Use of l-carnosine for producing nanopreparation possessing antihypoxic and antioxidant activity
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: what is presented is the use of L-carnosine for making a nanopreparation having antihypoxic and antioxidant activity combined with a combination of substances selected from the group of phospholipids, non-polar lipids in the following ratio, wt %: L-carnosine - 1.1-1.2, non-polar lipids such as triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acids, DL-α-Tocopherol - 1.2-2.5, phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin - 95.3-96.3 for preparing a drug having antihypoxic and antioxidant activity. The drug can be presented in the form of liposomes containing L-carnosine.
EFFECT: invention provides higher stability of L-carnosine and its lifetime up to three days with underlying higher effectiveness in small doses, as well as to improve the cerebral ischemia tolerance, the recovery after acute hypoxia and to increase the antioxidant status of the brain tissue.
3 cl, 4 dwg
The invention relates to medicine, specifically to neurology and cardiology, namely to obtain drugs in the form of biologically active nonprepared having antihypoxic and antioxidant activity. It is recognized that such common diseases associated with hypoxia as coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure and stroke, currently occupy the leading position among the causes of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the development of new drugs for the treatment of the cardiovascular system - the problem is very urgent. Recently, in clinical practice in the treatment of diseases such as biologically active substances with a wide pharmacological spectrum of action increasingly used for connection of carnosine (ivnitskii YOU, Golovko A.I., Sofronov GA Succinic acid in the system of metabolic correction of the functional state and the resistance of the organism. - SPb., 1998. - 82 S. - Bulletin exp. Biol. and med., 2000, T, 2, 149-151).
L-carnosine is a natural neuropeptide that exerts a variety of biological activity. Shown its high efficiency in protecting neurons in vitro (individual reactions damaged macromolecules, suspensions of isolated neurons Il the slices of the brain in conditions of free radical attack), and in vivo on different experimental models of cerebral ischemia and heart, hypobaric hypoxia (Boldyrev A.A. Carnosine. Biological significance and possible applications in medicine. - M.: Moscow state University press, 1998, 320 pages). Installed, except that carnosine is an important natural factor in the antioxidant defense system of the brain in conditions of oxidative stress (Boldyrev A.A. Carnosine and protection of tissues from oxidative stress. - M.: Publishing house "Dialog - MGU", 1999, 362 S.).
It was also found that L-carnosine as a natural actively metabolizing connection has a limited lifetime in the body, exposing the cleavage of a specific enzyme carnosinase. After 15 min after intraperitoneal administration to rats of its content in the blood reaches a maximum and then begins to decline, returning to the original low level after 30 min after injection. The brain and liver are characterized by similar kinetics of accumulation of carnosine, although the time of maximum is shifted to 30 minutes, and decrease to the initial level to 45-60 minutes (Gulyaeva NV prospects of development of medicinal products on the basis of carnosine (some new principles). Biochemistry, t, 9, 1992, s-1403).
Treatment with L-carnosine and its esters is carried out in the pathology associated with hypoxia (cardiovascular diseases the project, diseases of the brain and nervous system).
It is known the use of methyl and ethyl esters of carnosine as an antioxidant and antihypoxic funds, obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis (EN 2191592, 27.10.2002). The source of information considered as the closest analogue. Means, obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis, increases the oxidative stability of biological structures. It was found that at a concentration of 150 μm L-carnosine and its esterified derivatives after inactivated with equimolar concentrations of copper and zinc is almost completely inhibit the recovery of HCT, which indicates the presence of severe superoxide intercepting activity (SPA) in the investigated compounds. The constant proinvestirovany (K0,5for carnosine is 30 μm, and for ethyl and methyl esters of 25 and 60 µm, respectively. Thus, the efficiency of the SPA for these complexes are significant differences in concentrations of 20-60 μm. High SPA was observed in ethyl ether carnosine and lower - carnosine and its methyl ester. Effective dose in an experiment on animals, in particular antigipoksicheskoe and antioxidant action of carnosine and its ethyl ester in stable sulfate anions form is 100 mg/kg
is shown the drug is currently successfully used in medical practice. However, the application of it in the form of biologically active substances in the pathology that develops on the background of hypoxia (heart attack, stroke, hypertension and others), in optimal doses is difficult due to the limited time of his life in the body. Creating nonprepared containing L-carnosine, can increase its lifetime in the body and, therefore, to enter it in therapeutic doses in a small volume.
