Method to produce fuel and device for its realisation
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method to produce oil fuel, in which mixing is carried out and reaction of hydrolysis is done with water containing a ferment, which a hydrocarbon oil product, besides, water containing a ferment, is produced by means of mixing of a natural vegetable ferment, containing, at least lipase, in water. The natural vegetable ferment may additionally contain cellulase. The invention also relates to a device for production of oil fuel.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fuel, which is stable, and also suppression of hazardous substances formation.
10 cl, 11 dwg, 1 ex
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The present invention relates to a method of obtaining fuel and device for implementation, for example, provide good fuel efficiency and prevent the sharp deterioration of the environment.
The level of technology
Mankind uses various forms of energy, such as energy, fossil fuels, bioenergy, solar energy and the like. Of these types of energy fossil fuels used for many years all over the world and therefore has the greatest value.
Currently, however, there is a problem of deterioration (pollution of the environment caused by energy consumption. It is known that fossil fuel comprises sulfur-containing components, nitrogen-containing components, finasteridee components that generate dangerous gas resulting in the deterioration of the environment. The urgent task is to take measures to prevent global warming, associated with the formation of CO2.
Effective measure to prevent or halt the deterioration of the environment is to reduce the number of dangerous gas resulting from the use of fossil fuels, and improving the efficiency of Oliva.
As a technical means for solving this problem it was proposed to use an emulsifier for the preparation of fuel in the form of an emulsion water in oil (see laid out the publication of the Japan patent No. 4-71118 [D1]). The emulsifier used to prepare the specified fuel in the form of an emulsion type water in oil, which contains heavy fuel And heavy fuel, heavy fuel, methanol, dextrin and water. The emulsifier is mixed with fuel oil and water with the formation oil emulsion fuel. The paper noted that as a result, the efficiency of fuel consumption can be improved and the generation of hazardous waste, such as nitric oxide, carbon black or the like, can be prevented.
In addition, he was offered another type of fuel in the form of an emulsion of the type water-in-oil, which contains heavy fuel And heavy fuel, heavy fuel, methanol, ethanol, palm oil and water (see laid out the publication of the Japan patent No. 2009-91593 [D2]). This fuel is in the form of an emulsion of the type water-in-oil, as noted in [D2], also improves fuel efficiency and reduces the generation of hazardous waste.
The problems solved by the present invention
However, the above known methods inherent flaw, which is that the fuel in the form of an emulsion of the type water-in-oil obtained through specified who's ways, loses its stability. If you explain in more detail, the fuel in the form of an emulsion of the type water-in-oil produced by stirring and mixing, and therefore a problem arises, which is that oil and water can be separated from each other, and in the process of transportation of fuel by pipeline or the like may occur accidental ignition of fuel.
The purpose of the present invention, created in connection with the above-mentioned problems, is to provide a method of obtaining fuel and device for its implementation, which can be enhanced fuel efficiency, which is stable, and can be easily suppressed the formation of hazardous substances. In addition, the goal is a more complete user satisfaction and promote the prevention of deterioration of the environment.
Means of solving problems
The present invention is directed to providing a method of obtaining fuel to get fuel oil by mixing and the chemical reaction of water containing the enzyme with the hydrocarbon oil, and water containing the enzyme is produced by mixing in water a natural enzyme of plant origin, containing at least a lipase.
Wealth is giving this water after the reaction also acts as a fuel, and therefore fuel efficiency can be improved.
In one embodiment of the present invention is a natural enzyme of plant origin, preferably further comprises a cellulase.
Water containing enzyme, optionally, can contain mixed methanol in it.
In one embodiment of the present invention for mixing and performing the reaction water containing the enzyme with the hydrocarbon oil, the water containing the enzyme, and this oil can be ignored when the vortex motion through the conical mixing apparatus, which has a lot of pins.
Due to this reaction water containing the enzyme and products can be promoted.
In one embodiment of the present invention from liquid petroleum fuel can be removed residue to obtain a purified fuel oil. Due to this, may be removed impurities with obtaining a purified fuel oil of high purity.
The present invention also aims at creating a device for the production of liquid petroleum fuel through chemical reactions of water containing the enzyme with the hydrocarbon oil in the vessel for the reaction of decomposition, and the water containing the enzyme contains mixed with her natural grow is entrusted enzyme containing at least a lipase, said device for receiving fuel contains a mixing device is placed in the vessel for the reaction of decomposition, and the specified mixing apparatus contains a lot of pins mounted on the inner surface, forming a conical profile, the inlet for the water containing the enzyme, and the hydrocarbon oil product, made in the side surface of the base of conical profile, and the water outlet, containing the enzyme, and the hydrocarbon oil is made in the top or in the centre of the base of conical profile.
Due to such performance can be obtained a liquid petroleum fuel with high efficiency because the water after the chemical reaction proceeds as fuel.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the inlet port of the mixing apparatus can be positioned eccentric, so that the inflow direction of the water containing the enzyme, and hydrocarbon oil eccentric relative to the center of the circle conical shape.
Due to this, the liquid in the mixing apparatus can be easily attached to a rotational movement, and it can be mixed with the vortex motion.
In one embodiment of the present invention a device for receiving fuel which may contain a section for removal of the residue from petroleum fuel, received in the tank of the decomposition reaction, obtaining a purified fuel oil.
Thanks to this performance can be removed impurities with obtaining a purified fuel oil of high purity.
