Regular adapter for heat-and-mass exchange apparatuses

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-and-mass exchange. Regular adapter is composed of sections arranged in several rows over apparatus height and assembled from inclined staggered parallel plates. Every two plates are connected by a rod to make V-like element. Surface of every plate is made of net of lavsan monothreads. Sharp edge of plate section is directed toward gas flow while plate ends are directed toward fluid flow. Plates in adjacent rows are shifted relative to each other in horizontal line by 0.1-1.0 of adapter element width. Spacing of adapter elements in every row makes 1.0-2.0 of adapter element width. Adapter element height makes 2.0-5.0 of its width. Adapter section elements in rectangular cross-section apparatus are arranged at 90 degrees relative to adapter elements in adjacent sections. Adapter elements in every row of round-cross-section apparatus form eight-lobe structure and are shifted relative to each other by 10°-40°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 cl, 4 dwg

 

Regular nozzle for heat-mass-transfer apparatus refers to the regular structures of nozzles, which are used in the processes of heat-mass transfer in cooling towers in the implementation of evaporative cooling of water in the closed circulating water supply systems, absorption, adsorption of natural gas, as well as mixers for liquid and gas flows, as contact elements in the capacitors mixing and biofilters, and may find application in technological processes of heat and power engineering, chemical, oil, gas, food and perfume industries.

Known regular nozzle in the form of a section of vertical corrugated sheets (SU # 1674950, B01D 53/20).

The drawback of such nozzles is its relatively high hydraulic resistance at low efficiency.

The closest to the technical essence and the effect is the regular nozzle for heat and mass transfer apparatus, made in the form of sections assembled parallel to the rows of inclined plates (HU No. 166433, CL B01D 3/00, B01D 3/26, B01F 3/09).

The drawback of such nozzles when koridoram element arrangement section is the fact that a significant portion of reactive flows through pass-through direct channels between adjacent elements forming the partition regular Nashik is, that reduces the efficiency of the processes of heat and mass transfer. In the case of chess layout of the section the efficiency of the processes of heat and mass increases slightly, but significantly increases the hydraulic resistance of the nozzle. The disadvantages of this design also is not intensive enough turbulization of the contacting threads inside section of the nozzle and, as a consequence, the marginal efficiency of heat and mass transfer processes.

Also a disadvantage of the known constructions is that their greatest heat and mass transfer efficiency of the process is manifested during some manufacturing processes, where the hydraulic resistance is not limiting, which limits their use.

The objective of the invention is to intensify the processes of heat and massoobmena in the regular nozzles, while reducing hydraulic resistance.

The technical result that can be obtained from the use of this invention is to improve heat and mass transfer efficiency of the regular nozzles for heat and mass transfer apparatus and cooling towers.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that in regular nozzle for heat-mass-transfer apparatus, the surface elements in VI is e sections, installed in multiple layers along the height of the apparatus, of collected parallel to the rows of inclined plates arranged in a checkerboard pattern, every two plates connected by a rod with the formation of the V-shaped element and the surface of each plate is made in the form of a grid shaped Mylar elastic monofilaments, and the sharp edge of the profile is oriented towards the gas stream, and the ends of the plates toward the fluid flow plate in the neighbouring height rows, arranged offset relative to each other horizontally by an amount equal to 0.1-1.0 the width of the nozzle, and the step elements of the nozzles in each row is equal to 1.0-2.0 width of the nozzle, the height of the element is 2.0-5.0 the width of the nozzle. The elements of the nozzle section in the apparatus of rectangular cross section located at an angle of 90° relative to the elements of the nozzles in the adjacent sections. And elements of the nozzles in each tier of the apparatus of circular cross section form an eight-petalled design and in the neighbouring height rows are shifted relative to each other by an amount equal to 10-40°.

Figure 1 shows a section has been collected from several rows of height V-shaped nozzles in a checkerboard pattern; figure 2 - isometric showing the nozzle element; figure 3 - elements of the nozzle section in the apparatus of rectangular cross-section are located n the d a 90° angle with respect to the elements of the nozzles in the adjacent sections; figure 4 shows the elements of the nozzles in the adjacent height tiers. The elements are offset relative to each other by an amount equal to from 10 to 40° in units of circular cross section.

