Method and apparatus for partial thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons in a reactor, according to which a stream containing a hydrocarbon and a stream containing oxygen are fed into said reactor. The method is characterised by that both said streams are independently fed into the reactor respectively through one or more spaced apart lines inside of which there are turbulence generators which provide a given change in direction of flow, owing to which downstream beyond the turbulence generators a highly turbulent flow field is formed, wherein the turbulence generators cover the cross-section of the lines by a value ranging from 10% to 70%, wherein during passage of the streams through the turbulence generators, there is an arched change in the direction of flow in an inscribed angle ranging from 45° to 360°, and wherein right after coming out of the lines, the flow velocity includes a tangential component and the streams are mixed in a mixing zone and then react in a reaction zone. The invention also relates to an apparatus realising said method.

EFFECT: use of the present invention enables to achieve fast and quality mixing of reactants during short-term dwell thereof in a small space.

8 cl, 1 ex, 3 dwg

 

The present invention relates to an improved method of partial oxidation in the reactor, whereby the reactor serves stream containing hydrocarbons and a stream containing oxygen, as well as to a device for carrying out the invention method.

The high temperature partial oxidation reaction is usually carried out in reactors containing site mixing, a torch and quenching the node.

An example of such a high-temperature process is the production of acetylene and synthesis gas by partial oxidation of hydrocarbons. Corresponding processes are described, for example, in German patents DE 875198, DE 1051845, DE 1057094 and DE 4422815.

It's a combination mixer/burner/furnace/tempering site commonly used by BASF for the synthesis of acetylene by the Sachsse-Bartholomé, and that combination in the further description, for simplicity, referred to as the reactor.

Used as starting substances of natural gas and oxygen are usually heated independently from each other as possible to 700°C. In the mixing zone specified reagents are subjected to intensive mixing and after passing through the burner unit lead in the interaction. In this case, the burner unit is made in the form of a certain number of parallel channels, in which soon the TB currents capable of ignition of a mixture of oxygen with natural gas exceeds the rate of flame propagation (speed of reaction, the rate of conversion)to prevent breakthrough of the flame in the mixing chamber. Metal burner unit to ensure the constancy of thermal load is subjected to cooling. Depending on the length of stay of reaction mixtures in the mixing chamber there is a danger of premature ignition and reverse flame, due to the limited thermal stability of these compounds. In this case, use the term "lag time of ignition", respectively "induction time", which means the period of time during which it is able to ignite the mixture does not undergo noticeable its own thermal changes. The induction time depends on the type of hydrocarbon, the state of the mixture, pressure and temperature. Induction time specifies the maximum duration of stay of the reactants in the mixing chamber. Reagents, such as hydrogen, liquefied natural gas or gasoline, the use of which is in the process of synthesis is particularly preferred in connection with the possibility of achieving high yield and/or production facilities are relatively high reactivity, and therefore, a slight induction time.

Combustion chamber (reactor) used in production scale I is x acetylene burner has a cylindrical shape. Through holes of the burner unit ordered is preferably hexagonal. For example, in accordance with one variant of embodiment of the burner unit 127 holes with an inner diameter of 27 mm hexagonal ordered on a round core cross section with a diameter of about 500 mm channel Diameter generally corresponds to the approximate range from 19 to 27 mm Adjacent to the channels of the combustion chamber in which combustion is stabilized due to the reaction of partial oxidation, followed by the formation of acetylene, also has a cylindrical cross-section and has the form of a short pipe, for example, the diameter of 533 mm and a length of 400 mm Burner Assembly, consisting of a block of burners and combustion chamber, hang in the quenching tank more cross-section through the upper flange. At the level of the output from the furnace chamber outside the perimeter on one or more distribution rings mounted quenching nozzles that with or without the aid of the spray medium spray quenching medium, for example water or oil, injecting her in coming out of the combustion chamber of the reaction gases in a direction approximately perpendicular to the main flow. The purpose of this direct quenching is extremely fast cooling of the flow of reactive components before the preclude the flow of sequential reactions, that is primarily the destruction of the formed acetylene. The length and distribution of the quenching of jets in an ideal case count so that in the shortest period of time to ensure a highly uniform temperature distribution.