In one embodiment of the present invention can also provide fuel oil obtained by mixing and reacting water-containing enzyme with a hydrocarbon oil, with the water containing the enzyme is produced by mixing in water a natural plant enzyme that contains at least a lipase.
The technical result achieved by the invention
The present invention can provide a method of obtaining fuel oil and a device for its implementation, which can be enhanced fuel efficiency, and can be easily suppressed the formation of hazardous substances, with the resulting fuel is stable; in addition, it is possible to achieve a greater satisfaction of users and contribute to the prevention of sudden deterioration of the environment.
Brief description of drawings
Figure 1 - schematic view of the device for receiving the water containing the enzyme.
Figure 2 - schematic view of the device for receiving fuel.
Figure 3 is a schematic view illustrating the construction of the mixing Cup.
Fig. - illustration of a construction of the mixing apparatus.
5 is a vertical cross section showing the internal structure of the mixing device.
6 is an illustration of the construction of the filter to be cleaned using the pulsations and the design precision of the filter.
Fig.7 is a cross-section of the section for the Newton division.
Fig features a purified fuel oil.
Fig.9 is a graph showing the results using gas chromatography testing of oil-treated enzyme derived from gas oil using the device to obtain fuel.
Figure 10 is a graph showing the results of tests using gas chromatography gas oil used as the starting material.
11 is a view in vertical transverse section, showing the mixing apparatus in another example.
The implementation of the invention
The embodiment of the present invention will be disclosed below with reference to the drawings.
Figure 1 - schematic view of the device 1 to obtain a water-containing enzyme.
The device 1 for water containing the enzyme contains a number of mixing tanks 11 (11a to 11d), the vessel 14 to stabilize the blower 15 for supplying air to each of the tanks, pumps P for transporting liquid between the tanks and the filters F for convenience, the population of impurities in the process of transportation.
Mixing tank from 11a to 11d are placed in two rows, as shown in the upper and lower parts of figure 1, with the mixing Cup from 11a to 11d in each row are connected in series with the pump P and the filter F. In each mixing tank 11a is served soft water and powdered enzyme (for example, EP-10). Soft water and powdered enzyme shaken and stirred by the air that is served via a blower 15. The preferred ratio of water and powdered enzyme is, for example, 0.05% (mass content) powdered enzyme and 99.95% (mass content) soft water. Preferably powdered enzyme can be obtained from enzyme derived vegetables (enzyme of plant origin)and, particularly preferably, from enzyme derived fruit. Preferably as a key component of the enzyme contains a lipase, and more preferably the enzyme is formed of lipase and cellulase. It is preferable that the enzyme contains divalent iron oxide. More preferably, the enzyme contained 98% (mass content) lipase and 2% (weight percent) of cellulase. Such an enzyme can be extracted from fruits, such as mango, avocado, pineapple, citronella Morinda, sea buckthorn, and the like. Preferably poroshkoobraznymi get through thermal drying of this enzyme and use with superior capacity for storage.
The obtained water mixture after a certain period of time directed to the following mixing tank 11b by a pump P. During transportation remove impurities through the filter F. In a mixing tank 11b water and powdered enzyme again shaken and stirred by the air that is served via a blower 15. This cycle is repeated until it ends in a mixing tank 11d and into the container 14, which is intended to stabilize, add the alcohol. The alcohol can be, for example, methanol or ethanol, preferably methanol. The preferred alcohol content at the specified water mixture is, for example, from about 10% to 20% (mass ratio).
The water containing the enzyme, purified alcohol, away from the tank 14 to stabilize by means of the pump P. When implementing this process using three filters F remove impurities. Purified allocated water containing the enzyme is transported to another suitable container or stored in a tank 22 for water containing the enzyme, which is part of the device 2 for receiving fuel, are presented in figure 2.
Figure 2 presents a schematic view of the device 2 for receiving fuel.
The device 2 for receiving the fuel has a reservoir 21 for oil as a partition for storing oil capacity is ü 22 water containing the enzyme, as a partition for storing water containing the enzyme, two tank 23 for mixing, the remote control 24 control section 25 create a ripple tank 26 for Newton (gravity) separation, the separation capacity of 27, section 28 with a precision filter, finite capacity 29 and the tank 30 to the waste liquid.
Capacity 21 for oil is a tank for storing oil used as raw material, and it contains the raw oil product serves in the required amount in a container 23 for mixing in pipe R. the Original oil may be, for example, heavy fuel And heavy fuel, heavy fuel, light fuel oil, kerosene and the like. In the illustrated example, the use of heavy fuel A.
Capacity 22 water containing enzyme, is a tank for storing water containing the enzyme, prepared with the help of the device 1 to obtain a water-containing enzyme, and ensures delivery of the contained water containing the enzyme, with the help of unit feed tank 23 for mixing in the required quantities by pipeline R. what is Happening here the reaction is a hydrolysis reaction raw product, carried out by the enzyme. The ratio of the raw water and oil product containing the enzyme served in the tank 23 for mixing, can be appropriately adjusted depending on the type of raw oil product. For example, the preferred ratios are: 60% heavy fuel oil and 40% water containing the enzyme, 70% light fraction of crude oil and 30% water containing the enzyme, or 70% kerosene and 30% water containing the enzyme.
The 24 remote control is a control section, which is designed to regulate the functioning of the elements of the device and performs various types of control, such as switching power supply in position "on" and "off".
