Method for start of internal combustion engine with exit gas neutralisation unit

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: this method in combination with cold start and/or warming-up at an idle operation of internal combustion engine (1) is used to start engine (1) by means of a cold start mode with preset values of engine operating parameters; quantity of accumulated one or several hydrocarbons in at least one component of exit gas neutralisation is estimated and the cold start mode of a motor is activated, if according to estimation quantity of peaks of HC-desorption stipulated by combustion gases of filler exceeds preset limit value.

EFFECT: method provides possibility of heating of components of exit gas neutralisation and allows defining exact time of engine warming-up with possibility to stop an active mode of the motor cold start, thus allowing to avoid fuel overflow or at least to restrict it.

20 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to a method for starting an internal combustion engine with the installation of exhaust gas aftertreatment with at least one catalyst and/or check with the filter component of the exhaust gas aftertreatment according to the broad definition of paragraph 1 of the claims.

For internal combustion engines with installation for neutralization of exhaust gases with the catalyst and/or check with the filter component of the exhaust gas aftertreatment in General there is a need, so they can quickly reach its operating temperature. For example, in DE 19749400 A1 it is proposed to determine the efficiency for SCR-catalyst and for the case when it is warming up the internal combustion engine is lower than the given value, so to change certain operating parameters of the internal combustion engine to increase exhaust gas temperature. However, this may entail, in particular, during cold start or warm-up of the internal combustion engine heating installation for neutralization of exhaust gases and unwanted emissions of flue gases, especially the emission of white smoke.

The objective of the invention is to make way to start the internal combustion engine with apparatus for neutralization of exhaust gases with the catalyst and/or with a delay filter is omponents exhaust gas aftertreatment, in which the release of flue gases, especially of white smoke in the environment, especially during cold start or warm-up of the internal combustion engine is at a valid low level.

This problem is solved using the method with signs of paragraph 1 of the claims.

In the claimed invention method for starting an internal combustion engine with the installation of exhaust gas aftertreatment with at least one catalyst and/or check with the filter component of the exhaust gas aftertreatment is assessed NA-filler, hydrocarbons (HC), accumulated one or more components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment, and activates the cold start motor with predetermined values of the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine when it makes the assessment that the number NS-filler exceeds for him limit value. Under the national Assembly here usually understood as total hydrocarbons, and when calculating the number and concentration for better comparability is determined by a particular hydrocarbon compound such as methane or hexane. Under components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment in the invention refers to catalytic converters of exhaust gases, such as oxidation catalyst, the catalyst of the NOx SCR catalysts or diesel particulate filters with a catalytic coating and without it.

A specific method of a cold start of the engine, provided for the case when the number NS-filler exceeds the limit value does not apply or applies at least in a modified form, has not yet exceeded a limit value of the number NS-filler. This makes it possible to avoid wasting fuel, which is typically regulated in a specific mode cold start of the engine, when it is not necessary from the standpoint of unwanted emissions flue gas and white smoke.

The inventors realized that unwanted large emissions of flue gas and white smoke in the first place cause too many accumulated in one or more components of the plant exhaust gas aftertreatment, i.e. adsorbiruyuschee. It was demonstrated that the relevant components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment with zeolite content should be regarded as particularly critical. If you are installing exhaust gas aftertreatment has along with zeolite SCR catalyst oxidation catalyst and/or particulate filter with zeolite coating, the SCR-catalyst typically has a higher amount of NA-filler. However, emission of flue gases as a result of desorption can prevail over accumulated so far NS the oxidation catalyst and/or the particulate filter.

Thanks envisaged, according to the invention, the estimation of the number NS-filler can also assess the risk of NS-desorption or release of the flue gas due to heating of the components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment with NA-capacity, in particular, properly executed SCR-catalyst, oxidation catalyst and/or particulate filter in combination with a cold start or a warm-up of the internal combustion engine. If the number NS-filler in the installation of exhaust gas aftertreatment in General or in one of the core relative to the release of smoke component limit value is activated method of a cold start of the engine, as claimed in the invention.

This is the heating installation exhaust gas aftertreatment or one of the main in relation to the NA-adsorption component, on the one hand, in advance, which limits the emission of flue gases preset values. On the other hand, the way the cold start of the engine, as claimed in the invention makes it possible to consciously set the heating rate of installation of exhaust gas aftertreatment or one of the main in relation to the NA-adsorption component so that the emission of flue gases remains at the specified level.

