Hydraulic machine impeller, hydraulic machine containing such impeller, and energy conversion plant equipped with such hydraulic machine

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: impeller of Francis type includes rim 1 with rotation symmetry about rotation axis Z of impeller and bent blades 21, 22, which are rigidly attached to rim 1, each of which includes external peripheral edge 212, 222 and internal central edge 211, 221. Connection points B21, B22 of rim 1 with internal central edges 211, 221 of blades 21, 22 are located on one and the same circle C20 centred relative to above mentioned axis Z. Connection points A21, A22 of rim 1 with external peripheral edges 212, 222 of blades 21, 22 are located at least on two different circles C21, C22 centred relative to axis Z.

EFFECT: reduction of the cost of composite elements of devices owing to limiting their dimensions by reducing the action on them of radial stresses under unsteady conditions.

11 cl, 4 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the impeller type Francis for hydraulic machines, which is designed to through him under pressure passed the water flow. This flow causes the impeller to rotate when the machine is a turbine. Such a flow is formed as a result of this rotation, when the machine is a pump. In addition, the present invention relates to a hydraulic machine containing such impeller. On the other hand, the present invention relates to a device for energy conversion, equipped with such a hydraulic machine.

In the document JP-A-2005 48608 describes the impeller for hydraulic machines such as pump-turbine, which contains axisymmetric rim and a lot of curved blades are rigidly connected to the rim and containing, each one, the outer peripheral front edge and the inner Central rear edge. The connection of the rim with the inner Central edge of one of the two blades is located on the first circle of large radius, while the connection of the rim with the inner Central edge of the adjacent blade is located on the second circumference of radius. In the outer peripheral zone of the impeller connection of the rim to the shoulder blades, the inner Central edge of which is located on the first circle, o f the s on the periphery of the rim, while the connection of the rim with the adjacent blades, the Central edge of which is located on the second circle of small radius, placed offset from the periphery of the rim. This special geometric shape of the impeller, according to the document JP-A-2005 48608, is designed to reduce cavitation occurring at the inlet of the turbine, i.e. at the periphery of the impeller, when the hydraulic machine is in steady state, to increase its hydraulic efficiency in steady mode.

During unsteady regimes that take place to be after start-up or precede the stop mode of the turbine hydraulic machines, made on the basis of prior art impeller experiences a torque and asynchronous radial stress, trying to shift its axis". During the unsteady modes these radial stress faced by the impeller, lead to the formation of levels of mechanical stress, which can be very large and are able to provide, thus, influence in defining the overall dimensions of the composite structural elements of a hydraulic machine, such as a shaft or shaft bearing. Due to such radial stresses the value of these composite structural elements, thus inevitably increasing.

the present invention is directed, in particular, to eliminate this disadvantage by offering impeller, geometric shape which reduces and even eliminates the formation of torque radial stresses during transient modes.

With this purpose, the object of the invention is the impeller of the type Francis for hydraulic machines, designed to through him under pressure passed a stream of water, which contains:

- rim with symmetry of rotation around the axis of rotation of the impeller;

- a lot of curved blades are rigidly connected to the rim and containing (each of them) of the outer peripheral edge and an inner Central edge,

characterized in that the connection points of the rim with the innermost edges of the blades in General are located on the same circumference centered on the said axis, and a connection point of the rim with the outer peripheral edges of the blades are located at least at two different circles, centered on the said axis.

Such geometric shape of the impeller includes an azimuthal asymmetry, which can significantly reduce radial stresses which are experienced by the impeller during unsteady mode.

According to another preferred, but not mandatory distinctive prize is AKAM invention, taken in isolation or in any technically acceptable combination of:

- the point of connection of the rim with the outer peripheral edges of the blades are located on two different circles, centered on the said axis, and mentioned long blades contain a connection point located on a first circle, and the short blades contain a connection point located on a second circle, the diameter of which is smaller than the diameter of the first circle.