Section 25 create a ripple creates pulsations of fuel oil received in the tank 23 for mixing, thereby resulting residue is easily removed. The specified residue is, for example, water, which has remained unreacted, impurities contained in the heavy oil, or the like.
The tank 26 is used for accumulation of oil fuel and enables lowering the balance down under the action of gravity and thereby separates the fuel oil remaining in its upper part.
The separation capacity of 27 additionally separates the remainder of the fuel oil. Precision filter 28 removes the remainder of the fuel oil through the filter element.
The final tank 29 accumulates received the untreated fuel oil.
Capacity 30 for waste fluid accumulates waste liquid obtained in sections 25 to create pulsations and capacity 26 for the Newton division.
Figure 3 presents a schematic view showing the structural performance of tank 23 for mixing.
Each tank 23 for mixing is usually cylindrical space 40 for mixing. In the cylindrical space 40 posted by mixing apparatuses 43 (43L, 43R) and pumps 44 (44L, 44R).
The mixing apparatus (43L, 43R) suspended at a predetermined height in the space 40 to the mixing tank 23 to mix with the help of cables 42 (42L, 42R).
From the mixing apparatus 43 of the mixing apparatus 43L shown in the figure on the left, located in the lower part of the space 40 for mixing, and the mixing apparatus 43R shown in the figure to the right, placed in the upper part of the space 40 for mixing. Thus, the mixing apparatus 43 is placed separately at the top and bottom and also separately from each other left and right. The mixing apparatus 43 is connected to the pump 44 (44L, 44R), respectively. Pump 44 serves oil, fuel, water containing the enzyme or mixture of oil with water containing the enzyme.
Pump 44L connected to a pipe having a suction hole 41L in its upper part. Pump 44L delivers the fuel oil, the water, containing the th enzyme, or mix oil with water containing the enzyme to the mixer 43L and thus provides a generally uniform circulation of oil fuel, water containing the enzyme, or mixtures of oil with water containing the enzyme, in the space of 40 for mixing.
Pump 44R connected to the tubing having at its upper end suction hole 41R. Pump 44R delivers the fuel oil, the water containing the enzyme or mixture of oil with water containing the enzyme to mixing apparatus 43R and thus provides a generally uniform circulation of oil fuel, water containing the enzyme, or mixtures of oil with water containing the enzyme, in the space of 40 for mixing.
Regarding pumps 44L and 44R it should be noted that it is preferable to use a pump with air pressure from 30 to 40 atmospheres.
Figure 4 illustrates the design of the mixing device 43.
The mixing device 43 consists of a hollow inside the metal structure containing the main elements of generally cylindrical upper portion 51 extending from the upper part 51 is generally cylindrical neck 58 and the housing 59 in the form of an inverted cone, and the lower end section 60.
In the Central part of the upper surface of the upper part 51 of the cylindrical Central shaft 53. The Central shaft 53 will is replaced with the inlet channel 53A (see 5)passing through the Central shaft 53 in the direction of up and down. Fuel oil, water containing enzyme, or a mixture of the oil with water containing the enzyme, flows inside the mixing apparatus through the inlet opening 53A.
The specified upper part 51 has an inlet 57, made in a certain part of its side surface, through which the inner volume of flow of oil fuel, water containing the enzyme or mixture of oil with water containing the enzyme. The inlet 57 is a channel passing from the outside to the inside of the upper part 51 and is surrounded by a cylindrical connecting pipe 55. The connecting pipe 55 has on the inner surface of the screw groove 56 for connection to this pipe nipple connected to the pump 44.
As shown in figure 4(B), which presents a cross-section of the mixing apparatus along the line a-a shown in figure 4(A), the location of the inlet 57 and the orientation of the connecting pipe 55 is such that the oil fuel, water containing the enzyme or mixture of oil with water containing the enzyme, which flow in the direction of the inner surface with eccentricities relative to the center of the mixing apparatus 43. Due to this, fuel oil or similar fluid flowing inside the apparatus through the inlet opening 57, intensively revolves around a cylindrical Central shaft 53, which represents the axis of rotation.
As shown in figure 5, which presents a section along the line b-b In figure 4(B), on the inner surface of the mixing device 43 has lots of pins 63. The specified set of pins 63 is placed at a certain distance from each other so that they cross one another. For example, can be set from 55 to 80 pins with a diameter of 3 mm with an interval of approximately 10 mm
On the lower end section 60 of the mixing unit 43 holds the outlet channel 61.
Designed mixing device 43 can effectively mix the oil with water containing the enzyme, and to carry out the reaction of the decomposition. For a more detailed description it should be noted that fuel oil, water containing enzyme, or a mixture of the oil with water containing the enzyme flowing inside through the intake hole 57, rotates around the Central shaft 53, moving at the same time in the direction of the outlet port 61, while in the process of vortex motion, the radius of rotation of the fluid gradually decreases. During this process, fuel oil, water containing enzyme, or a mixture of the oil with water containing the enzyme, shuffled through a large number of pins 63, set the run in the mixing apparatus 43. When whirling rotation of the liquid in the lower portion of the Central shaft 53 creates a negative pressure (vacuum)that allows oil to the fuel, the water containing the enzyme, or mixtures of oil with water containing the enzyme to flow inside the mixing apparatus through the inlet opening 53A.
In the specific case shown in figure 3 mixing unit 43L, in which through the inlet 57 is predominantly sourced oil that is absorbed by a pump 44L through the suction hole 41L, and through the inlet 53A primarily receives water containing the enzyme, these mixes oil and water containing the enzyme.
