Prokofyev self-oscillation generator

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: self-oscillation generator by Prokofyev includes an LC oscillating circuit, a scaling operating amplifier, a non-linear feedback that includes a resistive summing network for two inputs, a normally open fixed contact of an electronic switch of a pulse non-linear element that includes a RS trigger and two comparators, chains of introduction of special initial conditions of regulated oscillations (RO), which consist of a single toggle switch of RO+ and RO- modes, a double start-up toggle switch and resistors, control voltage potentiometer A, voltage sources, a start-up capacitor; regulated stabilised self-oscillations, which are steady-state as to amplitude at the output of the scaling operating amplifier, are determined with the specified ratios of parameters of the elements expressed in the form of mathematical expressions.

EFFECT: enlarging the application area of regulated oscillations.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to electronics and, in particular, to a promising technique of radio frequency synthesis, generating oscillations of a special form and radio.

Widely known generators of sustained oscillations, named by academician Andronova autocalibrate (AK) [1]. Invented in the 20s of the XX century, the self-oscillation generators (HA) up to the present time widely used in a variety of technical systems and devices, first on the radio, cristalino and thyratrons, and then on thyristors, transistors and chips. Over the past 90 years, this type of generators, practically dominates in mass circuitry.

Also known is a new type of harmonic oscillations, called regulated fluctuations (SC) [2, 3], which are generated using nodes analog computing machinery (integrators, trigonometric functional converters) on the basis of operating (decisive) amplifiers (op-amp) [4]. Feature of RK is strictly regulated character of change of the instantaneous phase of these oscillations in time. Instantaneous phase RK either decreases or increases, and its temporary slope (frequency) can be controlled in a wide range of negative and positive values, including to be zero, which is impossible in AK.

Feature AK is with ETANA linear LC circuit with nonlinear feedback, containing electronic device (EP) (tube, transistor, and T. p.). Non-linear characteristic FL (in the tube is the steepness S of the anode-grid characteristic) compensates for attenuation in linear LC circuit at the expense of linearity's in the initial part of its characteristics and stabilization of the amplitude AK due to the occurrence of oscillations in nonlinear finite region characteristics. This combination of properties has proved Gshort in the 50s of the XX century [5].

Since then, the technology is far advanced, especially in the direction of micro - and nanotechnology. Already attempted to justify the possibility of generating RK in a typical LC circuit [6], while for the development of circuitry RK acute problem of compensation of the attenuation of the oscillatory circuit. This problem is solved in [7] by introducing a positive feedback loop (OS) through large-scale OS Then the equivalent resistance of the circuit

where r is the resistance coil inductance, ρ is the additional resistance, the gain of the shelter. Driving is available to adjust ρ and can be set r* of any sign, including zero (all in linear mode!). Therefore, this opened the possibility of creating negative resistance oscillation circuit the goal is to build structures regulamentar is imago generator self-oscillations (DSA).

This statement does not contradict to the rationale Gsservice (see [5]), that for creation of self-oscillations is necessary transition steepness S EP from linear to nonlinear regime, when

where M is the coefficient of mutual induction, S is the slope of the EP, With the pixel circuit in each of the oscillations of S on the linear plot characteristics according to (2) compensates for the attenuation, because r* can be zero or even to be negative, but with a slight time variations in the nonlinearity is the stabilization of the amplitude of the undamped and Dure growing oscillations (see [1] and [5]). When the task is proposed to use nonlinear pulse-locked loop amplitude (APA), in which the slope S and mutual induction M is not required (see[7], [8]).

Closest to the proposed invention is a device for implementing the methods of [7] and [8]. The proposed device operates as follows.

1. Connect an additional resistor ρ between the earth and the beginning of L.

2. This node is connected linear OS through large-scale OS without inversion with gain K, the output of which is fed to the condenser end of S*.

3. As capacitor* include a serial circuit of two capacitors C1 and C2.

4. Choose as second OS system pulse is locked loop amplitude (APA), containing pulse nonlinear element (IEO), consisting of the RS trigger, the output of which is connected to the control input of electronic switch with normally open contacts, and a myriad of inputs to the outputs of the two Comparators, the first inputs of which are integrated into one unit to synchronize the APA, and the latter - to the sources of small voltages +λ and

-λ.

5. Connect the circuit input special initial conditions (ONU), comprising a single toggle switch modes RK+ RK-, dual trigger switch and resistors and ½rch ╗ RT connected to the node between C1 and C2 and between L and S* oscillating circuit.

6. Choose as OS summarizing OS reinvestiruet and inverting inputs.

7. Connected between the output of summing the OS and its inverting input of the nonlinear OS, consisting of the first input summing resistor chain for the two inputs, the second of which is connected with a movable contact of the potentiometer And the input of which is filed with the constant voltage from the middle contact of switch modes, output adder chain and a normally open contact IEO-performing synchronization APA connecting the combined input of the Comparators IEO to the node between L and S* oscillating circuit.