- impeller contains, in addition, the inner rim with symmetry of rotation around said axis, located against the above-mentioned rim and the blades are rigidly connected to the inner rim, and the point of connection of the inner rim with the innermost edges of the blades are located on the same circumference centered on the axis and the point of connection of the inner rim with the outer peripheral edges of the blades are located at least at two different circles, centered on the said axis;

- the point of connection of the inner rim with the outer peripheral edges of the blades are located on two different circles, centered on the axis;

- short blade, on the one hand, and long blades, on the other hand, evenly distributed around by mentioning the wrong axis;

- impeller contains nine blades, of which six are long and three short, with short blades are located on the rim with an angular offset of 120°;

- impeller contains an even number of blades, with one blade on the two is short;

each short blade has a deployed length, which ranges from 50% to 99% of the deployed length of the long blade, preferably, from 70% to 85%.

In addition, the invention is a hydraulic machine, characterized in that it contains one impeller described above.

The size of composite structural elements of the hydraulic machine according to the invention, can be thus calculated to mechanical stresses, and the cost is equal to the technical characteristics of hydraulic machines less.

On the other hand, the object of the invention is the installation of energy conversion, which includes at least one hydraulic machine, as described above.

Installation of energy conversion, according to the invention, with the same technical characteristics, therefore, less costly than the installation is made on the basis of prior art.

The invention will be better understood and its other advantages prievadas the following description, given as an example is not restrictive, with reference to the accompanying figures of the drawing, on which:

- figure 1 is a conceptual cross-section of the installation of energy conversion, according to the invention, equipped with a hydraulic machine, in accordance with the invention, containing the impeller according to the invention;

- figure 2 is a schematic cross-section only of the impeller, made by broken line II shown in figure 1;

- figure 3 is a schematic cross-section only of the impeller, made by broken line III shown in figure 1, and

- figure 4 is a view in partial perspective of the impeller shown in figure 2.

Installation i, depicted in figure 1, contains a reversible hydraulic machine M, which is the pump-turbine type Francis, on the impeller R which water is pumped from the reservoir 3, which faces the discharge line 4. During operation of the impeller R rotates around a vertical axis of rotation z To generate electricity in a turbine mode, the machine M is connected to an AC generator 5 by means of shaft 50 rotating around the z-axis Between the reservoir 3 and the impeller R are static stator column 6 and the rotary vanes 7, the purpose for the which is the flow control and regulation of water flow E, coming through the pipeline 4 and intended to pass through the impeller R in the direction of the outlet pipe 8.

Figure 2 shows a part of the impeller R, which contains the rim 1 with symmetry of rotation around the z-axis of the Rim 1 contains an outer peripheral edge 10 of diameter D10. Figure 3 shows part of the impeller R containing the inner rim 12, which delimits the Central hole 11. The inner rim 12 also has a symmetry of rotation around the Z-axis and lies against the rim 1. The position of the D12the indicated diameter of the outer peripheral edge of the inner rim 12. The outer peripheral edge 10 and the Central hole 11 centered on the axis Z. As shown in figures 1 and 4, the surface of the rim 1 and the inner rim 12 are formed in the rotation of a curved shape around and away from the Z-axis with a certain segment of the curve. Any form of rim and the inner rim of a conventional impeller type Francis applicable for the determination of the surfaces, respectively, of the rim and the inner rim of the impeller, according to the invention.

The impeller R contains, in addition, nine of the blades 21 and 22 are rigidly connected to the rim 1 and the inner rim 12 and located between the rim 1 and the inner rim 12 around the axis Z, as shown in figure 4. Each vane 21 or 22 has a curved F. the RMU, in General, in the form of sections of the spiral. Any normal curvature of the blades may be appropriate for determining the curvature of the blade 21 or 22. Each vane 21 or 22 includes a peripheral edge, respectively, 212 and 222 located on the periphery of the rim 1, and a Central edge, respectively 211 and 221, rotated to the axis Z. In this case, the object qualifies as "Central", if it is close to the Z-axis, in contrast to the definition of "peripheral", which denotes the object remote from the z-axis.

When the impeller R works in turbine mode, the external peripheral edge 212 or 222 forms the front edge of the blade 21 or 22, and the inner Central region 211 or 221 forms the back edge. The following description of the operation of the turbine uses the expressions "front edge" and "trailing edge"; it can be rotated if the impeller operates in the mode of the pump, changing the order of these expressions.

Among the nine blades 21 and 22 of the impeller R three blades 22 have developed length which is less than the developed length of the other six blades 21. Thus, the blades 22 are referred to as "short", while the vanes 21 are called "long".