The technical result of the invention is that liposomal containers containing L-carnosine, increase the stability of L-carnosine and its lifetime in the body, while increasing the effectiveness of its actions in small doses, as well as expand the range of such tools.
The technical result is achieved by the use of L-carnosine for cooking nonprepared having antihypoxic and antioxidant activity in combination with a combination of substances selected from the group of phospholipids and non-polar lipids in the following ratio of components, wt.%: L-carnosine - 1,1-1,2, non-polar lipids, such as triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acid, DL-α-Tocopherol - 1,2-2,5, phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine, sphingomyelin - 95,3-96,3 for the preparation of drugs having antihypoxic the antioxidant activity.
There are also applications in which the drug is used to improve portability of cerebral ischemia, recovery after acute hypoxia, as well as to improve the antioxidant status of brain tissue.
There are also applications in which the drug is made in the form of liposomes containing L-carnosine.
The invention is illustrated by the following examples.
Preparation of liposomes containing L-carnosine.
5 g of a mixture of dry lipids containing a value of 4.76 g of phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine, sphingomyelin, and 0.24 g of a non-polar lipids, such as triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acid, DL-α-Tocopherol mixed with 50 ml of distilled water, the resulting emulsion are added 50 ml of an aqueous solution of L-carnosine concentration of 50 mm (the number of L-carnosine MX 0.317 g) and placed in a glass mixing on a magnetic stirrer. Mixing produce over 30 minutes to complete hydration with the formation of a homogeneous suspension. Then using a homogenizer this coarse suspension is subjected to homogenization in a closed loop in a continuous process under a pressure of 50 MPa at a temperature of 30-35°C. the Number of cycles of homogenization (passes) may be from 5 to 10. Uspenie after homogenization is obtained in the form of a translucent liposomal solution. Liposomes containing L-carnosine according to this example have a size of 120 nm. Then the liposomal composition to sterilize the excess pressure of 1 ATM for 45 minutes. The average liposomal diameter of the particles is increased to 150-160 nm. The resulting liposomes are composed of 96.3% of phospholipids, 1,2% non-polar lipids and contain 1.1% of L-carnosine (by weight), the remainder to 100% water.
5 g of a mixture of dry lipids containing a value of 4.76 g of phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine, sphingomyelin, and 0.24 g of a non-polar lipids, such as triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acid, DL-α-Tocopherol, mixed with 50 ml of distilled water. Then this mass of coarse liposomal suspension type L-carnosine prior to a final concentration of 25 mm (the number of L-carnosine MX 0.317 g). Received liposomal composition is subjected to homogenization in a closed loop in a continuous process using high-pressure homogenizer at a pressure of 60 MPa and a temperature of 30-35°C. the Number of cycles of homogenization (passes) may be from 5 to 15. After homogenization get the suspension in the form of a translucent liposomal solution. Liposomes containing L-carnosine according to this example, have a size of 90-100 nm. Then the liposomal composition article is realizou when excess pressure of 1 ATM for 45 minutes. The average liposomal diameter of the particles is increased to 120-130 nm. The resulting liposomes are composed of 96.3% of phospholipids, 1,2% non-polar lipids and contain 1.1% of L-carnosine (by weight), the remainder to 100% water.
5 g of a mixture of dry lipids containing 4.5 g of phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine, sphingomyelin, and 0.5 g of a non-polar lipids, such as triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acid, DL-α-Tocopherol mixed with 50 ml of distilled water, the resulting emulsion are added 50 ml of an aqueous solution of L-carnosine concentration of 50 mm (the number of L-carnosine 0,331 g) and placed in a beaker for mixing on a magnetic stirrer. Mixing produce over 30 minutes to complete hydration with the formation of a homogeneous suspension. Then using a homogenizer this coarse suspension is subjected to homogenization in a closed loop in a continuous process under a pressure of 50 MPa at a temperature of 30-35°C. the Number of cycles of homogenization (passes) may be from 5 to 10. After homogenization get the suspension in the form of a translucent liposomal solution. Liposomes containing L-carnosine, according to this example have a size of 120 nm. Then the liposomal composition to sterilize the excess pressure of 1 ATM for 45 minutes. Average is the diameter of the liposomal particles is increased to 150-160 nm. The resulting liposomes are composed of 95.3% of the phospholipids, a 2.5% non-polar lipids and contain 1.2% of L-carnosine (by weight), the remainder to 100% water.
