Method of producing water-resistant ammonium nitrate (ammonium saltpeter)

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry and can be used in production of industrial explosives and prolonged-action fertilisers. Ammonium nitrate is ground while simultaneously mixing with water-repellent agents - stearates in amount of not less than 0.1 wt % and iron (III) compounds in amount of not less than 0.03 wt % with respect to iron. The stearates used are sodium stearate or ammonium stearate or zinc stearate or calcium stearate or a mixture thereof. The iron (III) compounds used are iron-ammonium alums or iron chloride or iron sulphate or iron oxide.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain water-resistant ammonium nitrate which meets GOST 14702-79 requirements, and reduces power consumption and duration of the process.

3 cl, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to the production of waterproof ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate)used for production of industrial explosives and prolonged fertilizers.

It is known that the treatment of the ammonium nitrate to obtain a waterproof form a mixture containing 75% of paraffin wax, 20% of the alkylamine and 5% of bitumen No. 4, named PBA-2 (autospid. The USSR 197535, 18.07.1967) (similar). However, it is impossible to reduce the initial moisture NH4NO3and completely dry it (Mesin, "Technology of mineral salts", t.ii, str) (similar).

Also a method of producing waterproof ammonium nitrate by treatment with hydroxide of the metal and carboxylic acids or their mixture with unoxidized or partially oxidized paraffin hydrocarbons, and enter them in a quantity of 0.05-0.1% (calculated as Fe) and 0,15-0,40% by weight of ammonium nitrate.

Receiving ammonium nitrate is as follows.

Liquors ammonium nitrate concentration 63-70% served in the evaporators and after parki under vacuum to a concentration of 96.5-97% sent for crystallization. On the way to the water trap is injected through the tee solution, for example, oxide iron sulfate concentration of about 120 g/l (calculated as iron) and gaseous ammonia. Next, the melt is cooled and partially crystallized on cooling gap is hinnon drum and sent to screw decrystallization. At the same time in the auger spray spray air fatty acid or its mixture with paraffin. Hot ammonium nitrate with a temperature of 108°C in the auger is mixed with a fatty acid, dried, cooled and then by conveyor serves on the bottles (Autospid. The USSR №109465 on application No. 566050 from 3.02.1957 year). The process is multi-stage, duration, intensity. In addition, the introduction of oxide iron sulfate and gaseous ammonia to obtain the hydroxide of the metal will cause maloosmyslennym results, since the oxide iron sulfate Fe2(SO4)3in the aquatic environment subject to hydrolysis. The formation of different complexes (analog) (General and inorganic chemistry / Tagkawayan, Seadragon, str).

A method of obtaining waterproof ammonium nitrate by treating its hydrophobic additive consisting of natural carboxylic acid stearin containing up to 93 wt.% stearic acid (rest - palmitic acid and oleic acid) in a mixture with paraffin in an amount of 0.2-0.4% by weight of the product. The process of obtaining waterproof ammonium nitrate (in granular form) is as follows. Nitric acid is neutralized with gaseous ammonia in the apparatus using the heat of neutralization (ITN). The resulting solution of ammonium nitrate to what concentrations 85-90% of NH 4NO3after Donatelli ammonia is directed to a process of evaporation of obtaining highly concentrated water nitrate. Plav next ozelenyat, through the introduction of sulphate of oxide of iron and ammonia gas so that the iron content was in the range of 0.06 to 0.09 wt.% (in terms of Fe3+) and the total acidity of the water is maintained at a level not exceeding 0.5 g/DM3HNO3. This prevents the formation of flakes of iron hydroxide and allows you to carry out granulation of the product. The pellets are cooled in a fluidized bed to a temperature of 70°C and is directed into the rotating drum, where they are processed hydrophobic additive, which uses natural stearin in a mixture with paraffin, for example in the ratio 1:1, in the amount of 0.2-0.4% by weight of the product. After cooling in the second stage fluidized bed waterproof ammonium nitrate is supplied to the packaging (RF Patent No. 2227121 from 20.04.2004 g on the application 2002134667/15 from 23.12.2002,). Tests of ammonium nitrate to the water resistance was carried out on the hydrodynamic device according to GOST 14839.13-69, according to which it should not be less than 24 cm Vogt (in some cases - not less than 22 cm Vogt).