In the Central zone of the rim 1 positions, respectively, B21and B22designated point of connection of the rim 1 with the rear edges 211 and 221 of each of the blades 21 and 22. Point B21and B22are located on the same Central circle with a diameter of D20,centered on the axis Z. Thus, all of the blades 21 and 22 are extended to the Central circle C20with a diameter of D20.

In the peripheral zone of the rim 1 position A21designated point of connection of the rim 1 with the front edge 212 of each of the long vanes 21. Points A21located on the first circle, C21with a diameter of D21,centeredinthe z-axis. Also the position of A22designated point of connection of the rim 1 with the front edge 222 of each short blade 22. Points A22located on the second centered on the Z-axis of the circle C22the diameter D22which is less than the diameter D21the first circle. Thus, points A21located to the edge 10 of the rim 1 is closer than point A22. The diameters of D21and D22accordingly, the first and second circles C21and C22and the diameter D20the Central circle C20less than the diameter D10region 10.

In other words, the short blade 22 is less stretched to the edge 10 of the rim 1, than the length of the blade 21. That is why the total length of short blades 22 is less than the developed length of the long blades 21. Thus, points A21and A22accordingly, the blades 21 and 22 are located on the TLD is different circles C 21and C22centered on the Z axis and having different diameters, respectively, D21and D22.

According to a variant of the invention that is not shown, a connection point of the rim with the front edges can be located more than two different circles, for example, in three circles.

Figure 3 shows the location of the blades 21 and 22 on the inner rim 12 of the impeller R. Similarly, the connection of the rim 1 with the blades 21 and 22 in the Central zone of the inner rim 12 positions, respectively, G21and G22designated point of connection of the inner rim 12 with the rear edges 211 and 221 of each blade 21 or 22. Point G21and G22are located on the same Central circle C40diameter D40centered on the axis Z. Thus, all of the blades 21 and 22 are extended to the same Central circle C40diameter D40.

In the peripheral zone of the inner rim 12 position F21designated point of connection of the inner rim 12 with the front edge 212 of each of the long vanes 21. Point F21located on the third circle C41diameter D41centered on the axis Z. Also the position of the F22designated point of connection of the inner rim 12 with the front edge 222 of each short blade 22. Point F22located on the fourth okruzhnost the C 42centered on the Z axis, with a diameter of D42that is less than the diameter D41the third circle.

In practice, depending on the desired capacity of the hydraulic machine equipped with impeller R, diameter D10the edge 10 of the rim 1 may be from 0.4 to 10 m According to the selected dimensions of the rim 1, the diameter D21the first circle can be from 90% to 100% of the diameter D10and a diameter of D22the second circle can be from 70% to 99%, preferably from 80% to 95% of the diameter D21. According to the selected dimensions of the inner rim 12, the diameter D41the third circle can be from 90% to 100% of the diameter D12and a diameter of D42the fourth circle can be from 70% to 99%, preferably from 80% to 95% of the diameter D41.

According to the distinctive characteristics of the impeller R, in particular, overall dimensions and giocatori in which it is intended to rotate in the steady state, each short blade 22 may have a full length, comprising from 50% to 99% of the deployed length of the long vanes 21. The total length of the long blade 21 can be measured between points a21and B21or between points F21and G21. Also the total length of the short blade 22 can be measured between points a22and B22or between points F22and G 22. Preferably, the total length of the short blade 22 is from 70% to 85% of the deployed length of the long vanes 21. Thus, if long blade 21 has a flat length of 1 m, the short blade 22 may have, for example, the deployed length of 0.8 m

To ensure good dynamic balancing of the impeller R short blade 22, on the one hand, and long blades 21, on the other hand, uniformly distributed around the axis of rotation Z of the impeller R. In this case, three short blades 22 are located on the rim 1 with an angular offset α22between them, equal to 120°. Two long blades 21 are arranged with the same interval when placed between two consecutive short blades 22 and have an angular displacement equal to 40°between two neighboring long blades 21, and 80° between two long blades 21, if between them is a short paddle 22.