Research antigipoksicheskoe and antioxidant activity of phospholipid nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine (containing 1.1 to 1.2% relative to the weight of liposomes), their stability and life time in the body and the effectiveness of their action in small doses was performed on the following models. In vitro was used cellular model of oxidative stress induced in granular cells of the cerebellum. Used granular cells of the cerebellum 10-12 day of SAMR1 mice. For loosening of the intercellular substance used collagenase solution prepared in Hanks solution (Wako collagenase, 2 mg/ml, 1 ml/1 animal). Minced with a scalpel slices of brain tissue were incubated at 32°C for 20 min, stirring. After incubation was removed by decantation, the solution of collagenase, three times washed precipitate with Hanks solution, and after washing was added to the precipitate, the Hanks solution at a rate of 1 ml per 1 animal and pipetting dissociatively cells to opal suspension; the resulting suspension was passed through a filter with pore size of 60 μm, and then count the cells using a camera Goryaeva. To work on a flow cytometer, the cell number should not be less than 106/Jr. held Before the eating of the experiment the cells were left for 30 minutes at 32°C, after which loaded with a fluorescent dye to free radicals dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) with a final concentration of 10 μm.
Oxidative stress in vitro was established by incubation of primary cultures with hydrogen peroxide. Intracellular levels of free radicals and the number of dead cells in the preparations was determined using a flow cytometer brand FACSCalibur (BD Biosciences, USA), (Boldyrev, A., Song, R., V. Dyatlov, Lawrence D., Carpenter D. Neuronal cell death and reactive oxygen species., Cell. Mol. Neurobiol., 2000, 20: 433-450).
Phospholipid nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, obtained in example 1, were tested as potential protectors neurons from oxidative stress.
Used in the experiments of granular cells of the cerebellum are characterized by some initial level of DCF fluorescence, corresponding to a stationary level of radical compounds. Incubation of cells with an empty (unloaded L-carnosine) nanoliposomal reduces, although inaccurate, the level of fluorescence. In these same conditions apply carotenodermia nanoliposomes significantly lowers the level of intracellular radicals, which increases the resistance of cells to oxidative stress.
The stationary level of free radicals in isolated granular cells of the cerebellum of mice at different conditions: A - freshly isolated intact pellet the cells, B - cells after incubation with an empty nanoliposomal, same with nanoliposomes containing L-carnosine, shown in figure 1. The average fluorescence in the case And 15.6±0.7 Rel. unit, in the case of B - 14±0.5 and in the case of 10±0,4 (* - p<0.05 with respect to intact cells).
It was found that nanosomes, not containing L-carnosine, under conditions of stress caused by hydrogen peroxide, do not interfere as the accumulation of intracellular radicals and cell death. At the same time, nanosomes containing L-carnosine, effectively reduce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in neurons. Induction of oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide (10 mm, 30 min) in the absence (a) and in the presence of sediment Laden carnosine (B), shown in figure 2. Gray background - intact cells, the black line after incubation with H2About2: on the y - axis the number of cells on x-axis is the relative units of fluorescence reactive oxygen species (ROS).
This and death of neuronal cells is significantly lower in the population of cells contained in a medium with hydrogen peroxide, this value amounted to 21.2±3,0%, and in the presence of carotenodermia nanoliposomes it did not exceed the 15.4±2.9 per cent.
For studies in vivo model was developed hypobaric hypoxia mimicking acute ischemic condition using adults the needs of older SAMR1 mice. The age of the animals was 8 months. Oxidative stress caused by exposure to acute hypobaric hypoxia. The study was performed in a flow chamber. In the course of creating a vacuum corresponding to the height of 10,000 meters, noted the time, proceeding to loss of posture, and time to stop breathing, characterizing the resistance to hypoxic damage, and rehabilitation time after exposure to hypoxia. The effect nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, on the stability of SAMR1 mice to the effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia is shown in Fig.3. Nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, obtained according to example 2, was administered 1 h before hypoxia in a dose of 20-25 mg per kilogram animal body (free carnosine demonstrates activity in a dose that is 100 mg per kilogram of animal body).