Closest to the claimed invention are methods of obtaining waterproof ammonium nitrate for the manufacture of explosives contained in PA is ente RU # 2318726 from 10.03.2008, (prototype). The method according to option 1 includes the processing of granules of mineral-organic emulsion comprising a mineral phase, which contains salesonline alum and derived from ammonium nitrate, a solution of ferric sulfate and sodium hydroxide solution, the organic phase containing paraffin and natural stearin, and the stabilizer of the emulsion, drying and grinding. The method according to option 2 includes the handling of granules of ammonium nitrate solution salesonline alum obtained from ferric sulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium hydroxide and having a pH of pH from 1.5 to 2.5, drying, further processing of the granules organic repellent containing paraffin and natural stearin, drying and grinding. The method according to option 3 includes the handling of granules of ammonium nitrate mineral-organic mixture containing gestionnaire alum obtained by mixing ammonium nitrate solution, ferric sulfate, sodium hydroxide solution, paraffin and natural stearin, followed by drying, after processing the granules of ammonium nitrate crushed. The method allows to obtain waterproof ammonium nitrate with a high rate of resistance of 70-90 cm Vogt

The General disadvantages of the known methods is the amount of energy, multiple, long is inost process and, as a consequence, the high cost of the technology.

The objective of the present invention to provide a waterproof ammonium nitrate by treating its water-repellent agent, and, as a hydrophobic additives use salts of stearic acid is not less than 0.1% by weight of the product and compounds of iron (III) not less than 0.03% by weight of the product (in terms of iron). The water-repellent agent is introduced into the grinding ammonium nitrate simultaneously under stirring, which contributes to the interaction of particles of ammonium nitrate and water-repellent agent on the molecular level. Grinding components translates them in fine condition, and mixing leads to uniform distribution of water-repellent agent in the mass of ammonium nitrate due between van der Waals forces. This leads to the close interaction of particles and retention of the molecules of the water-repellent agent on the surface of the ammonium nitrate.

As salts of stearic acid used or sodium stearate, or ammonium stearate, or zinc stearate, or calcium stearate, or a mixture.

As compounds of iron (III) apply salesonline alum (JACQUES) or ferric chloride, or ferric sulfate, or ferric oxide.

The proposed technology will allow to reduce the energy intensity of the process and its duration while increasing the performance in which ustoichivosti derived product.

The process of obtaining waterproof ammonium nitrate is as follows. Granular ammonium nitrate (according to GOST 2-85) are ground together with salts of stearic acid or sodium stearate, or ammonium stearate, or zinc stearate, or calcium stearate, or mixtures thereof) and iron compounds (III) in the mill that provides a high degree of fineness and uniformity of grinding; dried in a drying Cabinet to constant weight and cooled in a desiccator. The thus treated ammonium nitrate withstand tests for water resistance of not less than 24 cm VST Test the waterproofness of conduct on the hydrodynamic device according to GOST 14839.13-69.

Table 1 presents the results of tests of ammonium nitrate.

From table 1 it follows that the experiments conducted on the developed method allows to obtain the ammonium nitrate that can withstand the test water resistance of not less than 24 cm VST(experiments 3-21).

In experiments 10 and 11 have changed the content of sodium stearate. Reducing its content has led to reduced water-stability of a sample of ammonium nitrate (at least 25 to 45 cm VST). The increase in the content of this repellent has not led to a substantial increase in the water-stability results (not less than 45 cm VST), therefore, the increase in the concentration of this component PR which leads to excessive materialization.