In turn, the mixing apparatus 43R through the inlet 57 is predominantly takes the water containing the enzyme that is absorbed by a pump 44R of the suction holes 41R, and through the inlet 53A mainly takes the oil and mixes specified oil with water containing the enzyme.
This mixing apparatus 43 water containing the enzyme, and an oil can, colliding, interacting with one another and mixed in water with high pressure, and thus can interact with one another in response.
During the process of mixing in the tank 23 for mixing, in which there is mesially apparatus 43, oil and water containing the enzyme are mixed within a predefined period of time (for example, from about 15 to 20 minutes), passing through the mixing apparatus 43 and contacting each other in a whirling motion from 300 to 500 times. This will enable the hydrolysis reaction, the molecules become smaller and the weight is reduced.
Figure 6(A) presents a view in isometric pulsation filter 70 installed in the zone 25 create a ripple. Pulsation filter 70 is placed between two defined on line mixing apparatus and allows the oil to the fuel to pass through the openings in the mesh of the partition 71. Section 25 create pulsations (in particular, the partition 71) is formed using a sintered ceramic material.
The partition 71 slowly turn inside, like a screw, and it creates a ripple flowing inside fuel oil, activating the reaction. Due to this fuel oil comes in a state in which impurities are easily removed.
Figure 6(B) presents a view in isometric precision filter 80, specified in section 28 with a precision filter.
The specified precision filter 80 contains an element 82 like a cylinder formed from a mesh material, and the filter 81, which surrounds the element 82, such is cilindru. The filter 81 is expanded in the radial direction from the center. Fuel oil can pass through the filter 81 from the outer surface in the direction of the element 82, similar to the cylinder, and the impurities can be removed.
The filter 81 is located radially. As shown in Fig.6(C), which presents a partial enlarged image of this filter, fuel oil can be completely external surface 81b filter 81, similar to the plate from the end side base a to the mechanical side-top 81s with. Thus, even if the impurities accumulate on the face side of the base a and oil fuel becomes difficult to pass through the filter 81, the surface 81b, a similar plate, allows the oil to the fuel to pass easily and removes impurities.
Figure 7 presents a view in vertical section of the tank 26 for Newton (gravity) separation.
Capacity 26 for the Newton division mainly includes an inclined plate 96 mounted near the bottom of the section, many of the plates 92, installed at a higher level, and lots of plates 93, installed at a lower level, which is placed in an alternating above the inclined plate 96. Capacity 26 for the Newton division has an opening 91 for intake of fluid, obespechivayushchaya with an element of the earlier stages of processing, and the hole 95 for the production of liquid providing a message element that is used at a later stage.
Between the lower ends of the plates 92, located at a higher level, and an inclined plate 96 has a gap, through which fuel oil can move forward and backward.
The upper ends of the plate 93, is placed at a lower level, located lower than the upper ends of the plates 92, installed at a higher level, so that the accumulated fuel oil shimmers and flows into the next section accumulation. Each plate 93, located on the lower level is on the lower end of the sliding plate 94, while the lower end of the movable plate 94 is in contact with the inclined plate 96. Plate 92 located at a higher level, and plate 93 mounted at a lower level, placed alternately and installed so that their lower ends are gradually higher in the direction of inclination of the inclined plate 96.
Because of this structural embodiment fuel oil flows inward through the inlet 91 to the fluid in the first accumulating section 90A. Located in the oil fuel impurities collected in the lower part of the section, and refined petroleum fuel accumulates in the upper part and flows into the second nakopitel the th section 90b, following the first accumulating section 90A. This process is repeated from the first accumulating section 90A to the fourth cumulative section 90d, and the resulting clean fuel oil away through the outlet 95 for the liquid.
Impurities deposited in the storage sections 90A to 90d are moved downward along the inclined plate 96. In order impurities could move down, open the movable plate 94. In the opposite direction movable plate 94 is not open, and therefore these impurities in the opposite direction will not occur.
Impurities, moving downstream along the inclined plate 96, is transported from the discharge holes 97 section 98 of the outlet through the valve 99a. Valve 99a periodically opens and closes. When the balance is accumulated in a certain amount, the valve 99 is opened, allowing the remainder to act in section 98 of the outlet, and then closed. Then through the inlet discharge valve 99s installed in the upper part of the section 98 of the outlet discharge air. Impurities allocated in section 98 of the outlet, may be designated through output valve 99b and disposed.
Using the above-described device 1 to obtain a water-containing enzyme, and the device 2 for receiving the fuel may be a purified fuel oil, which the floor is given by the decomposition reaction, conducted with the participation of oil and water containing the enzyme.
As a result, as shown in Fig, which presents characteristics table can be obtained fuel oil, contributing to improved fuel efficiency, and the prevention of sudden deterioration of the environment.
In the specified table summarizes the characteristics of the purified oil obtained from the device 1 to obtain a water-containing enzyme, and the device 2 for receiving fuel from heavy fuel A.
As shown in this table, refined petroleum fuel CO2(the residual carbon in CO2reduced by 99.5%, the content of sulfur dioxide decreased by 63.0%, metal oxide (ash) - 98.0% and water - 96.67%.
Figure 9 presents a graph showing the results of tests using gas chromatography carried out on the light fraction of the oil containing the enzyme (net oil)obtained from the device 2 for receiving the fuel, as described above, using as raw material the light fraction of crude oil. Figure 10 presents a graph showing the results of tests using gas chromatography carried out on the light fraction of crude oil, representing a source of raw materials for the reaction.
