Method of plant cultivation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of plant cultivation comprises includes treatment of plant seeds prior to their sowing and of plant in the growing season with a biological product in liquid form. As a biological product, a mixture of strains of bacteria of B. subtilis of RNCIM B-10641, B. amyloliquefaciens RNCIM B-10642 and B. amyloliquefaciens RNCIM B-10643 is used, with a titer of not less than 106 CFU/ml in the form of an aqueous suspension.

EFFECT: invention provides increase in productivity of plants and restoration of soil microbiocenosis.

3 cl, 4 dwg, 5 tbl, 9 ex

 

The invention relates to methods for recovery of microflora of soil and plant protection, in particular integrated protection of spring wheat from the complex infectious diseases (leaf-steam, seed and root system), and can be used in agricultural Microbiology, agricultural biotechnology, plant protection.

It is known that spore-forming bacteria of the genus Bacillus, as a mandatory component of the soil microflora, have, along with high stability to adverse external factors, a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against pathogenic, pathogenic and putrefactive microflora, which makes them indispensable biological agents for the creation of biological products for use in the field of plant protection. In addition, being saprophytic microorganisms, spore-forming bacteria of the genus Bacillus, are important participants in the circulation of substances in ecosystems, perform along with microorganisme in the important role of decomposers of organic matter in the soil, make it soluble, available for consumption by plants mineral form.

As bacterial fertilizer use as monocultures, including one strain of microorganism, and consortia of strains with different (solid and liquid) of the order is the teli.

There is a method of cultivation and crop protection (Patent RF №2154935, IPC A01G 1/00, publ. 27.08.2000), including soil preparation, planting or sowing of the plants, periodic cultivation with application of a mixture of activators, Immunostimulants, antagonists and biofertilizers (Overcrop, agate-25 or Rhizoplane, Ampelomyces, Gerbamin, Disprin or Nematol, Complex biological fertilizer (BMF), the Symbiont-Estate) at half the recommended doses of these drugs, the same mix in combination with biological fertilizers (Vermicompost, Root mixture at recommended doses) contribute in the hole before planting in the ground with the biological make waste Trichogramma production or waste viral biologics (dead butterfly) with sapropel or rotted chicken manure, or with powder from naturally fallen leaves or needles, in a further mixture of 1 conduct periodic ground-based spraying or irrigation of vegetative plants (every two weeks) with preliminary projections of Vermicompost and soil Root mixture (same rules), soil inhabit a range of microorganisms, microbial antagonists contained in biologics (Alien-In, Alien, Pacific, Gliocladium, Mycostop, Narcissus, Nematology or Nematology (activated supernatant is going on the production of a biological product, Disprin), Pentothal, Isoplan-f, various forms of Trichodermin, Trichothecin, Vitaflavan, Vitaflavan-L) (mix 4), at half the dose recommended for this drug, which contribute in the hole before planting, then periodically (1 every two weeks) spraying or watering plants; enter as elements of the fauna of predators and entomophages (Aphidius, Amblyseius, ladybirds, Verbliudka, Midge, Lacewing, Lysiphlebus, Sifredi, Phytoseiulus) - complex 1 - by periodic release of half doses recommended for this drug and microorganisms, which is the current top of biologics (Overcrop, Verticalin, Cephalosporins, Endomorphin, Bicol, Methoxylation, Bowery, Vertimax, Mihaylin-T, Torild, Entertain) (mix 5), at half the dose recommended for this drug by periodic treatment - spraying or watering; before spraying Diprima and/or Namatala use sodium alginate to prevent drying and death of nematodes, and the use of entomophages, at the beginning of the vegetation period of cultivation of agricultural crops, additionally implanted into the aisle staple crops Compositae and/or umbrella plants, which are an additional source of power for adults entomophages.

There is a method of enriching the soil and restore its microbio is enosa in the cultivation of agricultural crops, including the land application of straw of cereals. In addition, contribute activator decomposition of stubble (ARS) and the activator of soil microflora (APM), chopped straw during harvest grain evenly scatter across the field in the amount of 4-6 t/ha followed by embedment in soil winter plowing, and biologics ARS and PAM bring in the spring presowing cultivation to a depth of 6-10 cm at the rate of 1000 ml/ha each (patent RF №2172087, IPC AS 21/00, C05F 11/08, publ. 20.08.2001,).

The disadvantage of the above analogy is the complexity and cost of reproduction of ways to restore the microflora of soil and plant protection.

