Method of soil reclamation of rice irrigation system for planting rice

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to preparation of soil for planting rice. The method includes autumn under-winter ploughing of soil, repair and reclamation works in the inter-vegetation season, spring presowing treatment of soil. In autumn, after harvesting rice or previous crop on the rice field of the soil suitability condition of the rice irrigation system is defined. The condition of the rice irrigation system is evaluated according to the criteria: "good", "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory". After that, taking into account the objects of influence relevant to the soil suitability condition, the optimal-adaptive complex of manufacturing operations is developed and implemented.

EFFECT: method enables to reduce energy consumption and labor intensity of the soil suitability measures performed, to improve the quality of treatment and soil grading, to increase productivity, to reduce the production cost of rice, to improve the ecological situation in the rice irrigation system.

5 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to prepare the soil for planting rice.

A method of processing soil in rice fields (Recommendations for rice cultivation in the Krasnodar region./ Edited Ephalexin. Research Institute of rice. Krasnodar, 1980, p.29-33), according to which under-winter plowing is carried out after harvesting rice hull or disk plows. Ploughing depth depends on soil conditions, debris fields and weed species composition. So the field sufficiently cultivated and free from weeds, plowing to a depth of 20-22 cm, weedy marsh vegetation is somewhat deeper than the depth of the main mass of rhizomes and tubers that cattail and castucci placed at a depth of 10-12 cm, Klubnaya - 12-14 cm, and a cane - 25 cm and more. Turned on the surface of arable land tubers and rhizomes of weeds during the autumn and winter-spring periods promarijuana, issued and a significant part of their loses viability.

Preplant under the rice should start from the ripening of the soil. In areas with high humidity, platysace and deeply buried in the soil for fast drying and good loosening of the topsoil should as soon as possible and no later than the end of the 1st decade of April to spend one or two times Kiselevka to a depth of 16-18 cm cultivators-rippers with dalacoura the governmental paws.

If necessary, you plowing in the winter tillage. First of all it should be carried out in the fields, are heavily clogged with reeds, lubrication and other marsh vegetation. Hold her hull stubble to a depth of 12-14 cm when clogged by lubrication and somewhat deeper - when clogged with reeds. The plowing well destroyed already appeared on the surface of the seedling weeds (late 2nd-3rd decade of April). In this case, re-shoots them before sowing of rice may not appear.

The most effective plowing 5-6 days prior to flooding of the field;

after her injured rhizomes of reed for violating air rot and die. Formed after perepiski clods are crushed heavy disc harrow along with Zubov harrows "zigzag" for 2-4 pass unit.

In areas where the soil is saline, the plowing should be done no-till farming, and the best weed control is required to conduct additional loosening chisellecouture with pointed feet. Before sowing of rice in such fields must be meleanie or chromowanie to a depth of 50-60 cm between 90 cm, which will contribute to the leaching of salts in the lower horizons and good drying of the soil before the harvest of rice.

In the complex pre-processing includes operational planning. Is the on for 3-5 days before sowing the graders D-M and DR. MA or long-baseline schedulers PA-3, P-2,8, P-4. Its quality depends largely on the rice crop.

After alignment of the field fertilizers, which are buried in the soil layer (0-10 cm) disc harrows or stubble in Assembly with Zubov harrows.

The final operation is the alignment formed after disking crests, breakage of large (larger than 25 mm) lumps in the upper (0-5 cm) layer and compacting the soil. To accomplish this, use the various sliders and frame-scraper in Assembly with smooth or ribbed rollers.

Relatively clean from swamp weed the fields plowing of winter tillage can not do. The scheme works here should be the following: for 3-5 days before sowing field plan graders or long-baseline scheduler, mineral fertilizers with sealing them in the soil layer (0-10 cm) disc harrow, lumilinna or cutter, level the soil surface dirceu and rolled down.

In early April planting the soil should be plowed in the first place and planned for the fall.

Late rise of autumn tilling the soil in the rice field dries out well enough that complicates the work of the grader or the scheduler. Ploughing should be carried out to a depth of 20-22 cm, followed by leveling the soil grader or long-baseline scheduler.