Visual comparison of e is their graphs it is clear, what is the molecular weight of the contained hydrocarbons into fractions by hydrolysis-initiated natural plant enzyme, containing a lipase.
The chemical reaction underlying the creation of the present invention is sufficiently reproducible. In addition, the chemical reaction of water containing the enzyme, and the hydrocarbon oil is a reaction mixture, and the water containing the enzyme after the reaction is also burned as fuel.
As noted above, can be produced refined petroleum fuel, which is very clean, contributes to the prevention of sudden deterioration of the environment and has high efficiency. Having thus purified oil fuel, it is possible to reduce the absolute amount subject to use oil at the rate of 20 to 30%, and the efficiency of combustion can be increased by the amount from 20 to 25%. In General, the fuel economy may be approximately 40 to 50%.
Due to the natural ability of the enzyme purified fuel oil can be used without additional processing even in cold regions (e.g., in the regions in which the temperature falls to -20°C).
Through the use of purged fuel oil coal the od does not sticks to the engine or boiler or do not rust nozzle, and thus can be prevented corrosion. So work on General maintenance are not necessary, which can reduce operating costs.
A purified fuel oil after the reaction is stabilized by the enzyme, and therefore the component that includes the oil, and component, including water, are not separated from each other even after an extended period of time.
A purified fuel oil is very transparent, and the water after the reaction acts as a fuel. Therefore, fuel efficiency may be increased.
Thanks a demoralizing effect of the enzyme purified oil fuel does not generate soot or black smoke. This can prevent the deterioration of characteristics due to soot or black smoke remaining in the internal combustion engine, combustion purified fuel oil.
The device 2 for receiving fuel by the action of the enzyme can be separated and, thus, to remove CO2oxides sulfur oxides metal and similar substances, which are hazardous substances.
The device 2 for receiving the fuel may facilitate hydrolysis of the product, carried out by the enzyme, due to the efficient and uniform lane is malevaniy, provide mixing apparatus 43.
The mixing apparatus 43 may be replaced by another type of mixing apparatus 43A, illustrated in figure 11. The specified mixing apparatus 43A has no outlet at the lower end section 60 and instead of a Central shaft 53, available in the above-described example, contains the Central tube 54. The Central tube 54 has a cylindrical shape and the cavity 67 inside. The upper end of the cavity 67a 67 acts as an outlet for fuel oil.
In the mixing apparatus 43A with this construction, the water containing the enzyme, and the oil flowing inside through the intake hole 57, rotate, simultaneously moving downward in the vertical movement of the radius of rotation is gradually reduced, then the water and oil are moved from the lower end to the upper end of the Central tube 54 and discharged through the upper end.
The mixing apparatus 43A provides the same functions and achieve the same result as the mixing unit 43 described in the above example.
Elements according to the present invention correspond to the following elements in the above embodiment.
Capacity for carrying out the decomposition reaction according to the present invention corresponds to the capacitance 23 to shmesani is.
Section to remove residue in the present invention corresponds in the example of section 25 to create a ripple tank 26 for Newtonian separation, the separation tank 27 and section 28 with a precision filter;
the mixing apparatus according to the present invention corresponds to the mixing apparatus 43L, 43R and 43A in the above example of the invention;
inlet according to the present invention corresponds to the inlet opening 57 and the inlet channel 53A in the above example;
outlet in the present invention corresponds to the exhaust channel 61 in the above example; and
the probes according to the present invention correspond to the pins 63 in the above example.
The present invention is not limited to the construction above described example embodiment can be implemented by various embodiments.
The present invention is suitable for use with the goal of increasing fuel efficiency, made from different types of oil, such as heavy fuel oil And heavy fuel oil, heavy fuel oil, light petroleum fractions, kerosene and the like.
Description of reference numbers of items
2 - a device for receiving fuel, 23 - capacity for mixing, 25 - section for the building of pulsations; 26 - capacity for the Newton division; 27 - the capacity to separate; 28 - section with a precision filter; 43L, 43R, 43A - mixing apparatus; 53A - intake channel; 57 - inlet; 61 - discharge channel; 63 - pin.
1. The method of obtaining fuel oil, in which the mixing and carrying out hydrolysis of the water-containing enzyme with a hydrocarbon oil, and water containing the enzyme is produced by mixing in water a natural plant enzyme that contains at least a lipase.
2. The method of obtaining fuel according to claim 1, in which natural vegetable enzyme further comprises a cellulase.
3. The method of obtaining fuel according to claim 1, in which the water containing the enzyme further comprises mixed with methanol.
4. The method of obtaining fuel according to claim 2, in which the water containing the enzyme further comprises mixed with methanol.
5. The method of obtaining fuel according to any one of claims 1 to 4, in which for mixing and chemical reactions of water containing the enzyme with the hydrocarbon oil, put them in a vortex motion through the conical mixing apparatus containing many installed pins.
6. The method of obtaining fuel according to any one of claims 1 to 4, in which oil fuel is removed the residue with obtaining refined petroleum fuels is.
7. The method of obtaining fuel according to claim 5, in which oil fuel is removed the remainder of obtaining a purified fuel oil.