8. Simplify circuit ONU by connection of the toggle switch modes when RK+ source-Ho, and if RK - source +Ho and the introduction of the capacitor JV is an open circuit between the resistor RT and the switch trigger.

9. Rent stabilized regulated self-oscillations (RA):X from a node between L and S*, U=KTU output OS stabilisation levels amplitude Y+*=+A/CT mode RK+, and Y-*=-A/kt, where t=RS*.

With the high number and content characteristics of the proposed device should be considered as prototypes of sources [7 and 8]. Signs 1, 2, 3 and 5 coincide with [7], the sign of 4 coincides with that of [8], signs 6, 7, 8 and 9 are new compared to the prototypes.

Sign 8 is the remainder of the full ONU (see [6]). It guarantees the absence of oscillations in the generator in time of power supply on its nodes (IEO, OS). When nodes will be aired on working modes command 'start', interrupts the supply of the charging voltage on the capacitor C*, and you start pulse for RK+ RK - will give a differentiating chain RC.

The acquaintance with the modern scientific-technical and patent information has not revealed any technical solutions containing the set of distinctive features of the proposed generator self-oscillations. Based on the above proposed device meets the condition of "novelty."

Already the combination in a single device characteristics of the two prototypes, one of which is the present invention has an inventive step, as it opens the possibility to generate self-oscillations without slope S and without AMS. But it contains warranty is Naya able to generate the Republic of Kazakhstan. Therefore, the proposed DSA meets "the criterion of inventive step".

In Fig. 1 shows the structure of the DSA, figure 2 - phase portraits (a) RK+ and b) RK-, 3 - chip implementation of IEO.

The structure of the RSA consists of the following nodes and elements. LC circuit 1 through the additional resistor ρ connected to ground. Capacitor* connected by its end to the exit HL 2, output impedance which although is in the circuit, but does not affect its parameters due to the small size of its internal resistance, and through its non-inverting input connected to the resistor ρ, closes the line OS with gain K. the Other OS nonlinear and it is the system impulse APA fluctuations, which includes IEO 3 (figure 3), whose first inputs of its Comparators obydenny in one node to synchronize the APA, and the latter is connected to the source of small voltages +λ and -λ retiring divider. 4. Nonlinear OS is connected between the output of summing HL 2 and its inverting input with gain-ǽ. Part of this circuit includes a first input of a summing resistor chain 5 for the two inputs, the second input of which podkluchen to the rolling contact of the potentiometer control voltages And the output adder chain and normally open contact 7 electronic key IEO, the combined input of the comparator which is otklyuchen to the node between L and S* oscillating circuit and synchronizes the APA.

The DSA provides the possibility of introducing a simplified ONU using the circuit: toggle modes 8, starting double toggle switch 9 and the resistors and ½rch ╗ RT. The complexity of these circuits is achieved by eliminating the trimmer resistors modes RK+ RK-, the change in the polarity of the input voltages at the switch of modes 8 and the introduction of the capacitor JV in open circuit between RT and toggle start-up 9.

Operates DSA as follows. In the initial position(IP) while power is applied to the chip oscillations in the generator because of the capacitor C* forced voltage Ho/4. Potentiometer modes RK must be installed in one of two positions, either negative, in which he is no longer in the path of the pulse APA negative voltage, the magnitude and sign of which will be worked out in a positive amplitude of the oscillations of Y in RK+, or positive, in which he is no longer in the path of the pulse APA, a positive voltage the magnitude and sign of which will be worked out in a negative amplitude of the oscillations of Y in RK,... We assume that in the oscillating circuit when the line OS, disabled nonlinear OS has been preliminary compensation of attenuation, for example, by the selection of K. following this training, nonlinear OS included, starting switch set in IE and installed for RK+ small ONU: X(0)=Ho/4, Y(0)=0. To libania X and Y (figa, b) first change in linear mode (figa, the area OI) according to the equation

When it moves along the segment of an ellipse reaches OII, appears to work impulse IEO, which is advisable to explain the process of generating the Republic of Kazakhstan to introduce the following dimensionless functions of the algebra of logic (see [9])

where Sg is a function of the sign (see [1]), a TrR, TrS - state RS trigger, the streak is over a function denotes inversion. Then the dynamics of the generation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the DSA can be represented as a single nonlinear (piecewise linear) equations

When(pulse IEO no, his electronic key normally open), the main part of the period of generation operates the linear equation (3) oscillator with compensated attenuation (region, almost all the X, Y plane).