The reconstructed rice systems main processing provocateuse capital planning of surface checks. On the fields free from weeds, for early sowing of rice enough to spend the autumn subsurface treatment to a depth of 14-16 see

Spring processing on such sites should be performed taking into account the need to preserve moisture in the soil (early harrowing or disking). Therefore, pre-treatment of winter tillage under this method of sowing should be combined with the incorporation of fertilizers. They are made not earlier than 2-3 days before sowing, after which, if the soil is loose, for sealing use smoothing harrows. In areas with platysace and deeply buried in the soil can be applied cultivators, stubble or disc harrows in Assembly with Zubov.

The disadvantages of this method are the high energy intensity and the complexity of processing operations, the high anthropogenic load on the surface of the rice cheque, a range of technological operations without regard to the ameliorative status of the soil.

A method of processing soil in rice fields (Organizational and technological project of rice production under intensive technology./ Edited Apolonia, Vpositive. Rosagropromizdat. Moscow, 1988, p.7-12)adopted for the prototype, according to which before autumn plowing the predecessors (occupied by pairs, turnover of the stratum alfalfa, rice) make organic fertilizer (prepararsi manure) at a dose of 30-40 t/ha, in the absence of the tvii manure - pre-chopped straw, evenly distributing it over the surface of the check (5-6 t/ha).

On meadow-Chernozem soils optimal plowing with the turnover of the reservoir at a depth of 20 cm Field, located on peat soils, ploughing to a depth of 20-22 see On saline soils need subsurface treatment to a depth of no more than 20-22 see alkaline light-chestnut soils apply small autumn treatment to a depth of 12-14 see

Fields, weedy marsh vegetation, autumn plowing some deeper level of occurrence of the main mass of tubers and rhizomes, which have a Mace and castucci is 10-12 cm, Klubnaya - 12-14 cm, cane - 25 cm and more.

The way of the movement of arable units - ready with alternating pens usual and braswell. In this case, applying the following methods of ploughing:

- corral poceluy - usual or braswell, starting from the middle of the cheque.

- dvuhseriynyy basiclevel - braswell, starting on the right side of the corral, and then left before the tractor can do respetive turns; the remaining strip con plow when overall passes Assembly;

- card - usual or braswell. The direction of movement of the units is the same as when the beater pohakuloa plowing. Headland open the round with mushroom-shaped bends on the corners of the map.

When preparing cheque beat turning the strip width 6-12 m along all its sides. When disaggregated check the width of each shelter shall not be less than 50 meters When kartboy plowing width of the enclosure is not less than 100 meters

Control furrow doing a depth of 10-12 cm, It provides the best zaglublennosti plow at the beginning of the rut and prevents the formation of blemishes on the edges of the pens. Level back combs and close up the open furrow ploughing cheques and cards in General.

Autumn make sure you align the winter tillage under early sowing of rice with deep placement of seeds. Level the field when levelling control. Also clean or cut peripheral cheque grooves.

If a strong seal or "puttying" soil after clearing her loosened or disk at a depth of 10 cm chisel cultivator-cultivator.

Repair and reclamation work in the autumn-winter period are arranged on two options.

Option 1. Planning after disking or before plowing

Peripheral cheque groove slopes of ridges, roads and parts of the rice fields adjacent to the peripheral groove, clear of soil and debris.

Option 2. Autumn alignment of winter tillage under early sowing of rice with deep placement of seeds

The disadvantages of this method are its use without taking into account the correlation due to amelioration of the condition of each element of the rice irrigation system: check that the inlet and from Odesa networks transport system, inefficient use of energy, material and labor costs when performing reclamation activities in the non-vegetation period.

