acute hypoxia and to increase the antioxidant status of the brain tissue.

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The invention relates to medicine, specifically to neurology and cardiology, namely to obtain drugs in the form of biologically active nonprepared having antihypoxic and antioxidant activity. It is recognized that such common diseases associated with hypoxia as coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure and stroke, currently occupy the leading position among the causes of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the development of new drugs for the treatment of the cardiovascular system - the problem is very urgent. Recently, in clinical practice in the treatment of diseases such as biologically active substances with a wide pharmacological spectrum of action increasingly used for connection of carnosine (ivnitskii YOU, Golovko A.I., Sofronov GA Succinic acid in the system of metabolic correction of the functional state and the resistance of the organism. - SPb., 1998. - 82 S. - Bulletin exp. Biol. and med., 2000, T, 2, 149-151).

L-carnosine is a natural neuropeptide that exerts a variety of biological activity. Shown its high efficiency in protecting neurons in vitro (individual reactions damaged macromolecules, suspensions of isolated neurons Il the slices of the brain in conditions of free radical attack), and in vivo on different experimental models of cerebral ischemia and heart, hypobaric hypoxia (Boldyrev A.A. Carnosine. Biological significance and possible applications in medicine. - M.: Moscow state University press, 1998, 320 pages). Installed, except that carnosine is an important natural factor in the antioxidant defense system of the brain in conditions of oxidative stress (Boldyrev A.A. Carnosine and protection of tissues from oxidative stress. - M.: Publishing house "Dialog - MGU", 1999, 362 S.).

It was also found that L-carnosine as a natural actively metabolizing connection has a limited lifetime in the body, exposing the cleavage of a specific enzyme carnosinase. After 15 min after intraperitoneal administration to rats of its content in the blood reaches a maximum and then begins to decline, returning to the original low level after 30 min after injection. The brain and liver are characterized by similar kinetics of accumulation of carnosine, although the time of maximum is shifted to 30 minutes, and decrease to the initial level to 45-60 minutes (Gulyaeva NV prospects of development of medicinal products on the basis of carnosine (some new principles). Biochemistry, t, 9, 1992, s-1403).

Treatment with L-carnosine and its esters is carried out in the pathology associated with hypoxia (cardiovascular diseases the project, diseases of the brain and nervous system).

It is known the use of methyl and ethyl esters of carnosine as an antioxidant and antihypoxic funds, obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis (EN 2191592, 27.10.2002). The source of information considered as the closest analogue. Means, obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis, increases the oxidative stability of biological structures. It was found that at a concentration of 150 μm L-carnosine and its esterified derivatives after inactivated with equimolar concentrations of copper and zinc is almost completely inhibit the recovery of HCT, which indicates the presence of severe superoxide intercepting activity (SPA) in the investigated compounds. The constant proinvestirovany (K0,5for carnosine is 30 μm, and for ethyl and methyl esters of 25 and 60 µm, respectively. Thus, the efficiency of the SPA for these complexes are significant differences in concentrations of 20-60 μm. High SPA was observed in ethyl ether carnosine and lower - carnosine and its methyl ester. Effective dose in an experiment on animals, in particular antigipoksicheskoe and antioxidant action of carnosine and its ethyl ester in stable sulfate anions form is 100 mg/kg

is shown the drug is currently successfully used in medical practice. However, the application of it in the form of biologically active substances in the pathology that develops on the background of hypoxia (heart attack, stroke, hypertension and others), in optimal doses is difficult due to the limited time of his life in the body. Creating nonprepared containing L-carnosine, can increase its lifetime in the body and, therefore, to enter it in therapeutic doses in a small volume.

The technical result of the invention is that liposomal containers containing L-carnosine, increase the stability of L-carnosine and its lifetime in the body, while increasing the effectiveness of its actions in small doses, as well as expand the range of such tools.

The technical result is achieved by the use of L-carnosine for cooking nonprepared having antihypoxic and antioxidant activity in combination with a combination of substances selected from the group of phospholipids and non-polar lipids in the following ratio of components, wt.%: L-carnosine - 1,1-1,2, non-polar lipids, such as triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acid, DL-α-Tocopherol - 1,2-2,5, phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine, sphingomyelin - 95,3-96,3 for the preparation of drugs having antihypoxic the antioxidant activity.