The furnace used in the actual production scale acetylene burner has a cylindrical shape. Source materials pre-mixed by means of the cone, preventing back mixing, is sent to the burner unit through the ordered hexagonal through holes. In accordance with known methods in the mixing cone is pre-mixing of relatively large amounts of starting substances, pre-heated to high temperatures. Depending on the power of the burner mixing diffuser has a design, according to which the duration of the reagents and the induction time of the same order of magnitude. Due to the increased amount of reactive components of the original substances, as well as having the catalytic action of particles and surfaces, such as coke, rust and so on, may occur too fast ignition mixtures. Such premature ignition of abusable the AET interrupt the production process, consequently, reducing its efficiency and effectiveness.

As described in the German patent DE 102005018981 A1 and U.S. patent US 2179378 devices place the feeder streams of the reactants is changed in such a way that they are administered in a small space located in the immediate vicinity of the holes of the burner unit. Thus, the holes of the burner unit performs the function of the mixing tube, in which is formed a mixture of reagents. Due to the configuration of this mixing zone, reach high speeds to prevent reverse breakthrough flame holes of the burner unit and yet provides a continuous formation of a mixture of the reactants.

The practical implementation of such constructive intent is a difficult task, because through all the holes of the burner unit must be ensured uniform distribution of flow of the reactants in a suitable mixing nodes.

In addition, there is a danger of the reverse shock of a flame in a separate mixing tube and stabilize the combustion in the stoichiometric region field mixing. This risk occurs in the case of uneven distribution of the reaction mixture, in which the rate of flow in the mixing tube by an order of magnitude lower than the rate of transformation.

The present invention was the position is on a task to find an improved method for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, to eliminate the above disadvantages and to provide technologically simple, fast and efficient mixing of the reactants during their short stay in a very small space.

The specified task according to the invention is solved by the method of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons in the reactor, whereby the reactor serves stream containing hydrocarbons and a stream containing oxygen, whereby the method is characterized by the fact that both of these flow independently from each other, respectively, is passed into the reactor through one or more spatially separated from each other lines from inside the turbulence generators, ensuring the specified direction of flow, whereby downstream for generators turbulence is formed of a high-turbulence flow field, and after the release of these lines the flows are mixed in the mixing zone, and then interact in the reaction zone.

In accordance with the proposed invention method are spatially separated from each other flows of reagents injected into the preferably parallel holes, through which generators turbulence they give the most pronounced turbulence. In an extremely small space after generators turbulent the tee is the formation of a mixture of an oxidant with a combustible material, moreover, the degree of mixing depends on the extent of mixing, degree of turbulence and direction of twist of the respective threads are placed in the holes of the turbulence generators. Directly to the mixing zone adjacent the reaction zone, which is stabilized by the injection of pilot oxygen in the zone of a high-turbulence flow.

Thanks to this consistent location of the mixing zone and the reaction volume allows simple control over, which in the preferred embodiment, is not disturbed by other internal devices.

Proposed in the invention method allows you to prevent interruption of the process and production downtime due to premature ignition. In addition, this method offers the possibility of effective use of combustible materials with a low induction time, such as synthesis gases or higher hydrocarbons (e.g. ethane, ethylene or evaporated liquefied gases).

In accordance with the proposed invention by way of an internal device called the generators of turbulence, is placed inside the channels of the burner unit. Such a turbulence generator has geometrical parameters, whereby when the operating position which overlaps a significant portion of the cross-section of the corresponding channel, and the gas flow inside the channel passes only through the through-hole is made in the turbulence generator. Under cross-section of the channel mean square its free cross section, that is, the area provided for passing the gas stream.

In the case of channels with a circular cross section, the most commonly used in the burner unit, the turbulence generator preferably has the form of a cylinder, the diameter of which is calculated so that such cylindrical body when placed within the channel provided above the almost complete overlap of the gas flow, which is achieved thanks to approximate correspondence of the outer diameter of the cylinder to the inner diameter of the channel, and through the corresponding gap can be only a extremely small amount of gas. In this case, the degree of compaction is primarily determined by requiring its implementation cost, and can be further enhanced through the implementation of other well-known technical events.