In the case of carrying out the invention when activated cold start of the engine e is of the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine are set so that at least one component of the exhaust gas aftertreatment heats coming from internal combustion engine exhaust gas so obtained by heating the fraction of desorbed at least one component of the exhaust gas aftertreatment of the national Assembly did not exceed the target rate of desorption or a specified maximum concentration coming into the environment of the exhaust gases. Found that rapid heating of the components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment loaded accumulated NS, can have very fast growing desorption of the national Assembly, i.e. the greater the rate of desorption and, as a consequence, a strong emission of flue gases. This is in particular the case when the heating is achieved or is the usual temperature range from +50°to +250°C. In accordance with the magnitude of the number NS-filler here is a more or less high concentration of NA in the exhaust gases, which enter into the environment. Because of special advantage if in further embodiments of the invention by heating installation exhaust gas aftertreatment is not exceeded the maximum value for the gradient heating main in relation to the NA-desorption due to gas fumes, the components of exhaust gas aftertreatment. Because of the dependence of the number NS is apollites and/or temperature, in particular, the main in relation to the NA-desorption due to gas fumes, the components of the set values of the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine can be selectively affect the gradient of heating and the rate of desorption or maximum concentration of NA and reliability are not allowed to cross the set and predetermined thresholds. For example, thanks to appropriately set the values of the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine can be achieved relatively slow temperature less than 10°C / min, in particular in the temperature range from -30°C to +230°C, fluid NS-desorption, in which you can avoid critical maximum emission of flue gases. Installation of small gradients of heating is preferred in particular when the main in relation to the accumulation of NA due to flue gas component, exhaust gas aftertreatment such as, for example, the zeolite oxidation catalyst has a temperature slightly below or within temperature range desorption. Particularly advantageous is the fact that, on the basis of low temperature components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment, i.e. smaller than 0°, in particular smaller than minus 20°C, at the first stage of heating can be installed first large gradient heating of about 20°C./min or more. Blah is odara this reduces the length of the exposure components of neutralization of exhaust gases in the temperature mode, critical for the accumulation of NA, eliminated further accumulation of NA, this limits the number NS-filler. If temperature is achieved, which is close to the lower boundary of the temperature range desorption, i.e. slightly below 10°C, is small gradient heating below the maximum value for the gradient. However the essential thing is that you can set the gradients of heat depending on temperature, in particular increasing with increasing temperature.

In yet another embodiment of the invention, the estimate of the number NS-filler based on the duration of the operation of the internal combustion engine does not exceed a given constant, in particular, the first threshold temperature, in respect of at least one of the main components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment with NS-desorption caused by flue gases. Critical was the periods of operation at low load, especially extra long at low temperatures. If, for example, the internal combustion engine longer operated at idle when the temperature is below the threshold, depending on material and component usually about 30°C, then allocated the NA focus, increasing, in this suitable for NA-adsorption component of the exhaust gas aftertreatment. When mnogokrat the s consecutive processes cold start and/or warm-up, in this component, first of all, has a constant temperature that may lead to the accumulation of NA, each time the accumulated amounts of NA. Subsequent, especially with the rapid heating due to the growing load of the internal combustion engine can occur junk strong NA-desorption and the emission of flue gases. In accordance with the claimed invention because of this, confronted with the fact that the number NS-filler through working with NS-accumulation is estimated in total at least for main in relation to the NA-desorption due to flue gases, components of exhaust gas aftertreatment. Because there are several components that neutralize with NA-accumulating ability, it is preferable to perform the estimation of the number NS-filler in the installation of exhaust gas aftertreatment in General. If there is only one primary with respect to NA accumulation component of neutralization, it may be sufficient if the number NS-filler is defined only in this component. Due to envisaged by the invention of estimating the number NS-filler mode cold start of the motor can be activated already before reaching the critical integral number NS-filler and can be initiated targeted heating of the mouth of the unit exhaust gas aftertreatment. To estimate the number NS-filler resort to stored parametric emission characteristics of the internal combustion engine and the corresponding characteristic curves of adsorption. Can also be provided by the calculation in the online mode, based on the model of adsorption and desorption for an important component of exhaust gas aftertreatment.

In the following embodiment of the invention, the limit value of the number NS-filler sets the proportion of NS-capacity of at least one of the components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment or principal in respect of the NA-desorption due to flue gases, components of exhaust gas aftertreatment. NS-capacity as the maximum transition number NS is usually strongly depends on the temperature of this component and, in addition, the type and/or level. NS-capacity it is advisable to first determine empirically for all process-relevant NA-adsorption component of the exhaust gas aftertreatment and remember in the control device. This, along with the dependence on temperature is necessary to consider the dependence on aging. For the intended mainly SCR-catalyst of iron - or copper-zeolite type NS-capacity is typically in the range from 1 to 30 g per liter of volume of the catalyst at low temperatures between 0°C and below. Nl is the result claimed in the invention the orientation of the limit value of the number NS-filler on some similarly NA-capacity it is possible to avoid undesirable high load on the SCR catalyst or other related this is relevant component of the exhaust gas aftertreatment. This is particularly beneficial if the proportion of NS-capacity is defined temperature-dependent, in particular, decreasing with decreasing temperature of the respective components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment.