The closest analogue (prototype) is a method of biological protection of plants on the example of potatoes, including the processing of tubers and potato plants during the growing season a biological product in a mixture with adhesive, characterized in that the processing of potato tubers as a biological product used taking into consideration of the calculation of 1000 ml per tonne of tubers, and to treat 1 ha of planting during the growing season using a mixture of biological products taking into consideration the amount of 0.5 l and bankol in the amount of 0.2 l, dissolved in 300-350 liters of mineral water "Samanco", as the adhesive used corn starch in the amount of 1-1,5% from the volume of the mixture (patent RF №2343667, IPC AS 1/00, A01N 63/0, publ. 20.01.2009,).

However, this method does not allow concurrent with plant protection to ensure the ability to restore the microflora of the soil on which the plants are grown.

The technical result of the proposed technical solution is the possibility of increasing the yield of plants and restore the microflora of the soil on which are grown these plants by using one integrated product, having the properties of biofertilizer and biopesticide.

This technical result is achieved in that in the method of growing plants comprising a processing plant seeds before sowing and plants during the growing season the biological product in liquid form, according to the invention as a biological product, a mixture of bacterial strains B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642 and B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643 with a titer of not less than 106CFU/ml in aqueous suspension.

When you increase crop yield seeds treated with 2 ml of aqueous suspension of a biological product per ton of seed and foliar treatment of plants is carried out at the rate of 2 ml aqueous suspension of a biological product per hectare of crops.

When restoring microflora of soil seeds treated with 5 ml of aqueous suspension of a biological product per ton of seed and foliar treatment of plants is syshestvyut rate of 5 ml aqueous suspension of a biological product per hectare of crops.

Used strains obtained by the applicant by the method of directed selection of bacterial strains:

Bacillus subtilis IC-1435-1-1 for the restoration of microflora of the soil and the gastrointestinal tract of animals with bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal activity and deposited in Russian national Collection of Industrial Microorganisms FSUE gosniigenetika under registration number VKPM B-10641 (certificate of Deposit attached);

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IC-1436-1-23 for the restoration of microflora of the soil and the gastrointestinal tract of animals, which have bactericidal and fungicidal activity and deposited in Russian national Collection of Industrial Microorganisms FSUE gosniigenetika under registration number VKPM B-10642 (certificate of Deposit attached);

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IC-1437-1-23 for the restoration of microflora of the soil and the gastrointestinal tract of animals, which have bactericidal and fungicidal activity and deposited in Russian national Collection of Industrial Microorganisms FSUE gosniigenetika under registration number VKPM B-10643 (certificate of Deposit included).

The above strains of bacteria are stored in the form of a pure culture and acquired on a nutrient medium consisting of corn extract and water by liquid is of the second fermentation at a temperature of (30±1)°C for 3-4 days before the rise of titer of living microbial cells in the biomass of the order of 1×10 9CFU/ ml Ready biologic used in water as working fluids for presowing treatment of seeds; processing vegetative mass of agricultural plants; irrigation of agricultural crops; tillage.

Figure 1 shows a graph of the number of bacteria of the genus Bacillus, ×105CFU/g of air dry soil (summer and autumn). Figure 2 shows a graph of the number of nitrifying bacteria, ×105CFU/g of air dry soil (summer and autumn). Figure 3 shows a diagram ammonification bacteria, ×105CFU/g of air dry soil. Figure 4 shows a graph of index of humification of soil, %.

Example 1. The method of growing plants that enhance their productivity

If the soil of the plants does not require significant recovery microbiocenosis, the method comprises first processing plant seeds before sowing in liquid form in aqueous suspension of a biological product containing a mixture of bacterial strains B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642 and B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643 with a titer of not less than 106CFU/ml at the rate of 2 ml aqueous suspension of a biological product per tonne of seeds and conduct their crops into the soil. Then in the vegetation period the same complex biological exercise foliar treatment of plants at the rate of 2 ml aqueous suspension of a biological product per hectare visit the s by ground-based mechanized spraying (MT3-80 and OECS-2200) above bioagents.