In experiments 12-15 in addition to sodium stearate (1%) as a repellent used JACQUES. The results for water-stability of ammonium nitrate in its content less than 0.05% coincided with the results of the experiment 3 (not less than 45 cm VST), in which JACQUES is not used. When the content JACQUES 0,05-0,075% waterproofness of ammonium nitrate increased (from 60 cm VST). However, further increase in the content of water-repellent (up 0.1%) also leads to the excessive materialization.

In experiments 16-21 JACQUES replaced by iron oxide (III). When the content of sodium stearate 0.3% and the content of Fe2O30,9% by weight of ammonium nitrate result in water-stability coincided with the results of the experiments 4-6 and 9-10 (at least 30 cm VST). The use of 0.9% sodium stearate with iron oxide (III) contributed to increasing the water-stability of ammonium nitrate to 55 cm VST, which coincides with the results of the experiment 13. Values for water-stability of ammonium nitrate with a lower content of iron oxide (III) (experiments 18-20) also meet the requirements of GOST 14702-79 (not less than 24 cm VST) and consistent with the results of the experiment 2 (at least 40 cm VST). With the increasing content of water-repellent - stearate sodium, up to 1% (experiment 21) the stability of ammonium nitrate on the content of iron oxide (III) (0,03%) was not less than 110 cm VST

Be aware that salt of iron (III) hygroscopic (Ngling. General chem is I: academic manual for schools. - L.: Chemistry, 1983. - S) or easily hydrolyzed (Mccartan, Seadragon. General and inorganic chemistry. Textbook for high schools. - M.: Chemistry, 1981, s), so that their content in the ammonium nitrate is undesirable. This is evidenced by lower values of the water-stability of samples nitrate with JACQUES (experiments 12-15).

Among all the studied metallic stearates maximum values of water-stability observed in samples AU obtained with the use of sodium stearate. The advantages of this cation is obvious. The sodium ion (Na+) has a smaller (0,098 nm) compared to the cation ammonium (NH4+: 0,143 nm), and cations of double ions (CA2+VA2+: 0,104 nm and 0,120 nm), a lesser charge, and as a consequence is more mobile and active (activity coefficient singly charged ions is higher than repeating: f=0,8 against 0,1...0,2. Ngling. General chemistry: textbook for universities. - L.: Chemistry, 1983. - S)that allows it easier to penetrate the surface of the ammonium nitrate and take over it, forming on the surface of the ammonium nitrate membrane of the hydrophobic particles.

It follows that the use of sodium stearate (salts of fatty acids) and iron oxide (III) allows you to get the most water samples AU (experiment 21).

Ammonium nitrate without treatment water repellent as well the l test water resistance only 2-3 cm VST (experiment 1).

Thus, the proposed method of producing waterproof ammonium nitrate by treating its water-repellent agent is a salt of stearic acid is not less than 0.1% by weight of the product and compounds of iron (III) not less than 0.03% by weight of the product (in terms of iron) you can get waterproof ammonium nitrate in accordance with the requirements of GOST 14702-79 "ammonium Nitrate waterproof. Technical conditions".

Through the use of new components: salts of stearic acid, in particular sodium stearate, and iron oxide (III), the technical result - the waterproofness of the ammonium nitrate in the claimed method is far superior to the technical result according to the known methods: the value of water-stability of ammonium nitrate is 110 cm VST

1. A method of obtaining a waterproof ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate), including grinding, mixing ammonium nitrate with water-repellent agent and drying, characterized in that the ammonium nitrate is ground simultaneously with stirring together with a hydrophobic additive - salts of stearic acid in an amount of not less than 0.1% by weight of the product and compounds of iron (III) not less than 0.03% by weight of the product (in terms of iron).