The technical result of the invention is to save energy costs and reduce the complexity of the performed soil-conservation measures, improving the quality of soil and plan checks, increase productivity, reduce costs and produce grain, the improvement of the ecological situation in the rice irrigation system.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of reclamation of the soil of the rice irrigation system for sowing rice, including autumn autumn tillage soil, repair and reclamation works in the non-growing season, spring preplant soil, according to the invention after ploughing in the autumn tilling the predecessors determine the appropriate status of the rice irrigation system, which is assessed according to the criteria: "good", "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory", then, depending on the actual soil-conservation status of the rice irrigation system, sequentially perform the required operation for the "good" autumn subsurface cheque processing, recovery and purification from crop residues and soil water outlets; esperaba the ing the operation of pumping stations exceeding the level of water in drainage channels, selective restore profile vnutrizonovyh channels, pre-operational planning-plane checks the alignment of the surface microrelief checks by loosening, device network of drainage furrows on the surface of the check; "satisfactory" - after the harvest of rice or crop rotation crop layout plane checks before receiving marks of 50 mm, recovery profile vnutrizonovyh channels, the device mole drainage before fall tillage, no-till tillage, repair and reinstall in check hydraulic vodovypuske and the water outlet structures, restore the channels in places of sliding slopes and cleaning of the channels vodopada and drainage networks from reeds and other wetland vegetation, pre-operational planning plane checks and alignment of the surface microrelief of the check by loosening, device network of drainage furrows on the surface of the check; for "unsatisfactory" - the layout of the plane of the cheque before receiving marks 50 mm on the entire surface, restoration of peripheral vnutrikorovogo drainage including restoration of peripheral cheque channels, the device mole drainage, cleaning of irrigation and drainage channels to the design level and the restoration of their bandwidth, repair and Perea is the stop voditelskih and the water outlet structures and closures vodopada and conduit networks in accordance with the level plane checks subsurface soil loosening.

The novelty of the claimed invention is due in adaptive approach to complex technological operations in the rice fields during dormant period, which is the allocation of the three situations (options) soil-conservation status of the soil on existing and newly restored rice irrigation systems (ROS): the first situation - reclamation soil "good", which is characterized by: 1) the presence on the surface of the cheque minor depressions and elevations with elevations of more than 50 mm square, not exceeding 5% of the total area of the check; 2) disturbances in some places of the peripheral profile of cheque channels; 3) wetlands arable layer soils with a large amount of rainfall in the irrigation period; 4) the lack of moisture in the rooting zone of the soil in dry years on receipts allocated for sowing alfalfa and waterlogging in the rainy seasons; the second situation - reclamation soil "satisfactory", which is characterized by: 1) deterioration in the quality of planned surface cheques with excess marks 50 mm 6-24% of the area; 2) hindered the supply and discharge of irrigation water; 3) difficulty in control of the water regime during the growing season of rice; 4) excess irrigation norms rice no more than 10-15% the t calculated; 5) the possibility of waterlogging and flooding of arable soil layer in the non-vegetation period; 6) drying or waterlogging top (0.10 m) soil layer on receipts allocated for the cultivation of crop rotation crops; the third situation - appropriate soil conditions "unsatisfactory", which is characterized by: 1) a significant distortion of the planned surface of the check (cheque), and marks a vertical layout, exceeding agrotehnicheskij allowable 50 mm in the area of more than 25%; 2) reducing water ratio flooding cheque for growing rice up to 30 l/s per 1 ha or less; 3) excess irrigation requirements due to the loss of more than 10-12% of the design for this type GREW; 4) increase the level of groundwater in the irrigation period at a depth of less than 1.3 m from the soil surface; 5) waterlogging and flooding of the upper (arable layer of the soil in the irrigation period as well as during harvesting, pre-sowing soil treatment and planting rice; 6) difficulty managing water for irrigation of rice during the growing season; 7) stable reduction of rice yield under the requirements of the cultivation technology, including the level of mineral nutrition, 15-20% from the optimal values; 8) the inability of cultivation of other non-rice crop rotation crops to GROW, due to flooding and Perella is possible checks.

Assessment of soil-conservation status of the soil in three situations before carrying out reclamation works in the non-vegetation period allows you to develop optimally adaptive complexes of technological operations, reduce energy and labor performed soil-conservation measures, to improve the quality of soil and rice yield, to reduce the Prime cost of the produced grain, improve the ecological situation in the rice irrigation system.