When this height is used cylindrical body generally corresponds to the diameter of the channel multiplied by the number of approximately 1 to 4, preferably from 2 to 3. In accordance with the proposed invention a method is generally recom is advisable to use the turbulence generators such configuration, to the extent implemented according to the invention overlapping passed through the channel of the base gas was approximately from 20 to 100% of the total channel length.

According to the invention the longitudinal axis is made in the turbulence generators through holes when the generator turbulence within the channel are characterized by predominant or preferably a complete lack of parallelism of the longitudinal axis of the channel. In a preferred embodiment of the invention in the case of use as a generator of turbulence above the cylindrical body of its supply through-hole, the angle of which is in the approximate range from 80° to 40°, preferably in the range from 60° to 45°. When this angle mean angle between the longitudinal axis of the cylinder (vertical axis) and the longitudinal axis of the hole. In the case of these axes, the tilt angle is 0°. These apertures preferably begin near the edge or on the edge of the upper or lower end of the cylinder and a spiral, preferably with a constant angle of inclination, go to the opposite end of the cylinder. It is recommended to provide a turbulence generator a few holes, which typically ranges from 1 to 6, preferably h is four.

From finding the generators of turbulence above configuration inside the channels of the gas stream is forced to pass through is made in these generators through holes. When the gas is moving above a spiral trajectory, which corresponds to the inclination of the holes. Therefore, the General direction of movement of the gas may include component, the direction of which coincides with the direction of the longitudinal axis of the hole, and on the specified component may be imposed also circumferential component (depending on the location of the holes on the corresponding end of the cylinder). As gas flows through the turbulence generator is curved to change the direction of its movement in the inscribed angle, which corresponds to the approximate range from 45° to 360°, preferably from 90° to 180°. Under an inscribed angle mean overlapping General sector of an arc of a circle, which is the geometric parameters of the cylinder. Twisting the gas flow can be varied by implementing it as clockwise and counterclockwise.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the turbulence generators overlap from 10 to 70%, preferably from 20 to 50% of the cross-sectional area of the channels. Outside the geometric parameters of ispolzuemykh according to the invention generators turbulence largely determined by the configuration of the respective channels of the burner. In the case of channels with a circular cross section, it is recommended to use the above generators turbulence cylindrical shape, while in the case of channels with rectangular cross-section preferably suitable are the generators of turbulence with a cubic form. Particularly suitable form of turbulence generators can be defined.

The diameter must be done in the turbulence generators hole is usually about from 0.1 to 0.5, preferably from 0.2 to 0.4 of the diameter of the cylinder, i.e. the outer diameter of the turbulence generator.

In accordance with the proposed invention is a method for moving a gas through the through-hole generators turbulence occurs above changes the direction of its flow. Therefore, if gas is set to twisting occurs twisted within the gas stream. Thus, as a result of changing the direction of movement of the medium discharged through the holes of the turbulence generators are formed denominated radial and tangential components of the velocity of motion at the outlet of the burner. Significant shear forces resulting from the interaction between emerging from adjacent channels of the burner jets, causing high speed ripple. So about the time, in a preferred embodiment, the combustion chamber could be generated energy of high-intensity, turbulent flow field, which may be formed of the reaction zone. Generated turbulence is characterized by the flow conditions, in accordance with which the pulsation with high speeds occurs in all three directions in space without macroscopic priority in the direction of the perimeter.