From Fig.3 it is seen that the introduction of drug nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, before hypoxic exposure leads to increased stability of SAMR1 mice to hypoxic shock, increasing the time to save poses and time to stop breathing. Duration of rehabilitation was reduced, which indicates the increase of the adaptation status of the mice.
At the same time testing mice in a Morris water maze", which allows to evaluate the characteristics of the cognitive functions of animals, bol shows the e effective action nanoliposomes, contains L-carnosine that of SAMR1 mice. These animals were less successful in learning the search platform in the pool on the first day of the experiment after hypoxic exposure, but better retain the skills acquired on the next day after training, see Fig.4, which shows the testing of SAMR1 mice in a Morris water maze": 5 training attempts a day after hypoxic exposure and 5 attempts on the following day to control memory (p<0.05 with respect to hypoxia). Light column is the number of successful attempts in the intact mice, black bars - without affecting nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, grey column - when exposed to nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine at a dose of 20 mg/kg animal body weight, obtained according to example 3. Nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, was administered 2 times - 1 hour before hypoxia and 1 hour after hypoxia.
To assess the impact of nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, total antioxidant activity in brain tissue was used testing system based on the stable radical of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (a pair of charmed mesons). Measured total restoration radical for 30 minutes when you add in the extract from brain tissue. It was shown that the total antioxidant activity of restoring a pair of charmed mesons, provide extracts from the tissue of the hunter mice, undergoing hypoxic exposure, on the third day of reperfusion is not significantly different from that of intact animals. The introduction of L-carotenodermia nanoliposomes provides an increase in total antioxidant activity, which is consistent with higher rates of these animals in the test Morris (Fig.4).
The effects of L-carotenodermia nanoliposomes on total antioxidant activity of extracts from brain tissue in a pair of charmed mesons-test are shown in table 1. Nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine was administered to the animals twice for one hour prior to hypoxia and additionally 1 hour after hypoxia. The decapitation was performed 3 hours after the second test in a Morris water maze".
|The conditions of the experiment||Damping of a pair of charmed mesons, µmol/g tissue||Conditions for the validity of the data|
|Mice undergoing hypoxia without introducing nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine||4,06±0.98||p>0.06 compared to intact mice|
|Mice undergoing hypoxia on the background of the introduction of nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine||5,7±1,1||p<0.01 compared to mice undergoing hypoxia without introducing nanoliposomes with L-nonosina|
Table 2 shows the effect of the study drug for the duration of preservation of antioxidant activity of SAMR1 mice in hypoxia and life time of L-carnosine in mice (nanoliposomal loaded with L-carnosine, 20 mg/kg), n=10 in each group.
|Study medication||Dose, mg/kg||Duration of preservation of antioxidant activity, hours||The lifetime of L-carnosine in the body (watch)|
|L-carnosine, obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis||150||3||3|
|Nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine||20||72||72|
|Nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine||25||80||80|
As follows from the data presented in table 2, the introduction of nanoliposomes loaded with L-carnosine, obtained in example 1-3 with the introduction into the organism of experimental animal at a dose of 20-25 MK/kg, increased the duration of antioxidant and antihypoxic action on the background of acute hypoxia and provide improved portability cerebral ischemia, recovery after acute hypoxia, as well as increasing the antioxidant status of brain tissue in comparison with the introduction of L-carnosine, obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis in a dose of 150 µg/kg
Thus, the use of nanoliposomes containing L-carnosine at a dose of 20-25 mg per pound of the animal's body, increases the total antioxidant activity of brain tissue. This activity lasts for 3 days after the introduction of nanoliposomes obtained in examples 1-3 (for free carnosine shows the decomposition of his body after 3 hours after injection).
Therefore, nonprepared L-carnosine, obtained in example 1-3, can be considered as a promising nanoconstructs having antihypoxic and antioxidant properties and increases the stability and lifetime of L-carnosine in the body while increasing its efficiency in small doses. In addition, it will allow us to expand the range of such tools.