In the following embodiment of the invention, the mode cold start of the motor after reaching the set, in particular the second threshold temperature for at least one of the components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment or principal in respect of the NA-desorption due to flue gases, components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment is terminated. The inventors recognize that the accumulation of NA at temperatures above the normal threshold temperature inherent in the catalyst components containing zeolite, little or even is such that they can be neglected, and under certain conditions the accumulated NA already below this temperature can almost decorrelates. If the mode cold start to stop as quickly as possible after reaching the threshold temperature, it is possible to avoid wasting fuel or at least limit. If the required user load of the engine exceeds the specified minimum value, at which is provided the further heating of the motor or, at least, it does not cool down, then directly the NGOs after reaching the threshold temperature mode cold start of the motor is stopped. Otherwise, you can ensure that he remained for some time. In this regard, it is useful, in particular, establishing the exact time of termination, depending on the load of the motor. Of course, can also be provided to record the NA-desorption sensors and after exceeding the detected maximum desorption to stop active mode cold start of the engine, taking all necessary measures.

In the following embodiment of the invention taken when activated mode cold start motor multiple injection of fuel into one or more combustion chambers of the cylinders of the internal combustion engine, which include inside the working cycle of this cylinder is first pre-injection following the first second pre-injection and following the second main injection. This is provided that the first and/or second pre-injection was divided into two rapidly successive injection into each cylinder separate nozzle. Thanks made at least two prior injections before the main injection, it is possible ignition of the injected fuel and also at low temperatures of the motor below the freezing point. The advantage is compare the ina small quantity of fuel, about 20% or less relative to the main injection, which is injected at the first or second pre-injection. In this way, it becomes possible ignition and also at very low ambient temperatures and motor, from minus 20°C or less. On the basis of a small amount of fuel in the preliminary injections drop in the temperature caused by the evaporation of at least decreases, and the ignition of the homogenized fuel during the preliminary injection is improved.

A special advantage will be when the next version of the invention, the first pre-injection is performed in the rotation angle range of the crankshaft, larger than 20 degrees before top dead center point in the compression stroke of that cylinder. Typical is the fact that at low temperatures from minus 20°C or less temperature in the cylinder to a normal diffusive combustion is too low. The claimed invention in the early pre-injection allows the homogenization of the mixture, thereby improving the Flammability. When the ignition delay is the reaction of combustion of the first injection, which leads to an increase in temperature in the cylinder.

Therefore, fuel is introduced at the second tentative the nom injection, can quickly evaporate and ignite.

In the following embodiment of the invention, the second pre-injection is performed at the time after the start of heat release of the fuel fed through the first pre-injection. Due to the claimed invention, the timing for second pre-injection improves heat dissipation characteristics for fuel in the second pre-injection, and in the subsequent main injection.

Further improvement of the characteristics of heat dissipation becomes possible code in the following embodiment of the invention, the main injection is performed at the time after the start of heat release of the fuel fed through the second pre-injection. This ensures reliable ignition and also at very low temperatures. In addition, with this method, the hydrocarbon emissions are also at very low ambient temperatures can be kept relatively low, and there is a possibility of the target heating installation exhaust gas aftertreatment. A typical image of the main injection occurs only after top dead center of the compression stroke, in particular only when the angle of rotation of the crankshaft about 10 degrees after top dead center. It turns out later, wash the unlocking or after the main combustion. This enables reliable ignition and focused and rapid heating installation exhaust gas aftertreatment and provided it SCR-catalyst containing zeolite. Besides decreases due to burning of education NO.

In the following embodiment of the invention is the execution mode cold start of the motor in the specified area weak load of the internal combustion engine and when the engine load is above the area weak load mode cold start is terminated. After stop mode cold start is set mainly the combustion mode with a predominantly diffuse combustion.

Useful embodiments of the invention illustrated in the drawings and will be described hereinafter. While the above-mentioned features and those yet to be explained later, are used not only in the specified combinations of characteristics, but also in other combinations or considered separately, without leaving the scope of this invention.

When this show:

Figure 1 - internal combustion engine with the installation of exhaust gas aftertreatment with catalytic converters and diesel particulate filter in the schematic representation,

Figure 2 - diagram with a schematic representation of dependence of the NA-capacitance typical zeolite SCR-katalizatorom temperature and

Figure 3 - diagram with a schematic depiction of the heat in the cylinder of diesel engine, and the control pulse Iinjekthe corresponding injector for fuel, depending on the time.

Figure 1 shows schematically an embodiment of the system of internal combustion engine 1 and the installation of exhaust gas aftertreatment 2 for the vehicle, not here shown. This internal combustion engine is designed as an internal combustion engine with direct injection and air compressor porshneva principle, hereinafter simply designated as a diesel engine. Subordinate to him and not illustrated here, the system of injection of fuel is performed primarily as a so-called Common-Rail-system, involving the use of common rail) with adjustable pressure in the pipeline or pressure injection of fuel.

Cylinders diesel motor 1 subject, respectively, the combustion chamber with one or two intake and exhaust valves, glow plug and injector, and one or more inlets for the air required for combustion, which individually are not depicted here in detail. The injectors for fuel when it is suitable to perform multiple injections with an adjustable amount of injected fuel. Inlet and issue the SKN valves are driven mainly by using the adjustable valve timing and a variable stroke opening.