Regular nozzle for heat and mass exchange devices made in the form of sections collected parallel to the rows of V-shaped elements with a height of 1, installed in multiple layers height of machine elements 2, 3, 4, every two plates are connected by means of a rod (5) with the formation of V-shaped element and the distance between the rows of elements 2, 3, 4 vertical z is 0.7-1.5 height of the nozzle element, the elements are arranged in a checkerboard pattern with horizontal offset t by an amount equal to 0.1-1.0 the width of the nozzle, and the step elements m in each row is equal to 1.0-2.0 width of the nozzle, and a height of 1 item is 2.0-5.0 the width of the nozzle h. And elements of the nozzles in each tier of the apparatus of circular cross section form an eight-petalled design and in the neighbouring height rows offset β relative to each other by an amount equal to 10-40°.

Structured packing is as follows. The liquid phase is fed to the upper part of the section collected, for example, parallel to the rows of V-shaped elements arranged in horizontal rows 2, 3, 4, and flows down along their surfaces in the form of a thin film and the cap is selected trickles of fluid, contacting with the ascending flow of gas, free oblique channels formed by the offset parallel rows of nozzles. Thus, the mass transfer between liquid and gas occurs in the most efficient drip-film fluid flow regime. Obliquely directed channels formed with offset elements nozzles in adjacent parallel rows provide an increase in the path of the contacting threads in the volume of the device, as well as the conditions for a more complete flow flows across the surface of the nozzle.

The efficiency of the process heat and massoobmena in the investigated range of loads on gas 0÷3.0 m/s and liquid 0÷10.0 m3/(m2·h) increases to 10%.

Experiments have shown that regular attachment sections of the multi-level groups of elements of the nozzle has the property evenly redistribute the flow of liquid throughout the cross section of the section of the nozzle, even if not uniform initial distribution of the liquid inlet section of the nozzle due to defects vodorazdelny nozzle of the device.

Perform a nozzle in the form of V-shaped profile allows you to reduce the hydraulic resistance on the air side.

The layout section of the nozzle pitch between the adjacent elements of the nozzles in each row in the range from 1.0 to 3.5 width element of the nozzles h are due to the following. The lower limit of - 1.0 h is explained by the fact that the further narrowing of the "living section" free channels leads to a marked increase in the hydraulic resistance of the nozzle, which is undesirable. The upper limit is 3.5 h due to the fact that with further increase of the step between adjacent nozzles in the rows section significantly reduces the specific surface of the nozzle, which is also impractical.

The offset elements of nozzles in parallel rows section of the nozzle in the range from 0.1 to 1.0 the width of the nozzle h is due to the requirements of optimizing the conditions for maximum efficiency of the process of heat-mass transfer with minimal hydraulic resistance due to the many interacting in the whole section of the regular nozzles directed obliquely channels for turbulence in the flow of the gas phase and increase the transverse mixing of the contacting threads.

Perform a nozzle in the form of V-shaped profile can further intensify heat and mass transfer by 7-10% in the process of evaporative cooling of circulating water in a forced-draft cooling towers.

Offer regular nozzle improves the efficiency by 10-15% in the processes of cooling liquids, absorption, etc. by increasing the transverse mixing and turbulence flows, easy-to-manufacture - individual p is e its V-shaped elements are produced by hot pressing.

1. Regular nozzle for heat-mass-transfer apparatus, made in the form of sections located in multiple tiers in height of the apparatus, of collected parallel to the rows of inclined plates arranged in a checkerboard pattern, wherein every two plates connected by a rod with the formation of "V" shaped element, and the surface of each plate is made of shaped Mylar monofilaments in a grid, with the sharp edge of the profile is oriented towards the gas stream, and the ends of the plates against the flow of fluid, a plate adjacent the height of the rows are offset relative to each other horizontally by an amount equal to 0.1 and 1.0 times the width of the nozzle, and the step elements of the nozzles in each row is equal to 1,0-2,0 width of the nozzle, while the height of the nozzle is 2.0-5.0mm width of the nozzle element.