8. Apparatus for producing fuel oil, which is implemented through a hydrolysis reaction of water containing the enzyme with the hydrocarbon oil in the vessel for the reaction of decomposition, and the water containing the enzyme contains mixed with her natural plant enzyme that contains at least the lipase, the specified device for receiving fuel contains a mixing device is placed in the vessel for the reaction of decomposition, and the specified mixing apparatus contains a lot of pins mounted on the inner surface, forming a conical profile, the inlet for the water containing the enzyme, and the hydrocarbon oil is made in the lateral surface of the conical profile, and the water outlet, containing the enzyme, and the hydrocarbon oil is made in the top or in the centre of the base of conical profile.
9. A device for receiving fuel of claim 8, in which the inlet opening of the mixing apparatus is eccentric so that the inflow direction of the water containing the enzyme, and hydrocarbon oil eccentric relative to the center of the circle, formed by the Oh in the conical section of the profile.
10. A device for receiving fuel of claim 8 or 9, which additionally contains the partition removal of the residue from petroleum-derived-fuel in the tank for the reaction of decomposition, obtaining a purified fuel oil.
SUBSTANCE: neutral carbon source used is glucose, which is converted to aniline under the action of Escherichia coli or Streptomyces griseus bacteria. The glucose is obtained from plants. The stabiliser, vulcanisation accelerator or modified natural rubber is prepared from aniline obtained as described above.
EFFECT: invention improves environmental friendliness of methods of preparing a stabiliser, vulcanisation accelerator and modified natural rubber, which saves oil resources.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology. The method of producing 1--D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (ribavirin) involves reaction of excess guanosine with 1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide in a potassium phosphate buffer in the presence of sodium arsenate and purine nucleoside phosphorylase.
EFFECT: invention enables 100% conversion of guanosine to guanine and simplifies the process of separating the end product from the reaction mixture.
3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to biotechnology, particularly a method for analysing a reaction frequency of a target nucleotide sequence and one or more nucleotide sequences of concern. The method provides (a) preparing a sample of cross-linked DNA and (b) cross-linked DNA cleavage by a first restriction fragment. It is followed by (c) ligation of the cross-linked nucleotide sequences, (d) removal of the cross links; (e) nucleotide sequence cleavage by a second restriction fragment, and (f) ligation of one or more DNA sequences having a known nucleotide composition with accessible cleavage site(s) by the second restriction fragment which flanks one or more nucleotide sequences of concern. Then, (g) one or more nucleotide sequences of concern are amplified with the use of two nucleotide primers with each primer hybridised with DNA sequences which flank the nucleotide sequences of concern. It is followed by (h) hybridisation of the amplified sequence(s) with a chip; and (i) determination of the reaction frequency of the DNA sequences.
EFFECT: what is presented is the method for co-localised chromatin trapping and characterising.
29 cl, 19 dwg, 2 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to biotechnology and concerns oligonucleotide primers for B.mallei genetic typing. The presented primers are complementary to a differentiation fragment BMA0416 of an equinia agent genome, possess activity of upstream and downstream primers in an amplification reaction and have the following structure: 5'-TGGCGGAGTATGGATGCTG-3' - BmVAT6-Ch2s 5'-GAACGAGAACACCTACGACCTGAT-3' - BmVAT6-Ch2as.
EFFECT: presented invention may be used in practical healthcare for detection of the differentiation DNA fragment BMA0416 of the equinia agent.
3 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to biotechnology and concerns oligonucleotide primers for B.mallei genetic typing. The presented primers are complementary to a differentiation fragment BMA0577 of an equinia agent genome, possess activity of upstream and downstream primers in an amplification reaction and have the following structure: 5' - GAG GAT GAA GGT GCC GTG G - 3' - BmVATl-Chls 5' - GAC AAC TAC TTC ATC GGC TAT CTG - Y - BmVATl-Chlas.
EFFECT: presented invention may be used in practical healthcare for detection of the differentiation DNA fragment BMA0577 of the equinia agent.
3 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to biotechnology, molecular biology, molecular epidemiology. There are presented oligonucleotide primers for B. mallei genetic typing by polymerase chain reaction.
EFFECT: invention may be used in medicine for detecting an equinia agent.
3 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to biotechnology and concerns a method for separation of lipopolysaccharides of gram-negative bacteria. The method is implemented by gel-chromatography of lipopolysaccharides on a Sephadex G-200 column in an aqueous 0.05M triethylammonium acetate buffer, pH 4.7 containing 10% of n-propanol.
EFFECT: presented method enables producing lipopolysaccharide fractions containing no chromatographic buffer ingredients and being subsequently used in immunopharmacology.
SUBSTANCE: method for simultaneous production of sugar and ethanol includes extraction of a sugar-containing juice from a suitable plant, simultaneous fermentation and treatment of the sugar-containing juice, simultaneous distillation of ethanol and concentration of the sugar-containing juice, crystallisation of the produced concentrate of the sugar-containing juice with production of sugar. Fermentation of the sugar-containing juice is carried out using strains of yeast Saccharomyces or Zygosaccharomyces, not producing a saccharose ferment, or a strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742 with a damaged gene of saccharase SUC2c, or a strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Taiken 396 in presence of methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside.
EFFECT: conditions of fermentation make it possible to increase share of saccharose in a sugar syrup as a result of consumption in process of fermentation of sugars, which are not saccharose.