Diesel engine 1 receives its combustion air through a wire to supply air 3, which is located not pictured here is the air mass meter. By means of an adjustable throttle element, not depicted in the wire to supply air flow of the air supplied to the diesel engine 1 can grossulariata on set size. The combustion air is compressed by the turbocharger 15 and is supplied to the charge air cooler 16 for cooling. Provided not illustrated here in greater detail the means for raising the temperature supplied to the diesel engine 1, combustion air, in particular, associated with a cold start or a warm-up. To actively raise the temperature of the combustion air in the path of air flow can be provided by the device for heating. Particularly useful is actively heated by the so-called absorption element, which are mainly located in the bypass line for exhaust gases 13 before joining the wire to supply air 3. Turbocharger 15 is mainly performed as a so-called VTG compressor or compressor bypass valve for exhaust gases with adjustable boost pressure.

In the combustion chambers of the cylinders of the diesel engine 1 resulting atributa the Chille gas is discharged through the exhaust manifold 4. While the combustion air can admix the exhaust gas through the bypass line for exhaust gas 13 and return to the diesel engine 1. Part of the returned exhaust gas (percent EGR) can be adjusted through the EGR valve 14. Return to the diesel engine 1 exhaust gas is cooled by means not shown here, the EGR cooler, and the EGR cooler may be provided if necessary adjustable bypass. Due to this, the combustion air can be mixed on the choice of chilled or hot, respectively, the heated exhaust gas. A non-refundable exhaust gas flows through the turbocharger 15 to install exhaust gas aftertreatment 2. Further provided are not depicted here, the throttle element in the exhaust pipe 4 in the direction of the turbocharger 15.

Using these options can be presented according to the requirements of different values for the significant operating parameters of the engine such as the air mass flow, time of injection, the amount of fuel, pressure and moments of multiple injections, the share of circulation of the EXHAUST gas pressure charge air filling the cylinder and the different combustion regimes. A further increase in Warentest which may be provided in the form of an adjustable compression ratio.

The option to perform the lookup of the diesel engine 1 installing exhaust gas aftertreatment 2 includes in the direction of the flow of exhaust gases in this sequence the first oxidation catalyst 5, the second oxidation catalyst 6, the particulate filter 7 and the SCR catalyst 8. As the particulate filter 7 is used mainly so-called Wallflow filter on the basis of SiC-cordierite or aluminum titanate. However, particulate filter 7 can be constructed as a sintered filter or as a filter module with an open filter structure. Mainly catalysts 5, 6, 8 are performed as cellular monolithic design, which is penetrated by channels with a catalytic coating, through which can flow the supplied exhaust gas. SCR catalyst 8 is made primarily as a catalyst on the carrier with a zeolite coating containing copper or iron. However, such a model SCR catalyst 8 has the ability to accumulate components of exhaust gases, in particular NA, NOxand NH3. However, the essential property is that under oxidizing conditions it can be a catalyst in the reaction of selective recovery of NOxto N2through accumulated or summed NH3as a reagent. Submission of NH3is mainly the via is not presented here, the dosing device, through which can be injected in the exhaust gas, going against SCR catalyst 8, the solution containing urea. Injected in the exhaust gas, the urea decomposes at the same time, highlighting the NH3.

On the input side of the first oxidation catalyst 5 and/or the second oxidation catalyst 6 may be provided in the block add fuel, through which can be fed to the exhaust gas as a fuel gas. Due to the exothermic oxidation of the fuel, supplied to the exhaust gas, it becomes possible target heating the exhaust gas in combination with the active regeneration of the particulate filter 7 through the oxidation of soot.

In the final processing of the exhaust gas 2 to register the temperature of the exhaust gas and structural elements, as well as the concentrations of various component parts of the exhaust gas provided by the various temperature sensors and probes for sampling the EXHAUST gas. For example, in figure 1 on the input side of the second oxidation catalyst 6, and from the outlet side of the particulate filter 7 in the installation of exhaust gas aftertreatment are one temperature sensor 10, 11. On the output side of the second oxidation catalyst 6 and SCR catalyst 8 is provided with the gas sensor 9, 12, sensitive to NOxand/or NH3. For the distribution of the load of the particulate filter 7 with soot and/or ash must be provided from the inlet and outlet of the particulate filter 7 pressure sensors or differential pressure, what figure 1 does not separately presented. Through these and optionally other sensors operating status of the installation of exhaust gas aftertreatment fully determined and can be coordinated with the mode of the diesel engine 1.