2. Regular nozzle according to claim 1, characterized in that the elements of the nozzle section in the apparatus of rectangular cross section located at an angle of 90° relative to the elements of the nozzles in the adjacent sections.

3. Regular nozzle according to claim 1, characterized in that the elements of the nozzles in each tier of the apparatus of circular cross section to form eight design.

4. Regular nozzle according to claim 1, characterized in that the elements of the nozzle in the apparatus of circular cross section in sosedneho height tiers are displaced relative to each other by an amount equal to 10°-40°.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat exchangers used in gas (vapour)-fluid system processes, particularly, to absorbers and rectifiers to be used in gas, chemical, and oil industries. Proposed bed comprises horizontal metal or plastic tapes, or those of chemically or mechanically stable clothes, arranged in parallel with spacing equal to one tape width to make lines. Underlying line is shifted relative to overlying line by the width of one tape. Distance between said lines equals also the tape width. Besides, said bed includes the framework and metal mesh vertical sheets that may be both flat and corrugated.

EFFECT: higher heat exchange efficiency, simplified design, lower costs.

5 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: structured head piece is made of metal sheet for facilitation to transfer of heat and mass near reactor wall. Structured head piece induces side flow of fluid running through the head piece in such a way that one jet hits one wall of reactor. Head piece may be used in cylinder, ring-type of plate-type reactor, catalytic reactor or heat-exchanger.

EFFECT: increasing coefficient of heat-exchangers heat transmission without any significant increase of pressure differential in them.

12 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: continuous-packing column is intended for mass exchange processes. Proposed packing consists of multiple welded round-link chains suspended vertically in parallel. Said chains suspended free with no fixation or tension feature elongated oval shape of the links and distance there between equal to diameter of link rod while adjacent links of one chain are arranged perpendicular to each other. Gas flowing from bottom to top makes chains oscillate and get contact so that fluid dropping in film is mixed to intensify mass transfer. To intensify oscillation of chains in column top and bottom sections, electromagnetic oscillator is arranged to make chains oscillate.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of making regular packing for mass exchange processes in absorption and rectification columns. In making packing layer, first, carcass should be made. Its elements may be fabricated from metall rods, angles, hollow tubes or wire, as well as from woven cables or other nonmetallic materials with proper resistance to media of their use. Packing elements representing horizontal corrugated tapes and screen flat vertical metal sheets are secured on said carcass. Said tapes may be made from both metal and plastics, or chemically and mechanically resistant fabric. Thickness of rods may be decreased as well as packing hydraulic resistance.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of heat-and-mass exchange, simplified design, reduced consumption of materials.

4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: regular packing is made up of gang sections consisting of parallel lines of drop-shaped elements. Drop-shaped element side surface, starting from joint rod, is furnished with extensions making γ-shaped section. Surface of γ-shaped elements is made from lavsan monothreads that make a screen. Section rounded edge is directed toward gas flow while section ends are directed toward fluid flow. Angle of attach of said elements with respect to gas flow varies from 0° to 20°, while said elements are staggered. Note here that elements in adjacent lines arranged over apparatus height are inclined in opposite directions and displaced in horizontal by 1.0-3.0 of packing element widths. Spacing of elements in every line makes 1.5-3.5 of said width. Note also that element height makes 4.0-8.0 of element width.

EFFECT: increased water vapor-phase cooling in closed systems of recycling water supply.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: regular head piece for counter-flow heat-mass-exchange units consists of vertically installed inclined texturised plates the projections of which contact each other. Texturised plates contain many projections of pyramid shape, which represent flattened tetrahedrons in upper part of which a hole is made.

EFFECT: improving the efficiency of uniform distribution of gas and liquid flows across cross section of the unit.