1. The use of L-carnosine for cooking nonprepared having antihypoxic and antioxidant activity in combination with a combination of substances selected from the group of phospholipids, non-polar lipid in the following ratio, wt.%: L-carnosine - 1,1-1,2, non-polar lipids, such as triglycerides, cholesterol, free fatty acid, DL-α-Tocopherol - 1,2-2,5, phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine, sphingomyelin - 95,3-96,3 for the preparation of drugs having antihypoxic and antioxidant activity.
2. The use according to claim 1, in which the drug is used to improve portability of cerebral ischemia, recovery after acute hypoxia, as well as to improve the antioxidant status of brain tissue.
3. The use according to claim 1 or 2, in which the drug is made in the form of liposomes containing L-carnosine.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to opto- and microelectronics and can be used to make opal-like structures. The method of producing photonic-crystal structures based on metal oxide materials involves filling a template consisting of monodispersed micropheres of polystyrene, solutions of metal-containing precursors, followed by annealing the structure on air at temperature of 450-550°C for 8-10 hours. The precursors from which the structure is formed are saturated alcohol solutions of tin dichloride SnCl2·2H2O or zinc nitrate Zn(NO3)2·2H2O.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain photonic-crystal structures based on SnO2 and ZnO with a photonic stop band in the visible or near infrared spectral range and porosity of not less than 85%.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemistry. Wide-pore aluminium oxide in gamma-form is obtained by depositing aluminium hydroxide from aluminium nitrate solution with aqueous ammonia solution at pH 7±0.1, temperature of 70±2°C and suspension curing time of 3-5 hours. A paste with 58-66% moisture is formed. The paste is obtained by mixing (66-70)% moist precipitate of aluminium hydroxide and a powder, which is dried in a spray drier, of (30-34)% moist precipitate of aluminium hydroxide prepared in form of a suspension. Drying and firing are carried out after moulding.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain wide-pore gamma-aluminium oxide which is characterised by monomodal pore-size distribution, with specific surface area of (340-370) m2/g, pore volume - (0,82-1,09) cm3/g with average pore diameter of 9,2-11 nm.
8 dwg, 8 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology. The device for obtaining carbon nanotubes comprises a sealed chamber 3 filled with inert gas, a carbon-contained anode 1 made with the ability to move in the longitudinal direction, and the carbon-contained cathode 2 located coaxially. On the surface of the anode 1 the sensors of current intensity 4 and temperature 5 are installed. The first circuit is formed of the current intensity sensor 4, a comparing unit 6 of current intensity, and control device 7 sending the control action to the executive unit 8 to remove the anode 1 to the position that meets the specified current intensity. The second loop is formed by sensors of current intensity 4 and temperature 5 connected to the decision device 9, a comparing unit 10 of speed of the anode burnout connected to the control device 7 which also adjusts the speed of the anode 1 feeding.
EFFECT: due to the optimal distance between the electrodes the optimum conditions of synthesis are provided, which enables to increase the yield of carbon nanotubes and to avoid interruption of the arc.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing highly pure and defect-free quartz glass using a sol-gel technology. Sol is obtained by hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate with hydrochloric acid solution. Silica sol with particle size of less than 100 nm is added to the sol. A structure-forming agent in form of amides of organic acids is added at the gel-formation step. The formed gel is then held in a dispersion medium and heat treatment is carried out at temperature of 1000-1050°C.
EFFECT: low synthesis temperature of quartz glass and fewer impurities in the obtained glass.
5 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heterogeneous catalysis. The method involves obtaining rhodium or ruthenium nanoparticles when reducing ions of the corresponding metal under the action of γ-radiation of 60Co in a reverse micellar solution. The solution contains a metal salt: RhCb or RuOHCl3, bis(2-ethylhexyl)sodium sulphosuccinate (surfactant) and isooctane. The reverse micellar solutions of rhodium or ruthenium salts are prepared in molar ratio of the aqueous metal solution to the surfactant ranging from 1:1 to 10:1. Isopropanol solution and ammonia solution are then added in amount of 5-50 wt % and 10-30 wt %, respectively, and the solution is subjected to ultrasonic treatment and deaeration. The obtained metal nanoparticles are deposited on a support - SiO2.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a catalyst for operation in the 77-110 K temperature range.