To regulation or registration operation mode of the motor is provided by an electronic control device of the motor 17. The control device 17, on the one hand, receives information about the important parameters of the engine, such as speed, motor load, temperature, pressure from the respective sensors or probes, and on the other hand, can issue control signals as settings for the actuators, such as the EGR valve 14, the turbocharger 15 or throttle element 3 in the wire for air supply. Provided by the regulation of the operating parameters or state parameters from the gas supply and the supply of fuel. In particular, the control device of the motor 17 can adjust the fuel injectors to perform multiple injections and, if necessary, install the required injection pressure. Next, the control unit of the motor 17 is arranged to perform operations regulation and control by which the operating parameters of the motor can be adjusted or be set at to what stralem. For this purpose, the control device 17 can resort to in-memory universal characteristics or the programs of the calculation or regulation and management. Provided for this subsystem, such as processor, memory or device I / o and the like, not specifically represented.

In a similar way to register and configure the operating parameters and state parameters provided by the second control device 18 for the device final processing of the exhaust gases. The control device of the motor 17 and the second control device 18 are connected to each other via a bidirectional data channel. Thus, it becomes possible mutual exchange of data, the available control devices. Assume that the control device 17, 18 can also be combined into a single integral unit registration and management for the measured values.

In the depicted embodiment, the invention becomes possible optimal in all respects the operation of the diesel engine 1 and a comprehensive cleaning of given them the exhaust gas. Neutralization of exhaust gases in the desired volume is possible only when the catalytic converters 5, 6, 8 have their operating temperature. Below the so-called starting point temperatures the surge has reduced or lack of activity, why, in particular, during cold start or warm-up special measures are required to eliminate the unwanted return of harmful substances into the environment or make them as small as possible. The following is done to reduce emissions especially of hydrocarbons (HC). In particular, subsequent these measures concern the reduction of the emission of white smoke formed from the national Assembly, the ambient temperature is below or close to freezing point or at temperatures of catalytic converters 5, 6, 8 or diesel particulate filter 7 below for specific adsorption or desorption of NA threshold temperature.

Although depending on the catalytic coating of the catalytic converters 5, 6, 8 or diesel particulate filter 7 each of these components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment may have, especially at low temperatures, the adsorption of the national Assembly, and therefore appears at a higher temperature desorption of NA may be responsible for the emission of white smoke, further assume that the effect of adsorption and desorption of NA is manifested primarily in the SCR catalyst 8 and appearing every time the emission of white smoke in most cases due to the SCR catalyst 8. Subsequent understandable measures to eliminate unwanted emissions specifically from the SCR catalyst 8 is applicable, however, anal sex is the same way with respect to one or more other components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment 5, 6, 7.

Typical is the increasing adsorption of the national Assembly by decreasing the temperature. The maximum number of absorbed NA denoted as NS-capacity. The diagram in figure 2 schematically depicts the temperature dependence of NS-capacity for a typical SCR catalyst based on zeolite. As you can see, with decreasing temperature TSCRNS-capacity, i.e. the number of NS, which can accumulate in the SCR catalyst may increase. With decreasing temperature recorded growing characteristic of saturation. Although depending on the type and amount of zeolite catalytic coating, the temperature dependence of NS-capacity κ can be manifested in different ways, values in the range from 0.5 to 30 g of NA on l volume of catalyst, in particular from 1 to 20 g/l, NA-capacity K in the temperature range from +100°C to minus 20°C can be considered as typical. In particular, the maximum values of around 30 litres at a temperature TSCR<-15°C are typical for conventional types of catalysts. Above the threshold for a given catalyst temperature from +30°C to +150°C, in particular about 100°C, NS-capacity κ is usually neglected. Since the second threshold temperature, which is much higher desorption with increasing temperature increase. For zeolite coatings, which are often used in the catalysts of oxidation and sagely the filters, the threshold temperature may prefer to set lower. Here NS-capacity often can be neglected at temperatures above 50°C. More or less pronounced desorption occur at the same time, starting from 60°C to 80°C.

NS-capacity κ, confirmed by the inventors that entails that when the engine mode, in which the SCR catalyst 8 does not exceed the threshold temperature, available in the exhaust gases NS accumulate in large volume. The corresponding operating States include, for example, one or more successive processes cold start, which can join at a certain point the weak phase load or heating. If accession to such working conditions of the diesel engine 1 will require a higher load, because of the very hot exhaust gas comes to heating the SCR catalyst 8, which can lead to undesirable desorption accumulated before the national Assembly. Thus desorbed NA reached the maximum concentration, it feels like white smoke. The inventors have found that the magnitude of the NA-desorption largely depend on the accumulated in the SCR catalyst 8 number NS, and the speed of heating of the SCR catalyst 8.

In the relevant experiments, it was found that in a typical desorption temperature range appropriate to estoya components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment appear desorption peaks NS the height with the increase in the number NS-filler is also growing. Although the range of temperatures for desorption depends on the type of zeolite catalytic coating, values in the range from +50°to +150°C, in particular from +50° to +150°C, are considered as typical for the maximum NS-desorption. It was further established that the proportion of NS-desorption or the height and width of the peaks NS-desorption depends on the heating rate, i.e. the magnitude of the gradient heating. When heated in the characteristic desorption temperature range appear desorption peaks, the height of which with an increasing gradient of heating increases and the width decreases.