To implement techniques optimally adaptive technological systems improve reclamation soil condition selected objects impact: for "good": 1) in the presence of depressions or elevations: plane checks in the pre-sowing period; 2) separate violations of the profile cheque channels: peripheral cheque drainage; 3) when the waterlogging of the topsoil: the top horizon of up to 0.3 m; drainage network; 4) moisture deficit in the root zone layer in dry years on receipts allocated for perennial grasses and other crops: peripheral cheque drainage; mole drainage; power network; waterlogging - drainage network; mole drainage; for the situation as "satisfactory": 1) with a slight distortion of the surface checks: the plane of the rice paddies after the harvest of rice or crop rotation what's cultures; 2) when obstructed water supply and the discharge of irrigation water during the growing season of rice, the excess of irrigation requirements, and difficulties in regulating water regime: the plane of the rice paddies; peripheral checking the drainage, vodovypuske and the water outlet structures; channel power and drainage channels, pumping stations; 3) when waterlogging and flooding of arable horizon in the non-vegetation period: plane checks, peripheral checking the drainage, drainage (waste) network; 4) when draining or waterlogging top (0.10 m) soil layer on receipts allocated for the cultivation of crop rotation crops: peripheral checking the drainage, vodovoznyi and the water outlet structures of power and drainage network; for the situation of "unsatisfactory": 1) when a significant distortion of the surface of the check: plane checks; the top layer of soil to 0.2 m; 2) at low water ratio flooding: peripheral cheque drainage; culvert structures (gates); channel vodopada network; the water level in vodopada network; 3) when excess irrigation norms: the plane of the rice paddies; vodovypuske, culverts; 4) rising groundwater levels: peripheral cheque drainage; culverts; emission system; pumping stations; 5) when waterlogging and flooding of arable layer: peripheral cheque drainage; plane ri the new checks; soils rice paddies depth up to 0.4 m; 6) difficulty mode control irrigation: the plane of the rice paddies; culverts; channel vodopada network; peripheral cheque drainage.

Performing optimally-technological complexes of soil-conservation techniques for GROWING up in accordance with prevailing at the time of their execution reclamation situation on the recommended list processing methods, will allow to reduce the energy intensity and the complexity of processing operations by reducing the ongoing technological methods to improve the ecological-economic situation by reducing anthropogenic load on the soil and reduce the cost of rice.

The method is as follows.

Method of reclamation of the soil of the rice irrigation system for sowing rice includes autumn autumn tillage soil, repair and reclamation works in the non-growing season, spring preplant tillage. In autumn, after the harvest of rice or previous crops rice field estimates of soil-conservation status of the soil, determine what appropriate situation applies to rice field: "good", "satisfactory", "unsatisfactory"; then, taking into account relevant reclamation condition of receptors is developed and is dimensioned optimally adaptive complex technological operations.

An example of the method

Test method for the amelioration of the soil of the rice irrigation system for sowing rice was held in JSC "chernoerkovskoe" Slavic area.

In autumn, after the harvest of rice was estimated reclamation state of the rice fields and selected for testing method three fields with different soil-conservation characteristics (table 1).

Table 1
Characteristics of soil-conservation status of soils of rice fields in CJSC "chernoerkovskoe" Slavic district
Reclamation characteristics of experimental fieldsField 1Field 2Field 3
Predecessorricericerice
Excess marks 50 mm square, %37183
The water ratio flooding cheque for growing rice, l/s per 1 ha284046
Pre is ishana irrigation rate due to losses, %1264
The level of groundwater in the irrigation period, m1,11,82.5
Wetlands and photoplan top (arable) layer of soil in the irrigation period as well as during harvesting, pre-sowing soil treatment and planting riceThe entire area of the fieldPeriodically flooded and waterloggedPeriodically waterlogged
The management layer of water for irrigation of rice during the growing seasonDifficultDifficultNot difficult
The reduction in rice yield under the requirements of the cultivation technology, including the level of mineral nutrition, %1643
The cultivation of other non-rice crop rotation crops to GROW, due to flooding and waterlogging checksImpossibleMayMay
Evaluation of the reclamation condition of the fieldsPoorSatisfactoryGood

For each field in the non-vegetation period performed optimally adaptive complexes of technological operations (tables 2-4).

As a result of application of this method of reclamation of the soil of the rice irrigation system for sowing rice in CJSC "chernoerkovskoe" Slavic area was obtained 15% yield increase of rice on the experimental field 1, 9% on the 2 and 5% on field 3. The cost of produced grain rice decreased by 7%. Lower energy and labor performed soil-conservation activities amounted to 25%.