Thanks to the implemented according to the invention the placement of the generators of turbulence in the channels of the burner unit is provided the possibility of a new, more perfect realization of the related process, which is discussed in more detail below. According to the invention carry out a different type of stabilization reactions. Along with the use of a stabilizing burner turbulence generator generates a high-intensity field of flow, in which the formation of the reaction zone. In a preferred embodiment, the character generated by the flow field and the implementation of a process causes the lack of recycling material flows near the burner unit, which ultimately leads to lack of deposits of coke in the burner unit. In addition to the above preferred form of the field of turbulence because of the use according to the invention is raspolozheniu stabilizing burners also prevents undesirable recirculation containing soot gas flows into the burner unit. Unlike conventional burners stabilizing burner is located at a considerable distance from the burner unit, which preferably corresponds to the diameter of the channels in the burner unit, multiplied by the number of about of 3 to 20, particularly preferably from 4 to 15. The specified distance is measured from the bottom edge of the burner unit, i.e. from the gas flow channel, then move to the combustion chamber to the inlet of the auxiliary oxygen into the combustion chamber. The diameter of the channels in the burner unit is typically in the approximate range from 17 to 27 mm, preferably from 20 to 23 mm Due to the above arrangement of the stabilizing burner flame stabilisation in accordance with the proposed invention a method is removed from the burner unit at a much greater distance compared with conventional burners. Particularly preferred arrangement of the stabilizing burner is determined by the system and given special technological conditions. In some cases, professionals may change depending on the reaction conditions. Easy offset stabilizing burners at the same distance in the case of conventional burners could not provide comparable success, because the holes of conventional burners output is not supplied and used in accordance with the finding generators of turbulence, consequently, after the release of gas from conventional burners there is no formation of a turbulent flow field, in which the stabilization of the flame of the main burner is only through the use of auxiliary oxygen and without the stabilizing effect of recirculation in the area of the outlet of the burner.

Proposed in the invention method allows you to create high turbulence in the combustion chamber with minimal loss of pressure. The pressure loss is dependent upon the performance and at the clearing point of the reactor are from about 40 to 300 mbar.

The turbulence generators installed so that they are provided preferably alternating twisting (clockwise and counterclockwise). Consequently, in the preferred embodiment, the combustion chamber it is possible to form a turbulent flow field without the tangential component of the velocity, due to what can be achieved particularly efficient mixing of the reactants.

According to a preferred variant of the location of the turbulence generators provide the rotation direction of the swirling flow in the radial direction, while along the perimeter of the burner unit use the turbulence generators of the same type. The ordering of the directions of the swirling flows of oxidant and g is ruego material in the turbulence generators on the stove burner shown in figure 2.

The turbulence generators can be placed in all or only in certain channels.

The object of the present invention is also a device suitable for carrying out the invention method. The design of such device is illustrated in more detail in the example shown in figure 1.

Coming through the supply pipeline (1) and (2) an oxidant and a combustible material independently from each other are passed through equipped with turbulence generators line (3) in the burner unit. The oxidizer and a combustible material come into direct contact and mixed in the field of intensive turbulence only after they pass through the turbulence generators, preferably made in the form of axial generators twist. The length of the mixing chamber (4) is designed in such a way that could be provided fairly complete homogenization of the mixture of oxidizer with combustible material.

In the reaction volume (6), which stabilize the reaction zone feed lines (5) supplied with oxygen or an auxiliary reaction substance.

Figure 2 shows the preferred arrangement of the turbulence generators. The letters "R" and "L" is used to denote the generators of turbulence, providing different areas of swirling gas flows, and "R" means the rights of the twisting, a "L" levosalbutamol the turbulence generator. Along the arc of a circle preferably are generators of turbulence with the same direction of the swirling gas flows, while in the radial direction in an alternating located pravonarusheniia and liosicrucians generators turbulence. When the oxidant is passed through line marked in figure 2 by hatching.

Proposed in the invention method is suitable for cost-effective implementation of the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons. Especially preferred is the use of this method implemented for high yield of receipt of acetylene and synthesis gas. In contrast to the methods implemented in conventional burners offered in the invention, the method allows for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons in the absence of undesirable coke deposits that hinder the implementation of the production process. With the invention of the nature of the stabilization of the flame provided by preventing the deposition of coke recycling contributes to effective and efficient implementation of the interaction of the reagents. These benefits can be easily achieved due to the proposed invention fluidic design, and, in addition, m is tenderly to avoid the increased costs due to, for example, the need for periodic mechanical cleaning of the burners.