Based on the obtained corresponding fundamental experiments were developed strategies for eliminating unwanted powerful selection at cold start and/or warm-up diesel motor, which according to the claimed invention, on the one hand, aims to limit in quantitative terms, the accumulation of NA in the SCR catalyst 8. This can be achieved due to the fact that estimation of the number of accumulated NS SCR catalyst 8 and is targeted heating of the SCR catalyst 8 through the heated exhaust gas, if you receive such an assessment that the number NS-filler exceeds its limit value. So with the special you can avoid the accumulation of critical large quantities of NA, and desorption accumulated in the SCR catalyst 8 hydrocarbon is enforced to the point in time before the number NS-filler will reach such a critical level that running later heating may lead to undesirable high NA-desorption. On the other hand, hereinafter made are explained in detail steps such that the resulting proportion of desorbed NA in the SCR catalyst 8 as a result of its heating does not exceed the specified value or the specified maximum concentration of the NA released to the environment exhaust.

To estimate the number NS-filler in the SCR catalyst 8 according to the claimed invention provides for accounting of the number of successive processes of cold start and warm-up in which the specified threshold temperature for the SCR catalyst 8 is continuously or in the vast majority will not be exceeded. Also determine the amount of NA that is emitted by a diesel engine 1, and collects in the installation of exhaust gas aftertreatment 2 or SCR catalyst 8. This resort mainly to the stored parametric surfaces emission diesel engine 1, in which the recorded values for emission NS, depending on the critical operating parameters of the motor. In combination with the characteristic curves for the sorption and desorption, also stored in memory, can be summed up accumulating in the SCR catalyst 8 every time you cold start and warm-up the number of NS. If it turns out such an assessment, that the amount of NA-filler exceeds its limit value, which, in particular, depending on the temperature of the SCR catalyst 8 and/or passing the exhaust gas exceeded the specified proportion of the NA-capacity κ SCR catalyst 8 then activates the heating, which is mainly controlled so that the specified maximum value of the gradient heating for the SCR catalyst 8 is not exceeded in the temperature range desorption or slightly below it. The maximum value of the gradient heating is fixed depending on the number NS-filler and/or temperature of the SCR catalyst 8 in such a way that the maximum concentration of NS given in the environment of the exhaust gas does not exceed the specified value. Mostly this value corresponds with the maximum concentration of the national Assembly, when it becomes visible white smoke. Typical values for marginal quantities of NA-filler range from 10% to 30% NA-capacity κ. Typical values for the maximum value of the gradient of heating ranges from 5 to 20°C in minutes

According to the claimed invention, many installed in the standard manner, the operating characteristics of the motor to the target issue for lighting the th heating the SCR catalyst 8 at cold start and/or plug it warm or cold engine change so in contrast to the normal mode, you receive the exhaust gas, heated stronger. The methods identified in the future as the cold start of the engine, mostly cover one or more of the following:

- closing in the exhaust gas line 4 of the throttle element in accordance with the decrease in free flow area from 10% to 95%, in particular, depending on the load, using a more powerful throttling at low load. A special advantage is the closure of the choke element so that the obtained dynamic pressure from 1 bar to 4 bar, in particular from 2 to 3 bar;

- closing in wire to supply air 3 throttle element in accordance with the decrease in free flow area from 10% to 95%, preferably from 30% to 70%;

reducing pressure boost provided by the turbocharger, if necessary, to achieve the borders of steady work or a specified border of smoke, mainly in accordance with the measure of smoke from 1 or more;

- actuation absorption heater circuit EGR;

- change the valve timing of the exhaust valve of one or more cylinders diesel motor 1 so that the exhaust valve opens in the region from 10°KWnOT to 75°KWnOT, predpochtitelnei from 40°KWnOT to 65°KWnOT (KWnOT - the angle of crankshaft rotation before top dead center);

- closing of the EGR valve 14, at least periodically, if necessary, temporarily or gradually opening it up to acceptable in normal mode, the opening degree of;

- the first pre-injection following the first second pre-injection and following the second main injection of fuel into the cylinders diesel motor so that the position of the combustion of the fuel is obtained after top dead center of the compression stroke.

In particular, at low ambient temperatures from -10°C or below a particular advantage is that for cold start and followed him up phase warm-up or up a cold motor in accordance with the latter point is of special settings injection of fuel, as it further explains more figure 3 presents the graph.

The chart in figure 3 in the upper part shows schematically the heat dQ in the cylinder of the diesel engine 1, and at the bottom of the control pulse Iinjek corresponding injector depending on time divided by the angle of rotation of the crankshaft KW.

Claimed in the invention a method for cold starting of the motor with the selected appropriately parametermessagefile can be interpreted as a way of combustion, incomplete homogenization with at least two pre-injections PV1, PV2 and the main injection S fuel into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. When this first pre-injection PV1 occurs mainly in older time of the compression stroke so that further during the compression stroke dominated by homogeneous able to ignite the mixture of air and fuel, and after a certain ignition delay is homogeneous combustion mixture from heat, marked VPE1 arrow.