Table 5 - Characteristics of the ameliorative status of soils of rice fields in CJSC "chernoerkovskoe" Slavic area after performing optimally adaptive complex technological operations
Reclamation characteristics of experimental fieldsField 1Field 2Field 3
234
Predecessorricericerice
Excess marks 50 mm square, %000
The water ratio flooding cheque for growing rice, l/s per 1 ha404546
Exceeded irrigation rate due to loss, %320
The level of groundwater in the irrigation period, m2,02,22,5
Wetlands and photoplan top (arable) layer of soil in the irrigation period as well as during harvesting, pre-sowing soil treatment and planting ricePeriodically waterloggedPeriodically waterloggedNot photoplays and not preuveneers
The management layer of water in which rosenii rice during the growing season Not difficultNot difficultNot difficult
The reduction in rice yield under the requirements of the cultivation technology, including the level of mineral nutrition, %000
The cultivation of other non-rice crop rotation crops to GROW, due to flooding and waterlogging checksMayMayMay
Evaluation of the reclamation condition of the fieldsGoodGoodGood

In all fields there was an improvement in the environmental situation (table 5): the degree of uniformity of the fields was not more than 50 mm, security hydrolyzable nitrogen increased by 4-6%, a movable potassium 5-6% and a movable phosphorus 7-9%. Received 15% yield increase of rice.

Method of reclamation of the soil of the rice irrigation system for sowing rice, including autumn autumn tillage soil, repair and reclamation works in the non-growing season, spring preplant tillage, characterized in that the donkey ploughing in the autumn tilling the predecessors determine the appropriate status of the rice irrigation system, which is assessed according to the criteria: "good", "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory"; then depending on the actual soil-conservation status of rice irrigation systems consistently perform the required operation for "good": autumn subsurface cheque processing, recovery and purification from crop residues and soil culverts; uninterrupted operation of pumping stations exceeding the level of water in drainage channels, selective restore profile vnutrizonovyh channels, pre-operational planning-plane checks the alignment of the surface microrelief checks by loosening, device network of drainage furrows on the surface of the check; for "satisfactory": after harvesting rice or crop rotation crop layout plane checks before receiving marks of 50 mm, the recovery profile vnutrizonovyh channels, the device mole drainage before fall tillage, no-till tillage, repair and reinstall in check hydraulic vodovypuske and the water outlet structures, restore the channels in places opolzaniya slopes and cleaning of the channels vodopada and drainage network from reeds and other wetland vegetation, pre-operational planning-plane checks and alignment micro is Eleva surface of the check by loosening, the network of drainage furrows on the surface of the check; for "unsatisfactory": the layout of the plane of the cheque before receiving marks 50 mm on the entire surface, restoration of peripheral vnutrikorovogo drainage including restoration of peripheral cheque channels, the device mole drainage, cleaning of irrigation and drainage channels to the design level and the restoration of their bandwidth, repair and reinstallation voditelskih and the water outlet structures and closures vodopada and outlet network in accordance with the level plane checks, subsurface soil loosening.



 

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1 tbl, 1 ex

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6 tbl, 1 ex

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5 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes sowing rice seeds with their placement in soil at the depth 2.5-3 cm. After that fields are flooded with water for 3-5 days for seed soaking. Then water is drained for period of seed germination. After that re-flooding of fields with water is carried out.

EFFECT: method insures dense shoots and reduces decree of rice layering, which allows to increase rice yield and its harvesting.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes an autumn tillage by disking, harrowing, sowing of winter crops and wintering intercrops, their harvesting and planting rice. After harvesting of winter crops and wintering intercrops a general planning of checks planes with simultaneous repair of water-inlet and water-outlet irrigation network, restoring check rollers and roads. Then, on the checks surface a maximum layer of water is created and supported until the end of the irrigation season. Thereat the soil is maintained in a condition of maximum water capacity for the entire winter period, after which the density of the plow layer reaches 1.05-1.1 t/m3.

EFFECT: method enables to save energy capacity and reduce the labour intensity of melioration measures carried out; it does not require a spring presowing processing and agro-technical measures; to improve the quality of control of weeds, to increase yields, to reduce the cost of produced grain of rice, to improve the ecological situation in the rice irrigation system.

3 tbl, 1 ex

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