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to regular packings to be used in various industries. Regular packing consists of contact packs 1 arranged spaced apart along apparatus height and made up of corrugated sheets 2 mounted vertically and in parallel to stay in contact by extending crimps 3 so that free channels 4 are formed. Sets of spacings 6 are fitted between said contact packs and made up of bulk elements arranged in rows. Every said bulk element represents triangular prism 8 with two convex top faces and concave bottom face. Prism lattice surface features identical-shape holes with free area. Height of aforesaid packs 1 relates to that of set of spacings 6 as 2:1. Total height of said set makes, at least, two rows of prisms turned through 90° in adjacent rows. Corrugated sheets 2 of adjacent contact packs are turned through 60-120° relative to each other in horizontal plane.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed packing is made up of ordered sets of tubes with diameter varying from 5 to 50 mm. Walls of said tubes have orifices arranged to facilitate circulation and mixing of fluids in said arrangement. Said orifices are inscribed in rectangles with sides varying from 2 to 45 mm and occupy area exceeding 2 mm2.

EFFECT: increased area of exchange between fluids with pressure drop.

15 cl, 12 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-and-mass transfer processes in gas-fluid system, for example, rectification, absorption, cleaning and drying of natural gas. Regular packing consists of corrugated sheets assembled in packs and arranged vertically with crimp vertices directed toward each other. Two types of sheet are incorporated therewith and alternating therein. First-type sheet has cutouts made at crimp vertex edges. Besides, there are minor horizontal sites. Second-type sheets feature cutouts made at crimp vertex. As-assembled, corrugated sheets form horizontal rhombic, vertical and zigzag channels.

EFFECT: higher intensity of processes.

4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to absorption, rectification, oil processing and gas cleaning. Proposed method comprises laying said packing in horizontal lines along concentric circles with rings of every other line shifted relative to previous one. Note here that every element of said packing in bottom layer in one concentric circle is shifted relative to that in upper layer by: s=(d+b)/2, where b is clearance, d is packing OD. Note here that packing elements with identical spacing alternate in height in a line, being laid with spacing equal to: b=2δ+B, where δ is thickness of fluid film flowing over packing, B=3÷4 is minimum distance between fluid films of thickness δ flowing over the surface of packing adjacent elements.

EFFECT: increased effective surface, higher efficiency of heat-and-mass transfer, lower drag.

2 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: housing of vertical column with bubble cap plates consists of an end, rings and a cover plate. Flanges are fixed on end faces of rings. Bubble cap plates consist of bases in the form of a disc, bubbling caps, overflow pipes and a hydraulic seal. Vertical supports with an expansion gap are installed on the end and on each base. On external cylindrical surface of each base there is a circular slot into which a split ring made of two symmetrical semi-rings connected to each other is tightly installed. Bases are clamped between flanges of rings. Circular grooves are coaxially made on lower and upper surfaces of each base. Parts of bubbling caps, overflow pipes and hydraulic seal, which are embedded into the base, are located inside the circle of the smallest inner diameter of groove. Depth of groove is equal to 2/3 of the base thickness, and sum of widths of grooves is equal at least to the half thermal expansion of the base in radial direction. Housing and split rings are made from steel; internal surfaces of housing are protected with plastic fluor; parts located inside the housing are made from plastic fluor-4.

EFFECT: high reliability of flanged connections; high efficiency.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-and-mass exchangers incorporated with distillation columns and may be used in chemical, oil processing and other industries. Reflux condenser consists of housing with unions, contact tubes made from fluted sheets. Round-section inclined corrugation of said sheets features radius of cross-section equal to that of contact tubes. The latter are provided with helical spirals and shaped beads arranged on outer side of concaved inclined flutes over entire length of sheets. Besides they include plugged fluid distribution branch pipes and heat carrier discharge branch pipes arranged in sequential rows along contact tube axis perpendicular to sheet surfaces. Aforesaid housing incorporates condensate collection top and bottom chambers communicated with flutes arranged at bottom under faces of contact tubes between heat carrier discharge branch pipes and above gas branch pipes at top. Note here that top faces of sheets defining vapor passages on contact tube are located above condensate collection column.