4 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of producing fibrous carbon materials through pyrolysis of aromatic and non-aromatic hydrocarbons. Disclosed method of producing carbon nanotubes involves placing a fine catalyst into a reactor fitted with a heater, blowing with inert gas and heating to pyrolysis temperature. Further, carbon-containing gas is continuously fed and gaseous pyrolysis products are removed through a pipe. At the end of the pyrolysis process, the finished product is cooled. According to the invention, a catalyst in form of pellets is placed in the reactor. After sealing the reactor, the heater is switched on and an inert gas and a carbon-containing gas are blown through a gas-distribution device into the reactor, wherein the catalyst pellets are subjected to an acoustic activator.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency through sharp increase in mass of the compacted catalyst.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: essence of the invention consists in manufacturing method of a colloidal probe, in which an atomic-force microscope (AFM) is used, and its own serviceable probe. First, using AFM, visualisation of colloidal particles pre-deposited on a smooth substrate is performed, and as per the principle of minimum number of neighbours a candidate for fixation is chosen among them. Then, using AFM, the particle is fixed on a probe needle tip. Operations are completed with immediate acknowledgment using AFM that the chosen particle is fixed.
EFFECT: increasing repeatability and manufacturing reliability of a colloidal probe, especially when colloidal particles of submicron sizes are used.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemistry. Active aluminium hydroxide with specific pore volume of not less than 0.2 cm3/g and average pore diameter of not less than 2.5 nm is taken and treated with gaseous hydrochloric acid in weight ratio HCl:H2O in gas phase of 1-15:1 until achieving molar ratio Al:Cl of 1-4.5:1. The aluminium hydroxide can be treated with gaseous hydrochloric acid obtained by treating sodium chloride with 90-94% sulphuric acid, or by blowing a 30-37% hydrochloric acid solution with air.
EFFECT: invention reduces power consumption and is more environmentally friendly due to the absence of liquid and solid wastes.
3 cl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of producing biologically active water-soluble fullerene derivatives - fullerenols, which can be used in engineering, medicine and biology. The method involves reaction of a mixture of fullerenes obtained by extraction from fullerene soot and containing 97-99 wt % light fullerenes and 1-3 wt % heavy fullerenes, with a hydroxide of an alkali or alkali-earth metal and a catalyst - tetrabutylammonium hydroxide or tetraisopropylammonium hydroxide.
EFFECT: design of a safe method of producing fullerenols with fewer makeovers.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heterogeneous catalysis, particularly a method of producing a catalyst for protium-deuterium isotopic exchange. The method involves obtaining metal nanoparticles while reducing metal ions in a reverse micellar solution which consists of a solution of a metal salt which is RhCl3 or RuOHCl3, a surfactant which is bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulphosuccinate and a nonpolar solvent, isooctane, followed by deposition onto a support which is Sibunit, wherein silver nanoparticles are obtained by preparing reverse micellar solutions of rhodium or ruthenium in molar ratio of the aqueous solution of the metal salt to the surfactant ranging from 1:1 to 10:1, and a water-alcohol solution and an ammonia solution are then added in amount of 5-50 wt % and 10-30 wt %, respectively, after which the suspension undergoes ultrasonic treatment, deaeration and exposure to γ-radiation of 60Co with a dose ranging from 1 to 40 kGy.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a catalyst having high catalytic activity and meant for operation in the 77-400 K temperature range.
2 cl, 4 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a solid dispersed material for use in rubber vulcanisation and a method for production thereof. The solid dispersed material is coated with a coating which contains a formed complex of aceto-metallised sodium salt and a transition metal.
EFFECT: use of the solid dispersed material during rubber vulcanisation cuts the amount of transition metal oxide used in the vulcanisation process.
