Method of producing porous microparticles of especially pure polystyrene as carriers of biologically active forms of prolonged action

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of producing polystyrene. Described is a method of producing porous microparticles of especially pure polystyrene as a carrier of biologically active forms of prolonged action, which involves decompression of a solution through an opening, characterised by that liquid-phase carbon dioxide is mixed with a monomer and is fed under pressure into a tubular reactor for frontal polymerisation, wherein during the reaction conditions are maintained, which correspond the transitioning of the monomer-CO2 mixture into a supercritical state. The monomer-polymer-carbon dioxide mixture formed while moving through the reactor is sprayed and stored in a tank.

EFFECT: obtaining porous microparticles of especially pure polystyrene.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the technology of polystyrene. The processes of dispersion, with the aim of obtaining powdery substances are widely distributed in the chemical and related industries. The dispersion particle impact on the quality of the products. Known conventional methods, such as mechanical impact, spray drying and evaporation of the solvent is not always suitable for obtaining very fine, free from impurity particles. The spray drying denaturised connections, mechanical action leads to a wide range of variation in size of the particles, and the dispersed material as the product of the evaporation process is distinguished by the presence of unwanted residual solvent [F.M. Gumerov and other Sub - and supercritical fluids in the plastics processing industry. // Kazan ' : FEN. - 2007. - 336 p; J.W.Tom, P.G.Debenedetti, R.Jerome. Precipitation of poly(L-lactic acid) and composite poly (L-lactic acid)-pyrene particles by rapid expansion of supercritical solutions. // The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. - 1994. - V.7. - No.1. - P.9-29; H.Kwak, J.W.Jung, S.Y.Bae. Preparation of Anthracene Fine Particles by Rapid Expansion of a Supercritical Solution Process Utilizing Supercritical CO2. // Korean J. Chem. Eng. - 2004. - No.6. - P.1245].

Supercritical solvents was the new technical tool, which in recent years are two future directions: obtain nano - and micro is ASTIC as carriers of dosage forms and the creation of systems for slow release of drugs in the body [A.R.C. Duartea, M.S.Costab, A.L.Simplícioa, M.M.Cardosob, C.M.M.Duartea. Preparation of controlled release microspheres using supercritical fluid technology for delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs. // International Journal of Pharmaceutics. - 2006. - V.308. - No.1-2. - P.168-174; K.Gonga, J.A.Darra, I.U.Rehmanb. Supercritical fluid assisted impregnation revision of indomethacin into chitosan thermosets for controlled release applications. // International Journal of Pharmaceutics. - 2006. - V.315. - No.1-2. - R-98]. Currently developed technologies for nano - and microforms drugs using supercritical fluids as solvents and precipitants. Depending on the properties of pharmaceutical substances and their solubility in the SCF may use different technology variants [.Bahramin, S.Ranjbariana. Production of micro - and nano-composite particles by supercritical carbon dioxide. // The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. - 2007. - V.40. - No.2. - R-283].

The main methods micronisation substances are ways RESS (Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution - rapid expansion of supercritical solution) and SAS (Supercritical Anti-Solvent - way supercritical antibacterial). The way RESS is applied in cases when the dispersible substance soluble in the SCF, and the resulting solution is sprayed through a nozzle. Schematic illustration of the method RESS presented in figure 1, where 1 is supercritical solution, 2 - Mach disk, 3 - molecular jet; and - extension (adiabatic process), b - expansion in the interaction with the background gas.

In relation to micronisation polymers principle process RESS in the organization of rapid decompression of the supercritical fluid solution through the hole micron size and are based on extremely rapid nucleation of the solid phase in the shock wave, generated by sudden decompression [F.M. Gumerov and other Sub - and supercritical fluids in the plastics processing industry. // Kazan ' : FEN. - 2007. - 336]. Advantages of the method are: the absence of even traces of residual solvent in the formed nano - and microparticles, the method is applicable to multicomponent solutions. The disadvantage of this method RESS is the low concentration of polymer in GFR due to the need to create a supersonic flow in the spray device.

How SAS is used for micronisation of insoluble or partially soluble in the supercritical solvent substances. In this way supercritical fluids perform the role of precipitators. With respect to polymers way SAS illustrates the scheme of the laboratory setup shown in figure 2 [Khairutdinov V.F., Gabitov FR, F.M. Gumerov, Khusnutdinov P.R. Obtaining nanoparticles of polystyrene using supercritical understories. // Vestnik Kazanskogo technological University. - 2009. No. 2. - S-136].

The experimental SAS installation includes: 1 - storage capacity with CO2; 2 - filter-drier; 3 - refrigerator; 4, 7 - pump; 5, 8 - heater; 6 - capacity polymer solution; 9 - coaxial nozzle; 10 - cell deposition; 11 - heating jacket; 12 - metal filter mesh; 13 - cell-trap; 14 - gate; 15 the back-pressure control.

Advantages of SAS process are: the possibility of using lower pressures and more concentrated solutions. The main disadvantages are the necessity of the use of often toxic organic solvents and their presence in the final product [K.T. Lim, GH Subban, H.S. Hwang, J.T. Kim, C.S. Ju, K.P. Johnston. Novel Semiconducting Polymer Particles by Supercritical Fluid Process. // Macromol. Rapid Commun. - 2005. - V.26 - P.1779-1783; S.-D.Yeob, E.Kirana. Formation of polymer particles with supercritical fluids: A review. // The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. - 2005. - V.34. - No.3. - P.287-308; J.Jung, M.Perrut. Particle design using supercritical fluids: Literature and patent survey. // The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. - 2001. - V.20. - No.3. - R-219].