Example. 2. The method of growing plants that provide restoration of microflora of the soil and increase their productivity

If the soil plants require serious repair microbiocenosis, the method comprises first processing plant seeds before sowing in liquid form in aqueous suspension of a biological product containing a mixture of bacterial strains B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642 and B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643 with a titer of not less than 106CFU/ml at a rate of 5 ml aqueous suspension of a biological product per tonne of seeds and conduct their crops into the soil. Then in the vegetation period the same complex biological exercise unroot processing of plants at a rate of 5 ml aqueous suspension of a biological product per hectare of crops by ground-based mechanized spraying (MT3-80 and OECS-2200) above bioagents.

Below are examples 3-6 restore the microflora of the soil in the experimental conditions.

Example 3. Spent processing of seeds and plants of spring wheat varieties Bagansky 95 with an aqueous suspension of strains of B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643 according to the following scheme: option 1 - control; 2 - treatment of seeds with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/t; 3 - foliar treatment of vegetating plants with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/ha; 4 - processing of SEM is h with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/t and foliar treatment of vegetating plants with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/ha. As control was used plants treated with water.

As a result of the treatments noted (figure 1) significant increase in the content of spore-forming bacteria of the genus Bacillus in test options 3 (foliar vegetating plants with a mixture of strains of B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643, 1.71 million compared to control) and 4 (seed treatment with a mixture of strains and feeding a mixture of strains, 1.16 million).

Example 4. Spent processing of seeds and plants of spring wheat varieties Bagansky 95 with an aqueous suspension of strains of B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643 according to the following scheme: option 1 - control; 2 - treatment of seeds with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/t; 3 - foliar treatment of vegetating plants with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/ha; 4 - seed treatment with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/t and foliar treatment of vegetating plants with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/ha As control was used plants treated with water. As a result of the treatments noted (figure 2) significant increase in the content of the number of nitrification in variants of seed treatment with mixture of strains (3.25 million relative to control), comprehensive study of seed treatment and feeding a mixture of strains (2.9 million).

Example 5. Spent processing of seeds and plants of spring wheat varieties Bagansky 95 with an aqueous suspension of strains of B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643 according to the following scheme: option 1 - control; 2 - treatment of seeds with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/t; 3 - foliar treatment of vegetating plants with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/ha; 4 - seed treatment with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/t and foliar treatment of vegetating plants with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/ha As control was used plants treated with water. As a result of the treatments noted (figure 3) significant increase in the content of the number of nitrogen-fixing (ammonification) microorganisms in versions with seed treatment with a mixture of strains and feeding vegetative plants with a mixture of strains (33.4 million compared to control).

Example 6. Spent processing of seeds and plants of spring wheat varieties Bagansky 95 with an aqueous suspension of strains of B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643 according to the following scheme: option 1 - control; 2 - treatment of seeds with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/t; 3 - foliar treatment of vegetating plants with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/ha; 4 - seed treatment mixture vysheukazannoe the x strains at a rate of 5 ml/t and foliar treatment of vegetating plants with a mixture of the above strains, at a rate of 5 ml/ha. As control was used plants treated with water. As a result of the treatments noted (figure 4) significant increase in the index of humification by the time of harvest compared to the control variant with application of feeding vegetative plants with a mixture of strains (33.9%). Thus, of all the studied variants using strains of B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643 greatest positive impact on the composition indicative of the composition of the microflora of the soil had the use of strains for seed treatment and feeding of growing plants. Below are examples 7-9 increase wheat yields by protecting plants against various infections.

Example 7. To improve productivity by ensuring protection of spring wheat during the growing season from fungal diseases were processed seeds of spring wheat varieties Bagansky 95 with an aqueous suspension of strains of B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643 according to the following scheme: option 1 - control; 2 - treatment of seeds with a mixture of the above strains, at the rate of 2 ml/t; 3 - treatment of seeds with a mixture of the above strains, at the rate of 2 ml/t and foliar treatment of vegetating plants with a mixture of the above strains, at the rate of 2 ml/ha as control used plants treated with water. The result is statistically significant increase (table 1) yield of spring wheat varieties Bagansky 95 13.8% and increasing the wet gluten content in grain by 2%.