51 cl, 8 tbl, 5 ex, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: nanomodifier of construction materials and method of its production can be used in construction technology. The nanomodifier of construction materials comprising a mixture containing carbon nanomaterial (CNM), a filler and a plasticiser, and the CNM is added in the form of nanotubes "Taunit", as a plasticiser the mixture contains polyvinylpyrrolidone, as a filler - polyethylene glycol PEG-1500, and additionally contains sodium hydro-carbonate and citric acid with the following components ratio, wt %: CNM "Taunit" 0.1-8, polyvinylpyrrolidone 0.1-8, sodium hydro-carbonate 5.5-11.5, citric acid 5.5-11.5, polyethylene glycol PEG-1500 - the rest. In the method of production of the nanomodifier of construction materials from the said mixture the nanomodifier is made in the form of effervescent tablets containing CNM "Taunit", basic and acidic components of the effervescent degree, tableting of anhydrous components is carried out by melting the polyethylene glycol PEG-1500 at a temperature above the temperature of its crystallisation, the molten polyethylene glycol PEG-1500 is divided into two parts, the citric acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone and CNM "Taunit" is added to one part and mixed, the sodium hydro-carbonate is added to the second part, and before feeding the melt to the mould the resulting mixtures of melts are filled into the preheated process chamber of a planetary mill and is processed in it for 30 min at a temperature of 75 or 80°C, after that the melt is poured into the moulds with their subsequent cooling. The invention is developed in the dependent claims.
EFFECT: increase of strength of construction materials.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to doped glass, particularly Yb-containing quartz glass which is obtained using a sol-gel process, which can be used as active material of lasers and infrared amplifiers. Use of such glass as an active element of lasers or amplifiers enables to reduce radiation spectrum instability associated with inhomogeneous broadening which is typical for glass-like matrices. Such glass has the following composition, wt %: 1. SiO2 88.0-96.0; Yb2O3 3.0-9.0; Rb2O 1.0-3.0; or 2. SiO2 87.0-95.0; Yb2O3 3. 0-9.0; Rb2O 1.0-2.0; Cs2O 1.0-2.0.
EFFECT: obtaining glass with high luminescent efficiency in the λ=0,99-1,06 mcm spectral range and a luminescence spectrum which is typical for single-centre systems.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely combustiology, plastic surgery, cosmetology, and can find application as a bioplastic material for skin defect replacement and regeneration stimulation. What is described is a micro-nanostructured bioplastic material which is based on a nanostructured matrix formed of hyaluronic acid; it contains proteoglycans, glycoproteins, fibrous proteins and antiseptic in the following ratio (per 100 ml): hyaluronic acid - 30-20; proteoglycans - 20-30; glycoproteins -10-15, fibrous proteins - 10-15, antiseptic - 5-10; solvent (water) - the rest.
EFFECT: higher clinical effectiveness of the bioplastic material ensured by the accelerated process of tissue regeneration.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: pressure sensor based on a nano- and microelectromechanical system of increased accuracy and reliability comprises a body, a nano- and microelectromechanical system (NMEMS) installed in it and made in the form of two membranes with a rigid centre connected to each other with a force-transmitting stem, a heterogeneous structure of thin films of materials formed on the planer side of the second membrane, and in this structure there are the first and second radial strain sensors connected with thin-film links included into a measurement bridge. The first radial strain sensors are placed between the rigid centre and the circumference, the radius of which R is determined in accordance with the appropriate ratio. The second radial strain elements are placed between the support base of the membrane and the circumference, the radius of which R is determined in accordance with the appropriate ratio.
EFFECT: improved accuracy, higher reliability and increased manufacturability of a pressure sensor.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to organic fibres having a mineralised surface, which includes organic fibres having a length in the millimetre range, the surface of which is at least partially coated with finely dispersed nanoparticles alkali-earth metal carbonates using binding materials based on copolymers which contain, as monomers, one or more dicarboxylic acids or one or more monomers from a group of diamines, triamines, dialkanolamines or trialkanolamines, and epichlorohydrin, a method of producing such organic fibres having a mineralised surface, aqueous suspensions thereof, use thereof in paper production, in finishing paper surfaces, plastic surfaces, cement and clay, in paint and lacquer, and use of binding substances according to the present invention to coat organic fibres with nanoparticles of alkali metal carbonates.
EFFECT: providing fibre-pigment or filler composites, as well as aqueous suspensions thereof, which not only have good optical properties and good printing properties, but also have an insignificant or no tendency to segregate in treatment conditions thereof, and also enable to obtain paper or cardboard having high content of filler of nanoparticles which are otherwise hard to hold due to their fineness.