There are also applications in which the drug is used to improve portability of cerebral ischemia, recovery after acute hypoxia, as well as to improve the antioxidant status of brain tissue.

There are also applications in which the drug is made in the form of liposomes containing L-carnosine.

The invention is illustrated by the following examples.

Preparation of liposomes containing L-carnosine.

Example 1

5 g of a mixture of dry lipids containing a value of 4.76 g of phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine, sphingomyelin, and 0.24 g of a non-polar lipids, such as triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acid, DL-α-Tocopherol mixed with 50 ml of distilled water, the resulting emulsion are added 50 ml of an aqueous solution of L-carnosine concentration of 50 mm (the number of L-carnosine MX 0.317 g) and placed in a glass mixing on a magnetic stirrer. Mixing produce over 30 minutes to complete hydration with the formation of a homogeneous suspension. Then using a homogenizer this coarse suspension is subjected to homogenization in a closed loop in a continuous process under a pressure of 50 MPa at a temperature of 30-35°C. the Number of cycles of homogenization (passes) may be from 5 to 10. Uspenie after homogenization is obtained in the form of a translucent liposomal solution. Liposomes containing L-carnosine according to this example have a size of 120 nm. Then the liposomal composition to sterilize the excess pressure of 1 ATM for 45 minutes. The average liposomal diameter of the particles is increased to 150-160 nm. The resulting liposomes are composed of 96.3% of phospholipids, 1,2% non-polar lipids and contain 1.1% of L-carnosine (by weight), the remainder to 100% water.

Example 2

5 g of a mixture of dry lipids containing a value of 4.76 g of phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine, sphingomyelin, and 0.24 g of a non-polar lipids, such as triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acid, DL-α-Tocopherol, mixed with 50 ml of distilled water. Then this mass of coarse liposomal suspension type L-carnosine prior to a final concentration of 25 mm (the number of L-carnosine MX 0.317 g). Received liposomal composition is subjected to homogenization in a closed loop in a continuous process using high-pressure homogenizer at a pressure of 60 MPa and a temperature of 30-35°C. the Number of cycles of homogenization (passes) may be from 5 to 15. After homogenization get the suspension in the form of a translucent liposomal solution. Liposomes containing L-carnosine according to this example, have a size of 90-100 nm. Then the liposomal composition article is realizou when excess pressure of 1 ATM for 45 minutes. The average liposomal diameter of the particles is increased to 120-130 nm. The resulting liposomes are composed of 96.3% of phospholipids, 1,2% non-polar lipids and contain 1.1% of L-carnosine (by weight), the remainder to 100% water.

Example 3

5 g of a mixture of dry lipids containing 4.5 g of phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine, sphingomyelin, and 0.5 g of a non-polar lipids, such as triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acid, DL-α-Tocopherol mixed with 50 ml of distilled water, the resulting emulsion are added 50 ml of an aqueous solution of L-carnosine concentration of 50 mm (the number of L-carnosine 0,331 g) and placed in a beaker for mixing on a magnetic stirrer. Mixing produce over 30 minutes to complete hydration with the formation of a homogeneous suspension. Then using a homogenizer this coarse suspension is subjected to homogenization in a closed loop in a continuous process under a pressure of 50 MPa at a temperature of 30-35°C. the Number of cycles of homogenization (passes) may be from 5 to 10. After homogenization get the suspension in the form of a translucent liposomal solution. Liposomes containing L-carnosine, according to this example have a size of 120 nm. Then the liposomal composition to sterilize the excess pressure of 1 ATM for 45 minutes. Average is the diameter of the liposomal particles is increased to 150-160 nm. The resulting liposomes are composed of 95.3% of the phospholipids, a 2.5% non-polar lipids and contain 1.2% of L-carnosine (by weight), the remainder to 100% water.