Table 1
Spring wheat cultivar Bagansky 95. Sat may 22, harvesting 15 September (CJSC "Rock"). Background the introduction of ammonium nitrate to 1.7 t/ha in physical weight
Defined indicators of efficiency of application of fertilizersControl 20 haExperience 492 ha
Fungicidal seed treatment+herbicide treatment plantsFungicidal seed treatment with a mixture of strains of bacteria (2 ml/t)+herbicide treatment of plants with a mixture of strains of bacteria (2 ml/ha)
Yield20,0 kg/ha22,7 kg/ha
The content of wet gluten27%29%

Example 8. To improve productivity by ensuring protection of spring wheat during the growing season from fungal diseases and increase yields were in the processing of seeds of spring wheat varieties Bagansky 95 with an aqueous suspension of strains of B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643 according to the following scheme: option 1 - control; 2 - treatment with the mJy mixture of the above strains, at the rate of 2 ml/t; 3 - treatment of seeds with a mixture of the above strains, at the rate of 2 ml/t and foliar treatment of vegetating plants with a mixture of the above strains, at the rate of 2 ml/ha as a control was used plants treated with water. In the statistically significant increase (table 2, 3) yield of spring wheat varieties Bagansky 95 20-25% and the increase of wet gluten content in grain by 3-6%.

Table 2
Experienced field 36 hectares Predecessor - pairs, seeding may 18, culture - spring wheat Bagansky 95 (JSC "Tolmachevo"). Cleaning September 10
Determined-
appropriate indicators of performance-
ti application of fertilizers
Options experience
ControlFungicidal seed treatment with a mixture of strains of bacteria (2 ml/t)Fungicidal seed treatment with a mixture of strains of bacteria (2 ml/t)+herbicide treatment of plants with a mixture of strains of bacteria (2 ml/ha)
Yield38 t/ha42 t/ha48 t/ha
The content of crude ClamWin the 21%24%23%

Table 3
Predecessors grain legumes, culture - spring wheat Bagansky 95 (JSC "Tolmachevo"). Cleaning October 5
Defined indicators of efficiency of application of fertilizersControl 20 haExperience 492 ha
Fungicidal seed treatment+herbicide treatment plantsFungicidal seed treatment with a mixture of strains of bacteria (2 ml/t)+herbicide treatment of plants with a mixture of strains of bacteria (2 ml/ha)
Yield34,3 kg/haof 40.7 kg/ha
The content of wet gluten20%24%

Example 9. For the protection of spring wheat during the growing season from fungal diseases and increase yields were in the processing of seeds of spring wheat varieties Novosibirsk 29 with an aqueous suspension of strains of B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643 according to the following scheme: option 1 - control is; option 2 - treatment of seeds with a mixture of the above strains, at the rate of 2 ml/t; 3 - treatment of seeds with a mixture of the above strains, at the rate of 2 ml/t and foliar treatment of vegetating plants with a mixture of the above strains, at the rate of 2 ml/ha as a control was used plants treated with water.

Table 4
Wheat yield for different versions
№ p/pOptions experienceYield, kg/ha
1control17,8
2seed treatment with chemical disinfectants18,5
3seed treatment with a mixture of strains of bacteria (2 ml/t)21,3
4seed treatment with a mixture of strains of bacteria (10 ml/t)19,8

The highest yield was obtained by treatment of seeds with a mixture of the above strains (2 ml/t), it was 21.3 kg/ha, an increase of 3.5 kg compared to control.

Table 5
Data on the length of the stalk, the ear and the number of ears in the ear
№ p/pOptions experienceThe stem length, cmThe length of the ear, cmThe number of spikelets per ear, piece
1control57,85,09,4
2seed treatment with chemical disinfectants57,1the 5.79,1
3seed treatment with a mixture of strains of bacteria (2 ml/t)56,54,88,7
4seed treatment with a mixture of strains of bacteria (10 ml/t)57,25,8the 10.1

The best option was an option for the treatment of seeds with a mixture of the above strains (2 ml/t)+dressing with a mixture of strains (2 ml/ha), stem length was 63 cm, length of the spike 6.6 cm and the number is the number of spikelets in the ear pieces of 11.6

1. The method of growing plants comprising a processing plant seeds before sowing and plants during the growing season the biological product in liquid form, characterized in that as a biological product, a mixture of bacterial strains B. subtilis VKPM B-10641; B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10642 and B. amyloliquefaciens VKPM B-10643 with a titer of not less than 106CFU/ml in aqueous suspension.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that to increase the yield of plants seeds treated with 2 ml of aqueous suspension of a biological product per ton of seed and foliar treatment of plants is carried out at the rate of 2 ml aqueous suspension of a biological product per hectare of crops.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that to restore the microflora of the soil, the seeds treated with 5 ml of aqueous suspension of a biological product per ton of seed and foliar treatment of plants is carried out at a rate of 5 ml aqueous suspension of a biological product per hectare of crops.