Example

The mixing parameters were experimentally determined in the proposed invention the device shown in figure 1. The reactor with a diameter of 170 mm is equipped with 37 channels with a diameter of 25 mm, the Gas is passed through a hole placed in the specified channels of the turbulence generators, possessed the tangential component of the speed with alternating direction of twist.

The turbulence generators were supplied with four holes, which, when the length of the cylinder 5 cm overlap angle is 360°.

The oxidizer and a combustible material introduced into the corresponding holes so that the output of them was provided with a uniform density distribution of the pulse stream as a whole, for which we used is shown in figure 2 layout.

To determine the quality of mixing of the oxidant with combustible material complied with the radial measurement of the concentration on the level of stabilization of combustion, i.e. the output level of the mixing zone and transition to the reaction volume. The distance between the measuring point and the exit of the reaction medium (item 7 in figure 1) corresponded to eight times the diameter of the holes. The results of determining the quality of mixing in the radial direction (along the common diameter of the reactor, comprising 170 mm) showing the HN figure 3. On the appropriate chart shows the percentage deviation actually certain content of combustible material (methane) in the mixture compared to the ideal mixing. It should be noted that in the case proposed in the invention embodiment are the deviation from ideal mixing is less than one percent, which confirms the possibility of effective implementation proposed in the invention method.

1. The method of partial oxidation of hydrocarbons in the reactor, in accordance with which it serves the stream containing hydrocarbons and a stream containing oxygen, characterized in that both of these flow independently from each other, respectively, is passed into the reactor through one or more spatially separated from each other lines from inside the turbulence generators, ensuring the specified direction of flow, whereby downstream for generators turbulence is formed of a high-turbulence flow field and the turbulence generators overlap the cross-section lines on the value of from 10 to 70%, and by passing the threads through the turbulence generators is arcuate the change of direction of flow in the inscribed angle from 45° to 360°, and so soon after the release of lines, the flow rate in the cancel the tangential component, and the flows are mixed in the mixing zone, and then interact in the reaction zone.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that by partial thermal oxidation receive acetylene and synthesis gas.

3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the turbulence generators are used in all lines.

4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the turbulence generators installed in the lines so that by passing the flow of matter through channels provide the alternation of the direction of twist with respect to the adjacent channels.

5. The method according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that, to form a suitable mixture of the reagents used to stabilize the combustion stabilizing burner installed in the combustion chamber at a distance from the bottom edge of the burner unit equal to the diameter of the channel multiplied by the number of from 6 to 15.

6. A device for implementing the method according to one of claims 1 to 5, comprising a reactor for the production of acetylene, in which the mixing zone of the original substance in the direction of flow are individual lines that are two spatially separated stream: a stream containing hydrocarbons and a stream containing oxygen, and within one or more of these lines include generators turbulence that overlap the cross-section lines on the value of from 10 to 70%, and the transmittance sweat the Cove through the turbulence generators is curved to change the direction of flow in the inscribed angle from 45° to 360°, and the ends of these lines are adjacent to the mixing zone, in which the original substances are mixed and react.

7. The device according to claim 6, and installed in a line or lines of the turbulence generators overlap the cross-section lines on the value of from 10 to 70%.

8. The device according to claim 6 or 7, and the turbulence generators are equipped with holes for passing a flow of substance, angle of inclination relative to the longitudinal axis of the line ranges from 40 to 80°.



 

Same patents:
Fuel (versions) // 2452764

FIELD: oil-and-gas production.

SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel represents a mix of gaseous flame-resistant ammonium and acetylene, or mix of ammonium, acetylene and ethylene. Invention covers also fuel representing solution of indole in liquid flame-resistant ammonium.