Research antigipoksicheskoe and antioxidant activity of phospholipid nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine (containing 1.1 to 1.2% relative to the weight of liposomes), their stability and life time in the body and the effectiveness of their action in small doses was performed on the following models. In vitro was used cellular model of oxidative stress induced in granular cells of the cerebellum. Used granular cells of the cerebellum 10-12 day of SAMR1 mice. For loosening of the intercellular substance used collagenase solution prepared in Hanks solution (Wako collagenase, 2 mg/ml, 1 ml/1 animal). Minced with a scalpel slices of brain tissue were incubated at 32°C for 20 min, stirring. After incubation was removed by decantation, the solution of collagenase, three times washed precipitate with Hanks solution, and after washing was added to the precipitate, the Hanks solution at a rate of 1 ml per 1 animal and pipetting dissociatively cells to opal suspension; the resulting suspension was passed through a filter with pore size of 60 μm, and then count the cells using a camera Goryaeva. To work on a flow cytometer, the cell number should not be less than 106/Jr. held Before the eating of the experiment the cells were left for 30 minutes at 32°C, after which loaded with a fluorescent dye to free radicals dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) with a final concentration of 10 μm.

Oxidative stress in vitro was established by incubation of primary cultures with hydrogen peroxide. Intracellular levels of free radicals and the number of dead cells in the preparations was determined using a flow cytometer brand FACSCalibur (BD Biosciences, USA), (Boldyrev, A., Song, R., V. Dyatlov, Lawrence D., Carpenter D. Neuronal cell death and reactive oxygen species., Cell. Mol. Neurobiol., 2000, 20: 433-450).

Phospholipid nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, obtained in example 1, were tested as potential protectors neurons from oxidative stress.

Used in the experiments of granular cells of the cerebellum are characterized by some initial level of DCF fluorescence, corresponding to a stationary level of radical compounds. Incubation of cells with an empty (unloaded L-carnosine) nanoliposomal reduces, although inaccurate, the level of fluorescence. In these same conditions apply carotenodermia nanoliposomes significantly lowers the level of intracellular radicals, which increases the resistance of cells to oxidative stress.

The stationary level of free radicals in isolated granular cells of the cerebellum of mice at different conditions: A - freshly isolated intact pellet the cells, B - cells after incubation with an empty nanoliposomal, same with nanoliposomes containing L-carnosine, shown in figure 1. The average fluorescence in the case And 15.6±0.7 Rel. unit, in the case of B - 14±0.5 and in the case of 10±0,4 (* - p<0.05 with respect to intact cells).

It was found that nanosomes, not containing L-carnosine, under conditions of stress caused by hydrogen peroxide, do not interfere as the accumulation of intracellular radicals and cell death. At the same time, nanosomes containing L-carnosine, effectively reduce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in neurons. Induction of oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide (10 mm, 30 min) in the absence (a) and in the presence of sediment Laden carnosine (B), shown in figure 2. Gray background - intact cells, the black line after incubation with H2About2: on the y - axis the number of cells on x-axis is the relative units of fluorescence reactive oxygen species (ROS).

This and death of neuronal cells is significantly lower in the population of cells contained in a medium with hydrogen peroxide, this value amounted to 21.2±3,0%, and in the presence of carotenodermia nanoliposomes it did not exceed the 15.4±2.9 per cent.

For studies in vivo model was developed hypobaric hypoxia mimicking acute ischemic condition using adults the needs of older SAMR1 mice. The age of the animals was 8 months. Oxidative stress caused by exposure to acute hypobaric hypoxia. The study was performed in a flow chamber. In the course of creating a vacuum corresponding to the height of 10,000 meters, noted the time, proceeding to loss of posture, and time to stop breathing, characterizing the resistance to hypoxic damage, and rehabilitation time after exposure to hypoxia. The effect nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, on the stability of SAMR1 mice to the effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia is shown in Fig.3. Nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, obtained according to example 2, was administered 1 h before hypoxia in a dose of 20-25 mg per kilogram animal body (free carnosine demonstrates activity in a dose that is 100 mg per kilogram of animal body).

From Fig.3 it is seen that the introduction of drug nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, before hypoxic exposure leads to increased stability of SAMR1 mice to hypoxic shock, increasing the time to save poses and time to stop breathing. Duration of rehabilitation was reduced, which indicates the increase of the adaptation status of the mice.