6 cl, 6 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes biotransformation of phenylmethylsulfide with the help of cells Gordonia terrae VKPM AS-1897, which are free or immobilised in cryogel matrix on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol, and the process is carried out in a medium containing n- hexadecane or glycerin, accordingly.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase chemical yield and optical purity of (R)-phenylmethyl sulfoxide and to redyce concentrations of n-hexadecane.
SUBSTANCE: lignocellulose material first undergoes coarse grinding, followed by extraction with carbon dioxide in supercritical conditions and the obtained product undergoes fine grinding. The apparatus includes a device for coarse grinding lignocellulose material, an extractor and a device for fine grinding, said devices being arranged in series.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the method of preparing lignocellulse material, increases sugar output therefrom at the fermentolysis stage and improves environmental conditions of production.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to biotechnology. Disclosed is a method for biological decontamination of liquid hydrocarbon-containing wastes which are formed when cleaning natural gas and gas pipelines. A biopreparation of hydrocarbon-oxidising microorganisms is added to liquid hydrocarbon-containing wastes in amount of 1 kg of biopreparation per 10 kg of hydrocarbons. Water is simultaneously added to the working vessel to obtain a working suspension with volume ratio of wastes to water ranging from 1:4 to 1:50, depending on the initial concentration of hydrocarbons. Macroelements, trace elements and, optionally, an acidity regulator are then added. Decontamination is carried out for 12-15 hours while constantly stirring and feeding air. Temperature is kept in the range from 28°C to 36°C and pH is kept in the range 4 to 7. The decontamination product is then discharged from the working vessel, leaving not less than 25% of the volume of the working suspension. The whole decontamination cycle is repeated. The second and subsequent decontaminations are carried out without adding the biopreparation. Also disclosed is apparatus for biological decontamination of liquid hydrocarbon-containing wastes which are formed when cleaning natural gas and gas pipelines. The apparatus has a working vessel with process pipes, a mixer and a supply vessel mounted on top of the working vessel and linked to the working vessel by a connecting pipe. The mixer is fitted with an electric drive and is mounted with possibility of turning about a vertical axis. The working vessel is fitted with a level gauge, a loading bin for the biopreparation, a vessel for trace elements and macroelements, a vessel for the acidity regulator and a built-in heat-exchanger. The connecting pipe is fitted with a stop valve and a pipe for feeding water.
EFFECT: shorter duration and higher efficiency of the decontamination process, wider field of using the method and the apparatus.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: when culturing phototrophs, the culture fluid is stirred and aerated through agitation by moving cultivators back and forth in the horizontal plane at given temperature and pH values. The cultivators are illuminated with a pulsed light source with pulse duration of 0.00001-0.001 s and pulse spacing of 0.01-0.1 s. In the apparatus used, the culture fluid is illuminated with diodes located under transparent bottoms of vessels of the same geometric shape and powered by a pulse generator with controlled frequency and light pulse duration.
EFFECT: group of inventions enables to reduce power consumption when culturing phototroph biomass.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: device for growing microorganisms includes tower with detachable cover, nozzle of air exhaust, nozzle for drain of culture fluid and flushing waters, nozzles of nutrient medium, titrating agent and seed culture, multilevel disk mixer with drive installed in tower, aerator. Tower consists of two cylindrical reservoirs arranged one above other. Upper reservoir is arranged of larger diametre to contain lower reservoir installation in transport position for growing stock culture and has flange fixed in lower part with fixing bolts to seal reservoirs. Shaft of disk mixer is arranged as composite. Lower part of shaft is arranged as tubular and is installed in reservoir for growing stock culture. Upper part of shaft is arranged in the form of solid cylinder fixed in detachable cover of installation and inserted into lower tubular part of composite shaft of mixer with the possibility of displacement relative to each other. On upper cylindrical part of disk mixer shaft there is a disk with the possibility of displacement along shaft and its fixation by means of pins at specified height. Disks are arranged at the ends of lower tubular part on lower tubular part of disk mixer shaft. Installation is equipped with lifting mechanisms arranged under flange of upper reservoir to match reservoirs with each other in working position of installation.
EFFECT: increased convenience of installation operation due to reduction of dimensions and possibility to use it in mobile complex of ecological biotechnology.
FIELD: microbiology instruments.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to suspension cultivation of tissue or microorganism cells and can be used in food industry, biotechnologies and medicine. Proposed apparatus comprises cylindrical vessel with cover and device to aerate and mix suspension of mentioned biological substances. The said apparatus allows producing, on suspension surface, aerating gas swirled flow flowing along the vessel edges, potential vortex rate field being located at the vessel edges and axial countercurrent in near-axis zone. Note that the pressure difference between the vortex edges and centre varies from 10 to 2000 Pa. Axisymmetric body of revolution is arranged inside the said vessel, on its bottom and aligned with it, the body height being equal to or exceeding the level of the apparatus maximum filling. Side surface of aforesaid body of revolution smoothly mates the vessel bottom surface. Aforesaid body of revolution represents a cone or a cylinder with aerodynamic nose fairing arranged on its upper end face.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of cultivation due to more regular distribution of cless culture in fluid substrate.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanics, microbiology.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises a vessel to receive culture liquid till a certain level. The said vessel has branch pipes to feed liquid mineral culture medium, air and to discharge accumulated biomasses, and, at least, one additional vessel making an adsorber of gaseous substrate. The aforesaid vessels have flanged rings fitted along the vessel axis to divide the vessel part filled with liquid into upward and downward channels. Air feed bubblers are arranged in the vessel upward channels. The vessels lower parts communicate via a liquid duct so that the main vessel downward channel communicates with the additional vessel upward channel, while the additional vessel downward channel communicates with the main vessel upward channel. Note that the liquid duct accommodates a liquid circulation agitator arranged between the vessels. The additional vessel ring upper flange can represent a funnel directed inside the downward channel and symmetrical to the downward channel axis. A surge pipe can be mounted at the flange center to communicate the vessel above-liquid part with the downward channel inner side. Note that another funnel can be mounted below and coaxially with the aforesaid funnel and surge pipe.