EFFECT: higher column efficiency.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-and-mass exchange. Proposed device comprises packing layer, multiple lengthwise elements spaced apart in horizontal plane and having iner side and top end nearby packing layer bottom, and at least one plate spaced along vertical from packing layer bottom. Note here that every plate collects portion of falling fluid and has opposite ends jointed with inner sides of two lengthwise elements. It comprises, at least, one cup-shape passage for steam rising in exchange column from plate bottom to plate top. Note here that every said cup is provided with cap spaced along vertical from packing layer bottom.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, simplified mounting.

20 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a housing which is divided by horizontal partition walls into sections through which pass transparent cylindrical tubes, having suspension distributors and helical spirals, an incandescent lamp, a bubbling device and arched connecting pipes with nozzles for inlet of a mixture of carbon dioxide gas and air. The horizontal partition walls are transparent and form suspension inlet and outlet sections, suspension circular and film flow sections and an intermediate section of the housing. The transparent partition wall which separates the inlet section from the suspension circular flow section has depressions. The suspension circular flow section is fitted with two DNaT-type incandescent lamps in the top and bottom parts of the section and transparent cylindrical tubes with screwed caps fitted inside.

EFFECT: invention increases specific output, creates optimum conditions for culturing a wide range of autotrophic microorganisms, reduces power consumption and carbon dioxide gas consumption.

4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for collecting fluid, its removal or redistribution over apparatus cross-section, distribution and separation of gas flows from fluid drops. Fluid collector comprises open-top chutes and inclined plates provided with drip extractors atop them, and vertical plates secured at bottom of aforesaid chutes. Inclined rectangular plates have their one ends jointed with top part of vertical plates and opposite ends jointed with bottom sides of vertical plates, and are arranged with clearance with walls of aforesaid chutes. Several inclined plates are arranged closely, one after another, along vertical plates and turned in opposite sides relative to each other. Plates with chutes make bearing grid. Vertical plate bottom section is furnished with teeth secured in chutes. Joints between vertical and inclined plates make drip extractors. Vertical plates are made from porous material on both sides while inclined plates are from porous material or furnished with porous coat applied to bottom surfaces.

EFFECT: decreased weight and overall dimensions, higher separation efficiency, simplified design.

8 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the way of production of phenol, acetone and α-methylsterene, and to the installation for its implementation. The way consists in decompounding of cumene hydroperoxide and dimethylphenyl carbinol that are included into the technical cumene hydroperoxide, in the solvent with the presence of heterogeneous catalyst by means of catalytical distillation in the continuous isothermal mode at the boiling point of the solvent and with the latter's recirculation; as a solid heterogeneous catalyst, heteropoly acid H3PW12O40 or caesium-displaced salt of heteropoly acid Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 is applied on the silicon dioxide, and as a solvent, acetone is employed. As a bearer, mesoporous silicon dioxide of MCM-41 grade is used, and decompounding of the cumene hydroperoxide and dimethylphenyl carbinol is carried out in two stages; the first stage stipulates decompounding of cumene hydroperoxide thus releasing phenol and acetone, and the second one - of dimethylphenyl carbinol thus releasing a-methylsterene; the mesoporous silicon dioxide and heteropoly acid or caesium-displaced salt of the heteropoly acid are used with the following component ratio, weight %: heteropoly acid - 10-50; silicon dioxide - the rest; or caesium-displaced salt of the heteropoly acid - 10-20; silicon dioxide - the rest.

EFFECT: decompounding of the cumene hydroperoxide and dimethylphenyl carbinol with 100 % conversion and 100 % selectance.

8 cl, 1 dwg, 8 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to inlet device for fluid medium, used to introduce mixture of liquid and gas into process device. Inlet device (1) for introduction of liquid and gas mixture into process device (5) comprises channel for inlet of flow, having inlet end (12) to receive mixture of liquid and gas, and multiple curvilinear guide vanes (20). Each blade (20) includes isolating part (22), which passes in direction of inlet end of channel for entry of flow, and deflecting part (25), which forms as a whole a concave surface and convex surface of curvilinear blade. Deflecting parts (25) of two neighbouring blades form outlet channel of inlet device and determine gas flow direction in output channel, besides at least one of blades (25) is equipped with liquid trap (40) arranged at the angle to direction of gas flow.