37 cl, 8 tbl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method is proposed to develop the specified structure, which includes: a) development of at least two modules, where each module is independently made in the form of a nucleus that carries molecules of the first protein and the second protein on the surface, where the first protein is barnase, and the second protein is barstar, besides, the first or second protein for binding with each module is selected in the following manner: the first module is made as carrying protein molecules on its surface selected from the first protein or the second protein; the second module is performed as carrying protein molecules on the surface selected from the first protein or the second protein and different from the protein contained in the first module; the third and each subsequent module carries molecules of either the first or the second protein on the surface; b) combination of the first, second and subsequent modules, in which modules are self-assembled in the structure due to interaction of the molecules of barnase and barstart, besides, nuclei of at least two of the specified modules are made with particles of supermolecular nature. The structure is described for diagnostics and therapy produced by the specified method.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce structures including nuclei of different nature and size connected to each other by means of a functional pair barnase-barstar, providing for tight connection of the specified nuclei.
20 cl, 5 dwg, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: elastomeric composition for sealing materials based on a copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and perfluoromethylvinyl ester and perfluoroalkyl vinyl esters which contain a cyano group, contains perfluorodiimidoyl amidine as a curing agent and further contains nano-sized nickel metal in the presence of a perfluorinated dispersant.
EFFECT: improved processability of rubber mixtures, vulcanisates have high nominal tensile strength, good physical and mechanical properties, resistance to nitric acid, high heat resistance after ageing for 70 hours.
2 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology and a method of production of nanomaterials that can be used in lubricant compositions for treatment of friction units, as well as for restoration of friction surfaces of the parts of mechanisms and machines. The nanostructured revitalisant is produced from dehydration products of natural and/or synthetic hydrates and/or their mixtures at a temperature of removal of constitutional water and the temperature of stabilisation of the dehydration product of 300-1200°C, with a stable form of nanostructure, which in a stable state has oxides of series MgO and/or SiO2, and/or Al2O3, and/or CaO, and/or Fe2O3, and/or K2O, and/or Na2O and represents a two-phase granatum-shaped nanostructure consisting of binder phase, which volume size is 100-100000 nm, and grains which volume size is 2-2000 nm. To obtain the structured-nonrecoverable form an additional step of stabilisation of the dehydration product is performed at a temperature from 900 to 1200°C for 1-3 hours and perform an additional step of preparing a stable geometric form after feeding of the stabilised dehydration product on the friction surfaces and the friction area, when, depending on the mode of lubrication or friction mode, the following is set: h ≤ Ra ≤ of the size of stabilised nanostructure of the revitalisant, where h is the lubricating film thickness or the distance between the friction surfaces, and Ra is the surface roughness.
EFFECT: nanostructured revitalisant provides recovery of the friction surfaces, stabilisation of the surface layers of friction and minimisation of friction during the entire lifetime of the friction surfaces.
11 cl, 7 dwg, 6 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrogenation and dehydrogenation unsintered catalysts. Proposed catalyst comprises, at least, one nanoparticles palladium cluster with mean particle size distribution index (d50) varying from 0.1 nm to 100 nm and gas-and-fluid-permeable shell containing zirconium oxide with ID varying from 10 nm to 1000 nm. Proposed method comprises the following steps: producing palladium nanoparticles mean particle size distribution index (d50) varying from 0.1 nm to 100 nm, b) applying SiO2 coating on produced nanoparticles, c) applying zirconium oxide coating on balls Pd/SiO2, d) washing off SiO2 layer by base.
EFFECT: higher catalytic activity.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the use rasburicase for preparing a drug preparation for treating or preventing cardiac disorders or indirect complications caused by ischemic strokes or reperfusion. Coronary blood flow and contractility in the rats' isolated hearts make 4200±348-4657±215 and 13.3±0.81-15.7±0.7 respectively with uric acid added, 3917±252-4311±260 and 12.27±1.16-14.09±0.86 respectively with no uric acid added.
EFFECT: invention provides normalising the coronary blood flow and the improved contractility.
9 cl, 1 dwg, 6 tbl, 1 ex