EFFECT: producing protein masses of aerobic microorganisms in using gaseous substrate as nutrition.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed aqueous solution of acrylamide is obtained through hydration of acrylonitrile in an aqueous solution in the presence of a biocatalyst. To carry out the reaction, a device is used, comprising a reactor and a centrifuge attached to it. To separate the biocatalyst from the aqueous solution of acrylamide, the centrifuge operates in a semi-continuous mode, at least. The centrifuge has optical means of controlling parameters of the clarified liquid medium tapped from it. The control results are used for controlling operation of the centrifuge. The method has the highest possible environmental friendliness and allows for minimising quantity of by-products.
EFFECT: design of an efficient method of making an aqueous solution of acrylamide.
16 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in hydration of acrylonitrile in aqueous solution in presence of biocatalyst, which involves mixing reaction mixture containing acrylonitrile, biocatalyst, and water in reactor provided with closed circulation circuit through which a part of reaction mixture is pumped and wherein at least one heat-exchanger is incorporated. Acrylonitrile is continuously supplied to circulating stream in a point disposed upstream to the point from which reaction mixture is returned to reactor. In this case, concentration of acrylonitrile and/or acrylamide in circulating stream is measured in a point upstream to the point, in which acrylonitrile is added to circulating stream. As biocatalyst, strain Rhodococcus rhodochrous is used. Invention also relates to apparatus for production of acrylamide aqueous solution comprising reactor with circulation circuit incorporating at least one heat-exchanger. In circulation circuit, in the section located immediately before the point from which reaction mixture is returned to reactor, there is a point to receive acrylonitrile, while an on-line device designed to measure concentrations of acrylonitrile and/or acrylamide in circulating stream is incorporated in circulation circuit.
EFFECT: prolonged lifetime of catalyst, reduced amount of biocatalyst, suppressed formation of by-products, and optimized level of conversion of acrylonitrile into acrylamide.
19 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemical industry; food industry; microbiological industry; other industries; production of the stirrers for the process installations.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices intended for gasification of the liquid medium, for example, by the air and may be used in the different branches of industry, including food industry, chemical industry and microbialogical industry. The stirrer for the process installation system contains, at least, one gas-liquid jet-type mixer with at least one fitting pipe for the gaseous medium and is kinematically connected with the drive gear. At that the fitting pipe of the gas-liquid mixer for the gaseous medium takes its beginning from the surrounding gaseous medium of the process installation disposed over the surface of the treated liquid medium. The presented stirrer for the process installation has more simple design at the expense of exclusion of the compressed air source.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that stirrer for the process installation has more simple design at the expense of exclusion of the compressed air source.
FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to synthesis of organic compounds. Acrylonitrile is hydrated in aqueous solution in the presence of a biocatalyst. Control for carrying out the reaction is carried out by measurements of parameters of the technological process in "on-line" regimen by infrared spectroscopy method with Fourier-transformation. The reaction is carried out in reactor fitted by circulation contour wherein part of the reaction mixture is pumped in closed cycle. Device comprises infrared spectrometer with Fourier-transformation providing carrying out measurements in "on-line" regimen rapidly and to retain activity of biocatalyst at the practically constant level in the reaction course and to produce larger amount of the more pure product.
EFFECT: improved method of synthesis.
16 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: equipment for cultivation of microorganisms.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents an apparatus for cultivation of microorganisms and is dealt with the equipment for cultivation of microorganisms and may be used in different industries and also in exploratory practice. The apparatus includes a horizontally located tubular fermentative container, devices for aeration and mixings of a culture broth and the heat exchanger. Each device contains a body connected to the fermentative container and a circulation circuit for the aerating gas and the culture broth consisting of pipelines, a gas-liquid mixtures pulsating device, a replaceable nozzle and a gas consumption regulator mounted on one of the pipelines. The fermentative container is made out of a transparent heat-resistant glass. At butts of the fermentative container there are protective screens made out of a perforated hydrophobic material. The invention ensures an efficient mass exchange by a uniform distribution of the aerating gas in the whole volume of the culture broth and also an increase of productivity of the apparatus.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an efficient mass exchange in the whole volume of the culture broth and an increase of productivity of the apparatus.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: boiler plant for thermal power plant or boiler house includes boiler with furnace chamber equipped with burner device, fuel feed device, gas path and chemical water treatment system. In addition, boiler plant includes preparation unit of disperse water-fuel mixture an additional burner device; at that, inlet of the above plant is connected as to fuel to fuel feed device, as to water - to receiver of drains of chemical water treatment system, and outlet is connected through additional burner device to furnace chamber. Electrostatic precipitator is installed in exhaust part of its gas path.
EFFECT: invention allows decreasing the environmental pollution with wastes of chemical water treatment used for preparation of make-up feed water supplied to boiler plants of thermal power plants or independent boiler plants operating on solid or liquid fuel.
3 cl, 1 dwg