When(pulse IEO has his electronic key is closed, a small portion of the period of generation (see OII) is the equation

which is also linear, but differs from (3) (the right part, the attenuation is large, greater than fo, the sign of colibacillosis j=0, the roots of the characteristic equation are real and negative) and in it lies the essence of the APA. Using the method of point into any [10] to solve the problem, computed two series of point values oscillations of Y, which it receives when entering it in A and acquires when exiting OII (terminology Assinine [11] is a lattice function). When the incoming and outgoing values of these functions will be the same, the APA has happened. This will happen when in (6) Y is equal to 0, and then for RK+ (control-A) lattice constant of the function Y*+=A/kt, where t=ρ*. On the OP on the location of the unstable state of equilibrium type "center" born stable) limit cycle of the first kind (see [1]) (see figa). Depicting point(it) endlessly rotates on it lativ clockwise(instantaneous phase increases), and stable amplitude RA X and Y according to (3) in [7] take the form

where f=fo, because the attenuation is compensated. For RK- (control +a)*=-A/CT. To the OP created a new limit cycle, which unlike RK+ it rotates clockwise (instantaneous phase decreases), and the corresponding stable amplitude RA X and Y according to (4) in [7] take the form

Note the features generated by the RA. 1); X in both modes has the same level of stabilization of amplitude equal to A/j. 2) PA Y is opposite in sign to the voltage level of stabilization. amplitude (see (7) and (8)). 3) PA Y appears in the DSA as proportional the aqueous him a voltage U=KTU, remove from the exit of the shelter, which is useful for the practice of application of DSA. 4) the Transition from one sign of the frequency to another is recommended that a PI (i.e. PI - mode - start).

Laboratory model DSA approved on oscillatory circuit intermediate frequency (465 kHz), the domestic chip: OC - C UD1; INE: - C SA 3, KTM 2, CN KN.

Implementation of RSA extends the scope of application of the Republic of Kazakhstan up to 1 GHz and promising to increase throughput of the radio 2 times.

List of used sources

1. Andronov A.A., A.A. Vitt, Chaikin SE oscillation Theory / edited Nagalisova. M: Fizmatgiz, 1959, 916 S.

2. RF patent №2131144. Method of generating oscillations, Ed. Fig. Prokofiev E.V., G06G 7/26, NV 1//0, publ. B 15, 1999

3. RF patent №2294053. The sawtooth generator. Auth. Fig. Prokofiev E.V., Tyurin A.V., Kolesnikov S., Osenovo A.N., H03K 4/50, publ. BI 5, 2007

4. Polonnikov CU.. Operational amplifiers: Principles, theory, circuit design / M.: Energoatomizdat, 1983, 215 S.

5. Gorelik G.S., Oscillations and waves/. M: Gasfittings, 1959, ,, 573 S.

6. Prokofiev E.V. method of producing a regulated oscillations. Application No. 2010114107. 2010

7. Prokofiev E.V. way to control the attenuation of oscillatory LC circuit. Application No. 2011104271, 2011

8. As the USSR №959049. The method of formation of stable amplitude is Albania in a closed oscillatory system. Auth. Fig. Alekseev A.S., Prokofiev E.V. G05F 1/00, G06G 7/26, publ. B 34, 1982

9. Prokofiev E.V., Research systems, phase-locked loop frequency on analog computers. PhD thesis, 1973

10. Neimark SCI Method of point transformations in theory of nonlinear systems / M.: Nauka, 1972, 471 S.

11. Tsypkin I..H. Theory of impulsive systems / M: Fizmatgiz, 1958, 724 S.

The self-oscillation generator Prokofiev containing LC circuit with an additional resistor ρ between the earth and the beginning of the inductor connected to this node to a linear feedback (LOS) through large-scale operational amplifier (op-amp) without inversion, with the gain K at the end of the condenser C*consisting of series-connected capacitors C1 and C2, as well as nonlinear OS (NOS), which includes a series circuit from the first input resistive summing chain for the two inputs and the normally open movable contact electronic key pulse nonlinear element (IEO), consisting of the RS trigger, the output of which is connected to the control input of the key, and countless inputs to the outputs of the two Comparators, the first inputs of which are integrated into one unit for synchronization of pulse-locked loop amplitude (APA) fluctuations implemented in the NOSE, as well as containing chain input special initial conditions(ONU) regulated oscillations (RK), single toggle switch modes RK+ RK-, dual trigger switch and resistors and ½rch ╗ RT connecting them respectively to the nodes C1, C2 and between L, C*, characterized in that as the OS selected summarizing OS reinvestiruet and inverting inputs, NOSE included first input of the adder chain to exit the shelter, and a fixed contact of the key IEO - to the inverting input of the OS, the node synchronization IEO connected to the node L, S*, a second input of the adder chain is connected with the slider of the potentiometer control voltage And the input of which is connected to the rolling contact toggle switch modes, the fixed contacts of which are connected to the sources of the stress-Ho in position RK+ and +Ho in position RK-entered the starting capacitor Cpin an open circuit between the resistor RT and the switch start-up, steady-state amplitude stable regulated self-oscillations (RA) X in node L, C* and PACTY at the output of the shelter have a view mode RK+
,,
mode RC-
,
where Y+*=+A/CT, Y - *= - A/CT - stabilization levels of amplitude.



 

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