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that salts of stearic acid used sodium stearate, or ammonium stearate, or teart zinc, or calcium stearate, or a mixture.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that compounds of iron (III) apply salesonline alum, or ferric chloride, or ferric sulfate, or ferric oxide.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to inorganic chemistry, namely, to production of ammonium nitrate using neutralisation heat apparatuses (NHA) exploiting heat released in mixing nitric acid with gaseous ammonium. Proposed plant comprises NHA apparatus 1 with inner barrel 4, mixing pumping circuit , acid and gas feed and finished product discharge pipelines 19, 20, 21. NHA apparatus bottom is communicated with pumping circuit suction pipeline 9 while inner barrel 4 is communicated with delivery pipeline 10. Inner barrel 4 is arranged at apparatus bottom without face clearance. External tubular mixers 12, 13 are arranged in delivery pipeline 10 of circulation pump 11 upstream of apparatus 1 to mix reaction components. Ammonium suction pipeline 20 is connected to mixer 12 while nitric acid suction pipeline 19 is connected to mixer 13. Mixers 12, 13 may be replaced by integral injector double-suction mixer. Finished product is discharged via pipeline 21 connected to delivery pipeline 10 upstream of mixers 12, 13. Inner barrel 4 extends beyond apparatus 1 and is provided with deevaporation plate arranged at its top edge.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, reduced content of acid and nitrate in off vapors.

12 cl, 8 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method includes mixing solutions of ammonium nitrate and sulfate at the ratio that provides for the specified content of sulfate sulphur in a fertiliser, introduction of a modifying additive, steaming of the mixed solution at the finished temperature of the produced suspension that does not exceed 155°C, granulation of suspension. The suspension prior to granulation is soaked during mixing for at least 30 minutes and steamed at the finished temperature of 186-198°C. Granulation is carried out by prilling method.

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4 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of producing water-resistant ammonium nitrate involves its treatment with a water-repellent agent. Treatment is carried out by mixing ammonium nitrate with a hydrophobic additive in amount of not less than 0.1% of the mass of the product, where the hydrophobic additive used is a mixture of sodium or potassium silicates, metal fluorides or surfactants. The ammonium nitrate is dried at temperature 18-32°C in not less than 10 minutes.

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1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

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1 tbl, 22 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

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2 cl

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20 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemical industry; a method and a device for production of ammonium nitrate.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to processes of production of alkali liquors of ammonium nitrate. The method of production of ammonium nitrate includes neutralization of nitric acid by gaseous ammonia under an atmospheric pressure at the temperature of 130-140°C with an evaporation of the solution due to the heat of neutralization. The neutralization of the nitric acid is conducted in a stream with a solution of the ammonium nitrate by internal forced circulations with a parallel evaporation of the solution. The solution evaporation is conducted at rarefaction of 0.003-0.004 MPa. The device for production of the ammonium nitrate contains a cylindrical body with the bottom and unions for the solution withdrawal, gauging of its level and a pressure, a cover with an union for withdrawal of the juice vapor. Inside the body at some distance from the bottom the neutralization unit is mounted. It contains two concentrically mounted cylinders communicating with each other through two rows of holes located in the internal cylinder below at the bottom of the outer cylinder and above at the attachment flange of the internal cylinder. Above in the internal cylinder there is a tubular reactor made in the form of an ejector with unions for delivery of the nitric acid and the gaseous ammonia, the body of which is supplied with holes for the solution entry in the mixing chamber of the reactor; a separating funnel which is mounted without a backlash to the lower flange coupling and is fixed in the internal cylinder; and an assembly of an evaporation of the solution, containing two blind plates with the overflow edges installed one above another between the body of the device and the external cylinder of the neutralization assembly in such a manner, that the overflow edge of the upper plate is placed near to the body of the device and at the level of the axes of the upper holes in the internal cylinder of the assembly of neutralization, and the overflow edge of the lower plate - near to the external cylinder of the assembly of neutralization. At that the cylinders of the neutralization assembly inside and outside are supplied with longitudinal ribs. The technical result: the method of production of ammonium nitrate and the design of the device for its realization allow to conduct the process of the neutralization of the nitric acid by the gaseous ammonia with formation of alkali liquor of the ammonium nitrate in a safe mode, as the process is conducted without a pressure with a forced circulation of the solution of an ammonium nitrate due to a kinetic energy of gaseous ammonia, which is fed in the reactor and due to provision of a reliable heat-exchange between the circulating and evaporating alkali liquors, and also allows to reduce metal consumption and to simplify the layout of the equipment.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a safe mode of neutralization of the nitric acid, a reliable heat-exchange between the circulating and evaporating alkali liquors, reduced metal consumption and a simplified layout of the used equipment.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemical industry; to the methods of production of the porous granulated ammonium nitrate.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the methods of production of the inorganic substances used in production of explosives, namely, to production of porous granulated ammonium nitrate used in production of the elementary explosives and emulsion explosives. The offered method of production of the porous granular ammonium nitrate provides for production of a solution of ammonium nitrate, injection in the produced solution of ammonium nitrate in terms of CaO in the end product of 0.5-3 mass % of calcium nitrate in the form of 40-70 % water solution, evaporation of the ammonium nitrate solution with production of a fusion cake, injection of a powder-shaped additive and a UF dispersant with the a subsequent granulation of the fusion cake. In the capacity of pore-forming additives use a high concentration solution containing potassium carbonates and-or sodium carbonates, and-or ammonium carbonates in a ratio of carbonate salts in terms of CO2 in respect to H2 O, equal to (0.06-0.9) : 1, in amount of 0.01-0.045 mass % in terms of CO2 in the fusion cake. The invention is intended for development of a method of production of a porous granulated ammonium nitrate with a capability to control oil absorption and strength of granules, which is stabilized against undesirable modification transformations and possesses the heightened thermostability.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of a porous granulated ammonium nitrate with heightened thermostability and capability to control granules oil absorption and strength, resistance against undesirable modifying transformations.