At the same time testing mice in a Morris water maze", which allows to evaluate the characteristics of the cognitive functions of animals, bol shows the e effective action nanoliposomes, contains L-carnosine that of SAMR1 mice. These animals were less successful in learning the search platform in the pool on the first day of the experiment after hypoxic exposure, but better retain the skills acquired on the next day after training, see Fig.4, which shows the testing of SAMR1 mice in a Morris water maze": 5 training attempts a day after hypoxic exposure and 5 attempts on the following day to control memory (p<0.05 with respect to hypoxia). Light column is the number of successful attempts in the intact mice, black bars - without affecting nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, grey column - when exposed to nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine at a dose of 20 mg/kg animal body weight, obtained according to example 3. Nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, was administered 2 times - 1 hour before hypoxia and 1 hour after hypoxia.

To assess the impact of nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, total antioxidant activity in brain tissue was used testing system based on the stable radical of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (a pair of charmed mesons). Measured total restoration radical for 30 minutes when you add in the extract from brain tissue. It was shown that the total antioxidant activity of restoring a pair of charmed mesons, provide extracts from the tissue of the hunter mice, undergoing hypoxic exposure, on the third day of reperfusion is not significantly different from that of intact animals. The introduction of L-carotenodermia nanoliposomes provides an increase in total antioxidant activity, which is consistent with higher rates of these animals in the test Morris (Fig.4).

The effects of L-carotenodermia nanoliposomes on total antioxidant activity of extracts from brain tissue in a pair of charmed mesons-test are shown in table 1. Nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine was administered to the animals twice for one hour prior to hypoxia and additionally 1 hour after hypoxia. The decapitation was performed 3 hours after the second test in a Morris water maze".

Table 1
The conditions of the experimentDamping of a pair of charmed mesons, µmol/g tissueConditions for the validity of the data
Intact mouse4,2±0,86
Mice undergoing hypoxia without introducing nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine4,06±0.98p>0.06 compared to intact mice
Mice undergoing hypoxia on the background of the introduction of nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine5,7±1,1p<0.01 compared to mice undergoing hypoxia without introducing nanoliposomes with L-nonosina

Table 2 shows the effect of the study drug for the duration of preservation of antioxidant activity of SAMR1 mice in hypoxia and life time of L-carnosine in mice (nanoliposomal loaded with L-carnosine, 20 mg/kg), n=10 in each group.

Table 2
Study medicationDose, mg/kgDuration of preservation of antioxidant activity, hoursThe lifetime of L-carnosine in the body (watch)
L-carnosine, obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis15033
Nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine207272
Nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine2580 80

As follows from the data presented in table 2, the introduction of nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, obtained in example 1-3 with the introduction into the organism of experimental animal at a dose of 20-25 MK/kg, increased the duration of antioxidant and antihypoxic action on the background of acute hypoxia and provide improved portability cerebral ischemia, recovery after acute hypoxia, as well as increasing the antioxidant status of brain tissue in comparison with the introduction of L-carnosine, obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis in a dose of 150 µg/kg

Thus, the use of nanoliposomes containing L-carnosine at a dose of 20-25 mg per pound of the animal's body, increases the total antioxidant activity of brain tissue. This activity lasts for 3 days after the introduction of nanoliposomes obtained in examples 1-3 (for free carnosine shows the decomposition of his body after 3 hours after injection).

Therefore, nonprepared L-carnosine, obtained in example 1-3, can be considered as a promising nanoconstructs having antihypoxic and antioxidant properties and increases the stability and lifetime of L-carnosine in the body while increasing its efficiency in small doses. In addition, it will allow us to expand the range of such tools.

1. The use of L-carnosine for cooking nonprepared having antihypoxic and antioxidant activity in combination with a combination of substances selected from the group of phospholipids, non-polar lipid in the following ratio, wt.%: L-carnosine - 1,1-1,2, non-polar lipids, such as triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acid, DL-α-Tocopherol - 1,2-2,5, phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine, sphingomyelin - 95,3-96,3 for the preparation of drugs having antihypoxic and antioxidant activity.

2. The use according to claim 1, in which the drug is used to improve portability of cerebral ischemia, recovery after acute hypoxia, as well as to improve the antioxidant status of brain tissue.

3. The use according to claim 1 or 2, in which the drug is made in the form of liposomes containing L-carnosine.



 

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37 cl, 8 tbl, 13 dwg

FIELD: biotechnologies.