EFFECT: invention provides for the possibility to work with lower carryover and accordingly with higher efficiency of separation.

17 cl, 10 dwg

Gas distributor // 2394623

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in gas production, petrochemical industry and oil-and-gas-processing industry. Gas distributor is arranged inside apparatus housing opposite the gas inlet branch pipe with clearance relative to housing and represents hexagonal prism accommodating coaxially fitted inner cylinder with slots or perforation. Cylinder length is divided into sections by circular disks with hole diametres decreasing from gas inlet branch pipe. Prism lateral sides accommodate sets of corrugated sheets with their crimps made crossing. Space between hexagonal prism and inner cylinder can be filled with irregular packing.

EFFECT: uniform distribution of gas flow over apparatus section and higher quality of separation of finely dispersed flows.

2 cl, 3 dwg

Rectification plant // 2393904

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical, petrochemical, food and other industries, in particular to method of separating bi- and multi-component mixes by rectification. Rectification plant comprises rectification column representing tubular-case heat exchange apparatus with tube space making column bearing section with tubular annulus making column distillation section, heat exchanger communicated with top part of tubular annulus, compressor to compress vapors, distiller communicated with top part of column concentration section, line to feed vapor-fluid mix from column bottom via heat exchanger into top part of tubular annulus, and reducer valve arranged in aforesaid line and fitted on one shaft with compressor. Tubular annulus and space inside tube are filled with packing, grid or screen is arranged nearby tube bottom edge while tube walls are corrugated.

EFFECT: higher efficiency due to lower power consumption.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to apparatus for distillation and increase of concentration and further condensation and final increase of concentration of easily evaporated component, preferably aqueous mixture. Heat required for distillation and increase of concentration is sent via common heat-transmitting body (3). Heat is produced as a result of condensation of steam generated by distillation and increase of concentration, moreover, steam by means of compression with application of heat pump obtains increase of boiling temperature, which is required for condensation. Apparatus consists of two sections: section of distillation and increase of condensation or the first section (1) and section of condensation and final increase of concentration or the second section (2), besides sections are combined around common heat transmitting body (3), which forms separating wall. Each section is additionally limited by a horizontal partially cylindrical jacket (13) and end wall at each side. Every section is equipped with spraying rotor (4), adjusted for liquid injection from each side from lower part of horizontal partially cylindrical jacket (13) inside towards direction of common heat-transmitting body, besides axial liquid channel (5) provides for continuous passage of liquid through apparatus, passing along lower part.

EFFECT: apparatus may provide for distillation and increase of concentration without necessity to use traditional distillation and concentration column, which reduces capital investments.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: cryogenic engineering, in particular, devices for separation of crypton-xenon concentrate obtained at air-separating installations.

SUBSTANCE: the mass-transfer apparatus has a contact device including the concentration and exhausting sections filled with packings, inlet chamber, condenser-evaporator, still with an electric heater and evaporator, still with an electric heater and evaporator. In addition, the inlet chamber of the feed flow of the mass-transfer apparatus (rectifying column) has a packing section with a specific surface less than the specific surface of the packing of the concentration section, is provided with a heater and a thermal converter, and the feed flow branch pipe- with a thermal bridge. The concentration and exhausting sections have different dimensions of the free cross-sectional areas, have reflux distributors and redistributors spaced in height at distance L=(150 to 300)d equiv; where d equiv. - the equivalent diameter of the packing, perforated tubular vertical inserts are additionally installed in the drain holes of the bottoms of the reflux distributors and redistributors. The straight-tubular tube still of the condenser of the intermediate heat-transfer agent has at least one duct, whose cross-sectional area is commensurable with the total area of the flow areas of the heat-transfer tubes, and the still electric heater - the heat-transfer base with an electric heating element packed and covered with heat-transfer powder and pressed to the still bottom by pull rods provided with springs.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of the mass-transfer apparatus and reduced specific amount of metal per structure.

6 dwg

Up!