EFFECT: facilitating ignition of flame-resistant gases and fluids at operating temperatures and pressure.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method for obtaining aromatic hydrocarbons from methane, namely natural gas. Invention relates to method of methane transformation into aromatic hydrocarbons according to which methane-containing initial material and granular catalytic material is supplied to reaction zone, the operation of reaction zone is provided in reaction conditions effective for transformation of at least part of methane into aromatic hydrocarbons with associated deposition of carbonaceous material on granular catalytic material that causes its (catalytic material) de-activation. At least part of de-activated granular catalytic material is removed from reaction zone and heated till the temperature approximately from 700°C to 1200°C by direct or indirect contact with gaseous combustion products obtained by combustion of auxiliary fuel. Then heated granular catalytic material is regenerated by hydrogen-containing gas in conditions effective for transformation of at least part of deposited carbonaceous material into methane and regenerated granular catalytic material is returned back into reaction zone.

EFFECT: improvement of methane aromatisation method.

26 cl, 6 dwg, 10 ex, 7 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing acetylene through partial oxidation, splitting in an electric arc or pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. The reaction stream containing the obtained acetylene and soot is directed into a compressor, characterised by that the compressor used is a screw compressor, where liquid which absorbs a large amount of soot contained in the reaction stream is injected into the compressor. If water is injected, content of soot in the water coming out of the compressor is between 0.05 and 5 wt % and if other liquids are injected, the viscosity of the suspension must be comparable with the viscosity of the soot suspension in water.

EFFECT: use of the method enables to use the screw compressor for long periods without preliminary separation of soot.

15 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing acetylene and synthetic gas via thermal partial oxidation of hydrocarbons which are gaseous at temperatures used for preheating, in a reactor which is fitted with a burner with through holes, characterised by that the starting substances to be converted are quickly and completely mixed only directly in front of the flame reaction zone in through holes of the burner, where in the mixing zone within the through holes the average flow rate is higher than the propagation speed of the flame under the existing reaction conditions. The invention also relates to a device for realising the said method.

EFFECT: possibility of avoiding preliminary and reverse inflammations.

9 cl, 3 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for continuous use of apparatus for producing acetylene from hydrocarbons which are alkanes having chain length of up to C10 via partial oxidation to obtain a mixture of reaction gas, which is directed through one or more compressors, wherein the pressure of the mixture of reaction gas on the suction side of the compression zone is regulated using a regulating device in a given range, characterised by that a predicting regulating device is also used, which works at a higher level which supports this model, where the said predicting regulating device is a Feed-Forward regulator, which reacts to sudden change in mass flow of the mixture of reaction gas greater than 5%.

EFFECT: use of the present method ensures continuous operation of apparatus for producing acetylene in case of high processed mass flow.

14 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to a method for production of acetylene and synthesis gas

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of acetylene by plasma chemical pyrolysis of minced solid raw stock with grain size of smaller than 100 mcm by steam in impulse electric discharge plasma generator. Proposed method consists in using shock wave and differs from known methods in that electric discharge in plasma generator is effected in interval smaller than 1 ms while gas product rate is reduced in tubular heat exchange arranged downstream of Laval nozzle. Invention relates also to device intended for implementation of above described method.

EFFECT: high yield of acetylene, power savings.

6 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing acetylene through partial oxidation, splitting in an electric arc or pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. The reaction stream containing the obtained acetylene and soot is directed into a compressor, characterised by that the compressor used is a screw compressor, where liquid which absorbs a large amount of soot contained in the reaction stream is injected into the compressor. If water is injected, content of soot in the water coming out of the compressor is between 0.05 and 5 wt % and if other liquids are injected, the viscosity of the suspension must be comparable with the viscosity of the soot suspension in water.

EFFECT: use of the method enables to use the screw compressor for long periods without preliminary separation of soot.

15 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing acetylene and synthetic gas via thermal partial oxidation of hydrocarbons which are gaseous at temperatures used for preheating, in a reactor which is fitted with a burner with through holes, characterised by that the starting substances to be converted are quickly and completely mixed only directly in front of the flame reaction zone in through holes of the burner, where in the mixing zone within the through holes the average flow rate is higher than the propagation speed of the flame under the existing reaction conditions. The invention also relates to a device for realising the said method.

EFFECT: possibility of avoiding preliminary and reverse inflammations.