The second pre-injection PV2 occurs mainly at the upper dead point of the compression stroke at the time when due to combustion of previously injected in the first pre-injection PV1 fuel, there is a clear increase in the temperature in the combustion chamber. The main injection S occurs after the second pre-injection PV2 at the same time due to combustion is injected before the second pre-injection there is further apparent heat release in the combustion chamber, indicated VPE2 arrow. In this way it is ignition of the injected fuel even at very low temperatures from -20°C and below.

The combustion of the main injection S occurs mainly as a conventional diffusion combustion. This may be provided by the main division in which rickymania S into several partial injections thus, what happens retarded combustion. With particular advantage in that the amount of fuel in each partial injection is set larger than the amount of fuel in the preceding partial injections.

The first pre-injection PV1 occurs mainly in the range from 20°KWvOT to 40°KWvOT. The injected quantity at the first pre-injection PV1 is selected when this preferably in the range from 5% to 25% of the injected amount in the main injection S. The second pre-injection PV2 occurs mainly in the region of the upper dead point in the range from 5°KWvOT to 5°KWnOT, but not earlier than after the ignition is injected in the first pre-injection PV1 fuel. The injected quantity at the second pre-injection PV2 is selected when this preferably in the range from 2% to 15% of the injected amount in the main injection S.

Unlike shown in the chart in figure 3 images of the start of injection when the main injection S is selected usually in the range from 5°KWnOT to 20°KWnO so, what happens relatively late position combustion. While the heated exhaust gas purposefully set using a start time of the control pulse for the injector in such a way that desire is may, the rate of heating of the SCR catalyst 8 can be reliability is achieved. In taken, if necessary, dividing the main injection of S into two partial injection of the second partial injection occurs, joining the first in the area from 25°KWnOT to 60°KWnOT. It turns out at 20°KWnOT relatively late start of combustion, enabling the target heating installation exhaust gas aftertreatment 2 SCR-catalyst 8. Using the increasing load of the motor is provided a further shift lag started burning.

Using the claimed invention, a method for cold starting of the engine becomes possible target heating component of the exhaust gas aftertreatment 5, 6, 7, 8 installation exhaust gas aftertreatment 2 and specially SCR catalyst 8 even at very low temperatures and at low loads of the engine. Heating in order to avoid undesirable high peaks NS-desorption becomes possible regardless of the establishment of certain driving modes. According to the claimed invention provides for when the pre-set threshold temperature for the SCR catalyst 8 or principal in respect of the NA-desorption due to flue gases, components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment termination mode cold start of the engine. Under the termination " means the termination of at least one part per the above numerical operations. When this occurs, the ability to restrict over-expenditure of fuel, due to this mode cold start of the engine. Termination mode cold start of the motor is provided even when the motor load exceeds the specified or the value set at 30% of rated load. In this case, for the most part, and so it is natural heating installation exhaust gas aftertreatment 2 SCR-catalyst 8.

1. Way to start the internal combustion engine with the installation of exhaust gas aftertreatment with at least one catalyst and/or check with the filter component of the exhaust gas aftertreatment, which in combination with cold starts and/or warming up the internal combustion engine (1) idling the engine (1) is driven in the way it was run in a cold condition to heat the components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment with predetermined values of the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine when it comes to the assessment of cumulative one or more hydrocarbons in at least one component of the exhaust gas aftertreatment and the motor is started in a cold condition, if received this assessment is that the number of high filler exceeds the limit for hydrocarbons, great for the present, however, when activated mode cold start values of the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine are set so that at least one component of the exhaust gas aftertreatment is heated in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine (1) gas so that the gradient of the heating, the heating temperature range desorption, in which the desorption of accumulated component in exhaust gas aftertreatment, does not exceed the specified maximum value of the gradient of heat.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that mode cold start of the engine is activated at cold start at ambient temperatures from minus 10°C or below.

3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that in the temperature range desorption from 50°C to 150°C, the gradient of heating is less than 20°C per minute.

4. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the maximum value of the gradient of heating is chosen so that a certain border visibility in white cloud, the maximum concentration of hydrocarbons contained in exhaust gases and returned to the environment will not be exceeded.

5. The method according to claim 3, characterized in that the maximum value of the gradient of heating is chosen so that a certain border visibility in white cloud, the maximum concentration is of hydrocarbons, contained in the exhaust gases and returned to the environment will not be exceeded.

6. The method according to one of claims 1, 2 or 5, characterized in that the evaluation of the cumulative amount of hydrocarbons based on the duration of the operation of the internal combustion engine (1) with a temperature not exceeding long given, in particular, the first threshold temperature, relative to at least one of the main components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment during desorption of hydrocarbons caused by flue gases.

7. The method according to one of claims 1, 2 or 5, characterized in that the value to set as the limit for the cumulative number of hydrocarbons, ranging from 30% or less capacity (K) at least one of the components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment or main components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment during desorption of hydrocarbons caused by flue gases.