Other dispersion of short and long blades. Thus, it can be provided even number of blades, for example, ten, where one of the two is a short blade, and the other is long, and short and long blades evenly distributed around the axis of rotation of the impeller.

The impeller according to the invention allows to reduce and even eliminate radial stress, the image is present on the impellers with the conventional system of blades, in particular, during transient modes of start or stops during operation of the turbine. Surprisingly it is found that the impeller according to the invention allows to reduce the intensity of the radial stresses which are experienced by the impeller in unsteady mode. Optimization of the geometrical shape of the blades of the impeller depending on its use can further reduce this intensity.

Hydraulic machine according to the invention contains, therefore, limited or even zero radial deviation of its impeller and its shaft. Thus, it reduces the cost of hydraulic machines, because its size can be calculated in a restricted way.

In this case, the description of the invention given in the context of reversible hydraulic machine type pump-turbine. However, the invention is applicable also to the "simple" hydraulic machines of the type of turbine.

1. The impeller (R) type Francis for hydraulic machines (M), is intended to through him under pressure passed a stream of water (E), which contains: rim (1) with symmetry of rotation around the axis of rotation (Z) of the impeller (R); a lot of curved blades (21, 22)rigidly connected to the rim (1), and each of which contains an outer peripheral edge (212, 222) and the internal Central is th edge (211, 221), characterized in that the connection points (In21In22) rim (1) with the innermost edges (211, 221) of the blades (21, 22) in General, are located on the same circumference (C20), centered on the said axis (Z), and a connection point (A21And22) rim (1) with the outer peripheral edges (212, 222) of the blades (21, 22) are located at least at two different circumferences (C21With22), centered on the said axis (Z).

2. The impeller (R) according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises an inner rim (12) with symmetry of rotation around said axis (Z)that is located opposite the above the rim (1), and blades (21, 22) are rigidly connected to the inner rim (12)and a connection point (G21, G22internal rim (12) with an inner Central edges (211, 221) of the blades (21, 22) are located on the same circumference (C40), centered on the said axis (Z), and a connection point (F21F22internal rim (12) with the outer peripheral edges (212, 222) of the blades (21, 22) are located at least at two different circles (C41With42), centered on the said axis (Z).

3. The impeller (R) according to claim 1, characterized in that the connection points (A21And22) rim (1) with external Perry is arinami edges (212, 222) of the blades (21, 22) are located on two different circles (C21With22), centered on the said axis (Z), and the so-called long blades (21) contain a connection point (A21on the first circle (C21), and the so-called short blade (22) contain a connection point (A22located on the second circle (C22), diameter (D22) is less than diameter (D21first circle.

4. The impeller (R) according to claim 3, characterized in that it further comprises an inner rim (12) with symmetry of rotation around said axis (Z)that is located opposite the above the rim (1), and blades (21, 22) are rigidly connected to the inner rim (12)and a connection point (G21, G22internal rim (12) with an inner Central edges (211, 221) of the blades (21, 22) are located on the same circumference (C40), centered on the said axis (Z), and a connection point (F21F22internal rim (12) with the outer peripheral edges (212, 222) of the blades (21, 22) are located at least at two different circles (C41C42), centered on the said axis (Z).

5. The impeller (R) according to claim 4, characterized in that the connection points (F21F22internal rim (12) with the external peripheral is romkema (212, 222) of the blades (21, 22) are located on two different circles (C41C42), centered on the said axis (Z).

6. The impeller (R) according to claim 4, characterized in that the short blade (22), on the one hand, and long blades (21), on the other hand, are uniformly distributed around said axis (Z).

7. The impeller (R) according to claim 4, characterized in that it comprises nine blades, of which six are long (21), and three short (22), and short blades (22) are located on the rim (1) with the angular displacement (b22)equal to 120°.

8. The impeller (R) according to claim 4, characterized in that it contains an even number of blades, and for every two blades one is short.

9. The impeller (R) according to claim 4, characterized in that each short blade (22) has a deployed length, which ranges from 50% to 99% of the deployed length of the long blades (21), preferably from 70% to 85%.

10. Hydraulic machine (M), characterized in that it contains the impeller (R) according to any one of the preceding paragraphs.

11. Installation of (i) energy conversion, characterized in that it includes at least one hydraulic machine (M) of claim 10.



 

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