SUBSTANCE: method is proposed to develop the specified structure, which includes: a) development of at least two modules, where each module is independently made in the form of a nucleus that carries molecules of the first protein and the second protein on the surface, where the first protein is barnase, and the second protein is barstar, besides, the first or second protein for binding with each module is selected in the following manner: the first module is made as carrying protein molecules on its surface selected from the first protein or the second protein; the second module is performed as carrying protein molecules on the surface selected from the first protein or the second protein and different from the protein contained in the first module; the third and each subsequent module carries molecules of either the first or the second protein on the surface; b) combination of the first, second and subsequent modules, in which modules are self-assembled in the structure due to interaction of the molecules of barnase and barstart, besides, nuclei of at least two of the specified modules are made with particles of supermolecular nature. The structure is described for diagnostics and therapy produced by the specified method.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce structures including nuclei of different nature and size connected to each other by means of a functional pair barnase-barstar, providing for tight connection of the specified nuclei.

20 cl, 5 dwg, 8 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: elastomeric composition for sealing materials based on a copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and perfluoromethylvinyl ester and perfluoroalkyl vinyl esters which contain a cyano group, contains perfluorodiimidoyl amidine as a curing agent and further contains nano-sized nickel metal in the presence of a perfluorinated dispersant.

EFFECT: improved processability of rubber mixtures, vulcanisates have high nominal tensile strength, good physical and mechanical properties, resistance to nitric acid, high heat resistance after ageing for 70 hours.

2 tbl, 12 ex

FIELD: nanotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology and a method of production of nanomaterials that can be used in lubricant compositions for treatment of friction units, as well as for restoration of friction surfaces of the parts of mechanisms and machines. The nanostructured revitalisant is produced from dehydration products of natural and/or synthetic hydrates and/or their mixtures at a temperature of removal of constitutional water and the temperature of stabilisation of the dehydration product of 300-1200°C, with a stable form of nanostructure, which in a stable state has oxides of series MgO and/or SiO2, and/or Al2O3, and/or CaO, and/or Fe2O3, and/or K2O, and/or Na2O and represents a two-phase granatum-shaped nanostructure consisting of binder phase, which volume size is 100-100000 nm, and grains which volume size is 2-2000 nm. To obtain the structured-nonrecoverable form an additional step of stabilisation of the dehydration product is performed at a temperature from 900 to 1200°C for 1-3 hours and perform an additional step of preparing a stable geometric form after feeding of the stabilised dehydration product on the friction surfaces and the friction area, when, depending on the mode of lubrication or friction mode, the following is set: h ≤ Ra ≤ of the size of stabilised nanostructure of the revitalisant, where h is the lubricating film thickness or the distance between the friction surfaces, and Ra is the surface roughness.

EFFECT: nanostructured revitalisant provides recovery of the friction surfaces, stabilisation of the surface layers of friction and minimisation of friction during the entire lifetime of the friction surfaces.

11 cl, 7 dwg, 6 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrogenation and dehydrogenation unsintered catalysts. Proposed catalyst comprises, at least, one nanoparticles palladium cluster with mean particle size distribution index (d50) varying from 0.1 nm to 100 nm and gas-and-fluid-permeable shell containing zirconium oxide with ID varying from 10 nm to 1000 nm. Proposed method comprises the following steps: producing palladium nanoparticles mean particle size distribution index (d50) varying from 0.1 nm to 100 nm, b) applying SiO2 coating on produced nanoparticles, c) applying zirconium oxide coating on balls Pd/SiO2, d) washing off SiO2 layer by base.

EFFECT: higher catalytic activity.

5 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the use rasburicase for preparing a drug preparation for treating or preventing cardiac disorders or indirect complications caused by ischemic strokes or reperfusion. Coronary blood flow and contractility in the rats' isolated hearts make 4200±348-4657±215 and 13.3±0.81-15.7±0.7 respectively with uric acid added, 3917±252-4311±260 and 12.27±1.16-14.09±0.86 respectively with no uric acid added.

EFFECT: invention provides normalising the coronary blood flow and the improved contractility.

9 cl, 1 dwg, 6 tbl, 1 ex

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