 

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2 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: encapsulated antimicrobial material includes (i) a kernel containing an antimicrobial material and a shell (ii) out of an encapsulated material which is a hydrophobic shell with a melting temperature higher than 45°C. It is selected out of a group including animal oils and fats, completely hydrogenated vegetable or animal oils, partially hydrogenated vegetable or animal oils, unsaturated hydrogenated or completely hydrogenated fatty acids, unsaturated hydrogenated or completely hydrogenated monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids, unsaturated hydrogenated or completely hydrogenated etherified monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids, unsaturated partially hydrogenated or completely hydrogenated free fatty acids, other emulsifiers, animal waxes, vegetable waxes, mineral waxes, synthetic waxes, natural and synthetic resins as well as their mixtures. The hydrophobic shell is impermeable for the antimicrobial material and is selected to provide release of the antimicrobial material from the encapsulated antimicrobial material while in contact with food products and the antimicrobial material is bacteriocin selected from the lanthionine-containing bacteriocins, bacteriocins formed by Lactococcus, bacteriocins formed by Streptococcus, bacteriocins formed by Pediococcus, bacteriocins formed by Lactobacillus, bacteriocins formed by Camobacterium, bacteriocins formed by Leuconostoc, bacteriocins formed by Enterococcus and their mixtures. The composition contains the antimicrobial material and a carrier. The food product contains the product and the antibacterial material. The method is implemented by introducing the antimicrobial material into the food product.

EFFECT: invention ensures a long antimicrobial effect.

43 cl, 16 ex, 4 tbl

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology namely to preparation for stimulation of growing and developing of plants based on strain Halobacterium salinarum All-Russian collection of industrial microorganisms B-9025. To obtain the preparation strain Halobacterium salinarum All-Russian collection of industrial microorganisms B-9025 is grown during 6 days. After that biomass is separated by centrifugal process at 7000 g and incubated in distilled water. After that deposit is thrown away and obtained supernatant is centrifugally processed at 50000 g, supernatant is thrown away and distilled water of the same volume is added to the obtained deposit. Deposit is dissolved. Such suspending process is repeatedly performed till ratio of optical density of solution at wave-length 280 nm to solution optical density at wave-length 570 nm (D280\D570) less than 2,5, after that supernatant is standartised till bacteriorhodopsin concentration makes from 10-9 M to 10-6 M.

EFFECT: preparation allows to reduce general fertiliser consumption while growing plants which leads to production of more ecologically clean products with ample quantity of nutrient substances and green mass.

5 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: compound acceptable for agriculture, application of the compound and method for stimulating early blossom and budding and/or fruitification for non-legumes and legumes crops are described. The compound stimulates early blossom and budding for non-legumes and horticultural croppers, ornamental plants, crop or bedding plants and contains one or several lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) in the efficient quantity.

EFFECT: increased harvest connected with stimulating early blossom, quantity increase of buds and flowers, earlier fetal development for non-legumes and legumes crops comparing with the condition without using LCOs.

14 cl, 14 tbl, 22 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used during establishment of industrial plantations of valuable nut crop - pistache (Pistacia vera L) in the North Caucasus. Seeds of pistache are soaked in aqueous solution of kinetin having temperature of 35-40°C and in concentration of 500 mg/l during 10-12 days. The soaked seeds are planted in pits covered with substrate, that is manure, straw and mixture of sand with humus placed layer by layer.

EFFECT: survival rate is increased without preparatory cold stratification.

1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: when plants are growing under coverage, low molecular chitosan dissolved in a 0.025% aqueous solution of amber acid is applied under the roots at 25 mg per plant. Complex mineral fertiliser is also put at the same time. Treatment is repeated twice a month for the whole vegetation period of the plants.

EFFECT: protecting cucumber plants from gallic eelworm, Meloidogyne incognita.

6 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes treatment of seeds and/or vegetative plants prior to sowing with a biologically active substance. The biologically active substance is a 0.00002 - 0.2% water solution of pectin, extracted from little duckweed Lemna minor L., or tench weed of floating Potamogeton natans L., or cowberry Comarum palustre L., or callus tissue of clammy campion Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase germination and speed of seeds growth, growth of roots and germs, vegetative growth and crop capacity, to increase vitality of plants and to reduce times of vegetation.

5 tbl, 4 ex

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