Depending on the properties of the sprayed substance use the following modification methods RESS and SAS [Zelepukin DO, Tolkunova N.A., Chernyshova I.V., Poles B.C. the Development of technologies based on the use of supercritical fluids. // Supercritical fluids: theory and practice. - 2006. 1. No. 1. - P.27-51]:

SAA (Supercritical Assisted Atomization) is a variant of the method RESS in which to improve the solubility of the substance in addition to the SCF uses organic co-solvent.

RESOLV (Rapid Expansion of a Supercritical solution into a liquid SOL Vent) - solution of the substance in GFR is sprayed in a liquid solvent.

RESAS (Rapid Expansion from Supercritical to Aqueous Solution) is kind RESOLV, in this method, the slurry is sprayed into the aquatic environment.

GAS (Gas Anti-Solvent) solution of the substance in an organic solvent under pressure is receiving saturated with antibacterial, when this dissolved substance precipitates.

SEDS (Solution Enhanced Dispersion by Supercritical Fluids) - solution of a substance in a liquid solvent and the supercritical fluid are simultaneously sprayed through a centrally located nozzle, with the result of the interaction of high-speed flows of the solution and GFR are formed of fine particles.

The objective of the invention is a method of obtaining porous microparticles of polystyrene, which can eliminate the disadvantages of the methods RESS and SAS, while maintaining their dignity.

The problem is solved by the proposed method of obtaining porous microparticles of highly pure polystyrene as carriers of biologically active forms of prolonged action, including decompression of the solution through the opening, characterized in that the carbon dioxide in the liquid state is mixed with the monomer and is fed under pressure in a tubular reactor frontal polymerization, in which during the reaction to provide the conditions corresponding to the transition of the mixture of the monomer-CO2in the supercritical state, is further formed along the reactor the mixture of the monomer-polymer-carbon dioxide is sprayed and accumulate in the collection, filled with pharmaceutical substance.

As a concrete example, consider obtaining biologically active drug prolonged the CSO actions at the example of a nanoporous microparticles of highly pure polystyrene, the pores of which are filled benzalkonium fluoride. Slow gradual removal of benzalconi fluoride from nano - and micropores particles of highly pure polystyrene provides a prolonged effect of the drug.

Pharmaceutical substance benzalconi fluoride is a white crystalline powder benzyldimethylammonium fluoride, widely used in biomedical practice. Chemical formula benzalconi fluoride are presented in figure 3.

The drug is mixed with fillers is used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral agents.

Figure 4 presents a schematic diagram of a plant for producing polymer microparticles: 1 - container of monomer; 2 - capacity with CO2; 3-vessel with an inert gas; 4, 5 - mixer, 6, 12 - pump; 7 - saturator; 8, 10 - cryostat, 9 - meter CO2; 11 - heat exchanger; 13 - thermostat; 14 - reactor; 15 - spraying device; 16 - a collection of particles; 17 - filter; 18 - the back-pressure control.

The essence of the method consists in the following (figure 4): the carbon dioxide in the liquid state is mixed with the monomer in the saturator 7 and is fed under pressure in a tubular reactor frontal polymerization 14, in which during the reaction to provide the conditions corresponding to the transition of the mixture of the monomer-CO2in the supercritical state (on the pressure in the reactor of at least 40 atmospheres; the temperature from 60 to 200°C). Formed along the reactor the mixture of the monomer-polymer-carbon dioxide is dispersed by the device 15, and the obtained particles accumulate in a collection of 16 filled with a solution benzalconi fluoride in 95% ethyl alcohol. Upon completion of the process microparticles sephirot and subjected to vacuum drying to remove solvent. Depending on the ratio of components in the initial mixture, the temperature of the reagent, the differential pressure between the reactor and the collector, the diameter of the hole of the output device can obtain nanoporous microparticles with a size of 1-50 microns.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the results of experimental studies suggest that proposed for patenting a method of obtaining nanoporous polymeric microparticles is applicable to other medical and biological preparations with prolonged action.

The method of obtaining porous microparticles of highly pure polystyrene as carriers of biologically active forms of prolonged action, including decompression of the solution through the opening, characterized in that the carbon dioxide in the liquid state is mixed with the monomer and is fed under pressure in a tubular reactor frontal polymerization, in which during the reaction to provide conditions, which is adequate to transfer the mixture of the monomer-CO 2in the supercritical state, is further formed along the reactor the mixture of the monomer-polymer-carbon dioxide is sprayed and accumulate in the collection.



 

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(I),

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The invention relates to new compounds, such as poly(monoperoxyphthalate) the overall structure AND

< / BR>
where R, R1and n are defined in the summary of the invention, such as 1,1,1-Tris(tert-butylperoxycyclohexyl)ethane, intermediate compounds for their production, and methods for their production and use

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(I),

in which W represents two-moiety unsaturated hydrocarbon bridge group expressed by formula =C(H)=C(CH3)- (propene-1,2-diyl) or o-C6H4 (o-phenylene); X is OH, NH2 or COONa; Y monovalent anion: Cl-, Br-, NO3- or ClO4-; and Z polymethylene bridge group (CH2)n, wherein n=3-11 when X = OH or NH2 and n=2-11 when X = COONa. The complex are used as initiators of emulsion polymerization and copolymerization of diene and vinyl monomers to produce reactive bifunctional oligomers and polymers with terminal functions, which oligomers and polymers are suitable for further conjugation with corresponding reagents.

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3 tbl, 30 ex

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