3 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: inorganic chemistry, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacturing explosive materials, namely, to manufacturing porous granulated ammonium nitrate used in manufacturing the simplest explosive substances and emulsion explosive substances. Invention proposes a method for preparing porous granulated ammonium nitrate involves preparing ammonium nitrate solution, addition of stabilizing additive consisting of magnesium and/or calcium nitrate to solution up to the concentration 2 wt.-% as measured for anhydrous product followed by evaporation of ammonium nitrate solution to obtain melt and addition pore-forming addition and disperser NS to it and the following granulation of product. Highly concentrated ammonium carbonate solution in ammonium nitrate is used as pore-forming additive in the amount 0.05-0.35 wt.-%, or mixture of carbamide with highly concentrated ammonium carbonate in ammonium nitrate in the amount 0.1-0.55 wt.-%. Pore-forming additive is mixed with disperser NS in melt or before their addition in melt. Invention provides the development of a method for preparing porous granulated ammonium nitrate of reduced caking and possibility for regulation of oil absorption and filled density.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; development of special kinds of raw materials and methods for the raw materials processing to produce the mix type blasting explosives.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of making of special kinds of raw and processing methods of its production for making blasting explosives of a mix type. The invention offers a porous granulated ammonium nitrate for making the mix blasting explosives, which contains an additive modifying the space lattice of ammonium nitrate, the pores forming additives and the surface-active substance distributed on the bodies of the granules and also the conditioning seasoning additives on the surface of the granules. As the modifying additive it contains ferrous sulfite (III) and magnesium, calcium, potassium and sodium nitrates at the particular content of ions: Mg+2, Ca+2, Na+1, K+1, Fe+3, SO3-2. And also the invention offers a method of production of the porous granulated ammonium nitrate. The technical result of the invention is production of the porous granulated ammonium nitrate with the developed homogeneous porosity space along the body and the surface of the granules, that allows to manufacture the stable explosive mixtures with the balanced contents of an oxidizing agent and a liquid oil product.

EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the porous granulated ammonium nitrate with the developed homogeneous porosity along the body and the surface of the granules, manufacture the stable explosive mixtures with the balanced contents of an oxidizing agent and a liquid oil product.