9 cl, 3 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for continuous use of apparatus for producing acetylene from hydrocarbons which are alkanes having chain length of up to C10 via partial oxidation to obtain a mixture of reaction gas, which is directed through one or more compressors, wherein the pressure of the mixture of reaction gas on the suction side of the compression zone is regulated using a regulating device in a given range, characterised by that a predicting regulating device is also used, which works at a higher level which supports this model, where the said predicting regulating device is a Feed-Forward regulator, which reacts to sudden change in mass flow of the mixture of reaction gas greater than 5%.

EFFECT: use of the present method ensures continuous operation of apparatus for producing acetylene in case of high processed mass flow.

14 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing acetylene through oxidative pyrolysis of methane in the presence of oxygen and a catalyst, characterised by that the catalyst is heated to 700-1200°C by passing electrical current through it. The catalyst used is a fechral alloy which is thermally treated on air at temperature 900-1100°C. The ratio of methane to oxygen is varied in the range of 5:1-15:1.

EFFECT: high output and selectivity of the process.

2 cl, 17 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of processing carbon-carbonate mineral involves burning limestone in a reactor, obtaining calcium oxide, production of calcium carbide by reacting part of calcium oxide obtained from burning limestone with carbon, bringing part of the obtained calcium carbide into contact with water, obtaining acetylene and caustic lime, bringing gaseous wastes from burning limestone into contact with water to obtain carbonic acid. Limestone is burnt using heat obtained from burning part of the volume of acetylene, obtained from part of the volume of calcium carbide. At least part of the obtained acetylene is used in synthesis of ethanol and/or dichloroethane and/or ethyleneglycol and/or acetone. During synthesis of ethanol and/or dichloroethane, acetylene is reacted with hydrogen in the presence of palladium as catalyst, after which at least part of synthesised C2H4 material is reacted with water vapour, obtaining ethanol, and/or reacted with chlorine, obtaining dichloroethane. Also at least part of the obtained acetylene is subjected to hydrolysis, obtaining ethyleneglycol. Also during synthesis of acetone, part of the obtained acetylene is reacted with water vapour, where the hydrogen obtained is used in said synthesis of ethanol and/or dichloroethane and/or burnt in the burning process. Carbon dioxide obtained from synthesis of acetone is used in the process of producing carbonic acid.

EFFECT: wide range of obtained finished products and prevention of formation of industrial wastes.

4 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: production processes.

SUBSTANCE: there proposed is the method of device cleaning from deposits formed as a result of purified N-methylpyrrolidone regeneration by N-methylpyrrolidone distillation from material flow of contaminated N-methylpyrrolidone. Contaminated N-methylpyrrolidone is formed according to the method of extractive separation of acetylene from reaction mixture of partial hydrocarbon oxidation after distillation of gaseous acetylene. Note that hot water is supplied to the device and mixed.

EFFECT: proposed method permits to exclude manual operation with solid substances, but at the same time regenerating significant part of purified contaminated N-methylpyrrolidone.

9 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: inorganic compounds technologies.

SUBSTANCE: invention is directed to production of acetylene and lime through hydrolysis of calcium carbide. Hydrolysis solution is prepared from water/ethanol mixture containing at least 68 wt % ethanol. After hydrolysis, ethanol vapors are condensed to give anhydrous ethanol. Acetylene and lime are also obtained in anhydrous form.

EFFECT: enhanced process efficiency due to wastelessness of the process and possibility of using carbide dust and fines, improved safety of process, and improved quality of generated acetylene.

1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: chemical industry branches, possibly manufacture of calcium carbide, calcium oxide, acetylene, carbonic acid and slaked lime.

SUBSTANCE: coal-carbonate mineral raw material - lime is fired in reactor 1 with use of acetylene as high-temperature energy carrier. Lime produced in reactor 1 is fed to user and(or) to second reactor 2 and adding coke or coal with fraction size 20 -25 mm and with sulfur content less than 1% into reactor 2. Some part of acetylene further produced is also added to reactor 2. Ready calcium carbide is removed out of reactor 2 and it is fed to user and(or) to fourth reactor 4 where after contact with water acetylene and slaked lime are formed. Acetylene is fed through pipeline 15 to user and(or) to reactors 1 and 2. Ready slaked lime is fed to user. Gaseous products such as carbon dioxide from reactor 1 and carbon oxide from reactor 2 are fed to third reactor 3 where after contact with water carbonic acid is formed and fed to user as "dry ice" or in liquefied state.