8. The method according to one of claims 1, 2 or 5, characterized in that after reaching the one specified, in particular, the second threshold temperature for at least one of the components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment or main components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment during desorption of hydrocarbons caused by flue gases, cold start the engine stops.

9. The method according to one of claims 1, 2 or 5, characterized in that when the act is vorovannim mode cold start of the motor is repeated injection of fuel into one or more combustion chambers of the cylinder of the internal combustion engine (1), which include within a work cycle that cylinder pre-injection (PV1), following the first pre-injection, the second pre-injection (PV2) and the main injection (S), following the second pre-injection, and
the first pre-injection (PV1) is in the range of angles of rotation of the crankshaft is larger than 20° before the upper dead point in the compression stroke of that cylinder;
the second pre-injection (PV2) is carried out in the time after the start of heat release of the fuel fed through the first pre-injection (PV1), and
- the main injection (S) is the time after the start of heat release of the fuel fed through the second pre-injection (PV2).

10. The method according to claim 6, characterized in that when activated mode cold start of the motor is repeated injection of fuel into one or more combustion chambers of the cylinder of the internal combustion engine (1), which include inside the working cycle of this cylinder pre-injection (PV1), following the first pre-injection, the second pre-injection (PV2) and the main injection (S), following the second pre-injection, and
the first advanced in riscovanii (PV1) is in the angle range of the crankshaft big, than 20° before top dead center in the compression stroke of that cylinder;
the second pre-injection (PV2) is carried out in the time after the start of heat release of the fuel fed through the first pre-injection (PV1), and
- the main injection (S) is the time after the start of heat release of the fuel fed through the second pre-injection (PV2).

11. The method of claim 8, wherein when the activated mode cold start of the motor is repeated injection of fuel into one or more combustion chambers of the cylinder of the internal combustion engine (1), which include inside the working cycle of this cylinder pre-injection (PV1), following the first pre-injection, the second pre-injection (PV2) and the main injection (S), following the second pre-injection, and
the first pre-injection (PV1) is in the range of angles of rotation of the crankshaft is larger than 20° before top dead center in the compression stroke of that cylinder;
the second pre-injection (PV2) is carried out in the time after the start of heat release of the fuel fed through the first pre-injection (PV1), and
- the main injection (S) is the time after the start of the allocated shall I heat the fuel filed through the second pre-injection (PV2).

12. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the amount of injected fuel at the second pre-injection (PV2) is less than the amount of injected fuel at the first pre-injection (PV1).

13. The method according to claim 10 or 11, characterized in that the amount of injected fuel at the second pre-injection (PV2) is less than the amount of injected fuel at the first pre-injection (PV1).

14. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the second pre-injection (PV2) is in the range of angles of rotation of the crankshaft from 5° to 5° after top dead center in the compression stroke, and the main injection (S) is in the range of angles of rotation of the crankshaft 5 to 20 degrees after dead center in the compression stroke.

15. The method according to one of p, 11 or 12, characterized in that the second pre-injection (PV2) is in the range of angles of rotation of the crankshaft from 5° to 5° after top dead center in the compression stroke, and the main injection (S) is in the range of angles of rotation of the crankshaft 5 to 20 degrees after dead center in the compression stroke.

16. The method according to claim 9, wherein the execution mode cold start of the engine is performed in the ass is Noah areas of weak load of the internal combustion engine (1) and the mode cold start of the engine when the engine load is above the area weak load is terminated.

17. The method according to one of p, 11, 12, or 14, wherein the execution mode cold start of the engine is in the specified area weak load of the internal combustion engine (1) and the mode cold start of the engine when the engine load is above the area weak load is terminated.

18. The method according to one of claims 1, 2 or 5, characterized in that the evaluation is performed on the cumulative amount of the hydrocarbon SCR catalyst (8) as the catalytic components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment installation for exhaust gas aftertreatment and activated mode cold start of the engine, when the evaluation shows that accumulates the number of hydrocarbon SCR catalyst (8) exceeds the limit value cumulative number of hydrocarbons.

19. The method according to claim 9, characterized in that the evaluation is performed on the cumulative amount of the hydrocarbon SCR catalyst (8) as the catalytic components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment installation for exhaust gas aftertreatment and activated mode cold start of the engine, when the evaluation shows that accumulates the number of hydrocarbon SCR catalyst (8) exceeds the limit value cumulative number of hydrocarbons.

20. The method according to one of p, 11, 12, 14 or 16, characterized in that p is otvoditsya assessment of the cumulative amount of the hydrocarbon SCR catalyst (8) as the catalytic components of the exhaust gas aftertreatment installation for exhaust gas aftertreatment and mode enabled cold start of the engine, when the evaluation shows that accumulates the number of hydrocarbon SCR catalyst (8) exceeds the limit value cumulative number of hydrocarbons.



 

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11 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

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13 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; transport engineering; engines.

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EFFECT: simplified control of engine unit.

12 cl, 8 dwg

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