3 cl, 3 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: inorganic compounds technologies.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparation of ammonium nitrate with structure resistant to temperature changes and provides an ammonium nitrate phase stabilization method involving addition of organic stabilizer selected from group of nitrogen-containing heterocycles with imine and carbonyl groups, which stabilizer is added to ammonium nitrate in amounts ranging from 4 to 34 wt %. Thus obtained combination is mixed and resulting mixture is ground into powder or heated to 130-160°C at stirring and cooled. Ammonium nitrate obtained by this method is resistant to repetitive changes in temperature within a range from -50 to +100°C, which allows it to be utilized, in particular, in gas-generation compositions for inflators in automobile safety bags.

EFFECT: enhanced temperature resistance of ammonium nitrate phase.

7 cl, 16 ex

FIELD: explosives.

SUBSTANCE: invention is directed to creation of special types of starting material and its production technology for manufacturing explosives. Three variants of water-resistant ammonium nitrate preparation method are proposed. Method according to variant 1 comprises treatment of ammonium nitrate granules with mineral-organic emulsion consisting of (i) mineral phase, which contains iron alum and is obtained from ammonium nitrate, ferric sulfate solution, and sodium hydroxide solution; (ii) organic phase containing solid paraffin and natural stearin; and (iii) emulsion stabilizer, followed by drying and grinding. Method according to variant 2 comprises treatment of ammonium nitrate granules with iron alum solution obtained from ferric sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and sodium hydroxide and having pH 1.5 to 2.5, followed by drying, treatment of granules with organic waterproofing agent containing solid paraffin and natural stearin, subsequent drying and grinding. Method according to variant 3 comprises treatment of ammonium nitrate granules with mineral-organic mixture containing iron alum and obtained by mixing ammonium nitrate, ferric sulfate solution, sodium hydroxide solution, solid paraffin, and natural stearin followed by drying and grinding.

EFFECT: enabled preparation of waster-resistant ammonium nitrate with increased degree of water resistance (70-90 cm torr).

3 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: blasting operations.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of colouring ammonium nitrate for technological purposes, used for making explosive materials, particularly, for the production of high-density and porous ammonium nitrate with a characteristic distinctive colouring of the granules. It can be used in the manufacture of ammonium nitrate, for making emulsion and basic explosives. Method of colouring ammonium nitrate for technological purposes lies in the fact, that granulation of molten ammonium nitrate is granulated in the presence of organic dyes, taken in the quantity 10-100 mg to 1 kg of the finished product. Dye is put into the molten ammonium nitrate directly before granulating into the composition of pore-forming agent or surfactant or in the form of an aqueous solution or suspension. Dyes which do not lose colour in molten ammonium nitrate at a temperature of 190°C are used as colouring agents.

EFFECT: obtaining ammonium nitrate granules with homogenous uniform distinctive colouring.

2 cl

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: crystalline ammonium nitrate is proposed in granulated or powdery type for production of explosive substances. It has microstructure with size of unit domains from 20 to 120 nm and even density of dislocations distribution, at that density of dislocations distribution (P, cm) is determined according to the formula P=3/D3, where D is size of unit domains. Granules may be arranged as solid or porous.

EFFECT: improved perception of ammonium nitrate to initiating pulse and provision of complete explosive transformation of industrial explosive substance on its basis.

2 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to chemical industry and can be used in the manufacture of the slow-release mineral fertilisers and water-resistant explosives on the base of ammonium saltpetre. The method of water-resistant ammonium saltpeter preparation consists in treatment of ammonium saltpeter with water repellent. The gel-like mixtures of mineral acids or its salts with liquid glass with mass ratio acid or salt to liquid glass equal 1:5-40 are used as water repellent. The treatment is carried out at mechanical stirring of the ammonium saltpeter and water repellent with its mass ratio equal 1 : 0.05 - 0.1 during the time enough for full granula coating but not less than 10 min with following dehumidification preferably not less than during 20 min at the temperature providing the stability of the gel, preferably not lower than 20°C.

EFFECT: method provides the significant increasing of the ammonium saltpetre water resistance as well as the decreasing of its solubility and caking ability.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

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