EFFECT: possibility for producing wide assortment of commercial products in one waste-free cycle, elimination of environment contamination.

2 cl, 1 dwg

The invention relates to the processing of the products of oxidative pyrolysis gas metadatareader

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of processing mineral material and can be used to produce amorphous silicon dioxide from rice husks. The method producing amorphous silicon dioxide from rice husks involves washing rice husks with deionised water in an ultrasonic field in cavitation mode while heating to 90°C, for 10 minutes at frequency of 20 kHz and 20 minutes at frequency of 35-60 kHz, respectively. Carbonisation is then carried out, as well as grinding the ash and oxidising roasting in a reactor lined with quartz glass, while constantly stirring in a current of cleaned air and raising temperature at not more than 10°C/min.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain, using an ecologically clean method, amorphous silicon dioxide with purity of up to 99,99%, specific surface area of up to 420 m2/g and particle size of 10-80 nm.

3 cl, 5 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to regular adapters to be used in oil-and-gas, chemical, petrochemical and other industries. Proposed adapter comprises packs of a bundle of vertical tubes arranged in parallel that featured cross-section varying along their axes and spacer units composed of horizontal triangular prisms. Note here that prisms in rows adjacent over height are turned through 90 degrees. Tubes in packs in rows adjacent over height are mounted with shift equal to half the tube diameter. Said tubes feature Cassinian oval-shape while ratio between diameters of widest and narrowest cross-sections makes 2:1.

EFFECT: intensified heat-and-mass exchange.

4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-and-mass exchange. Regular adapter is composed of sections arranged in several tiers over apparatus height and assembled from inclined staggered parallel drop-like elements. Ends of drop-like elements are interconnected by rod. Surface of said elements is made of net of lavsan monothreads. Round edge of plate section is directed toward gas flow while sharp edge are directed toward fluid flow. Angle of attack of said elements with respect to gas flow varies from 0 to 20 degrees. Elements are staggered but they are oriented in adjacent rows over apparatus height with opposite inclination relative to each other and horizontal shift by 1.0-3.0 of adapter element width. Spacing of adapter elements in every row makes 1.5-3.5 of adapter element width. Element height makes 4.0-8.0 of adapter element width. Adapter section elements in rectangular cross-section apparatus are arranged at 90 degrees relative to adapter elements in adjacent sections. Adapter elements in every row of round-cross-section apparatus form eight-lobe structure and are shifted relative to each other by 10°-40°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-and-mass exchange. Regular adapter is composed of sections arranged in several rows over apparatus height and assembled from inclined staggered parallel plates. Every two plates are connected by a rod to make V-like element. Surface of every plate is made of net of lavsan monothreads. Sharp edge of plate section is directed toward gas flow while plate ends are directed toward fluid flow. Plates in adjacent rows are shifted relative to each other in horizontal line by 0.1-1.0 of adapter element width. Spacing of adapter elements in every row makes 1.0-2.0 of adapter element width. Adapter element height makes 2.0-5.0 of its width. Adapter section elements in rectangular cross-section apparatus are arranged at 90 degrees relative to adapter elements in adjacent sections. Adapter elements in every row of round-cross-section apparatus form eight-lobe structure and are shifted relative to each other by 10°-40°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemistry. Proposed plant comprises crystallisation reservoir furnished with adipinic acid mixers, coolers and/or concentrators Note here that, at least, a part of the walls of said coolers and/or concentrators in contact with adipinic acid solution is made from material selected from austenitic stainless steels of AISI 310L-grade compliance with AISI (USA) nomenclature of European nomenclature XlCrNi25-21 (1.4335).

EFFECT: reduced "lining" effect and deterioration of plant surface

7 cl, 2 tbl

Up!