Recultivation method of open pits using industrial wastes
SUBSTANCE: separate excavation of soil layer and overburden rocks, their movement and stocking into individual strip dumps is performed; open-pit field development, laying and levelling of overburden rocks and their compaction is performed to form an impervious screen. Then, backfill material is added, which consists of a mixture of overburden rocks and non-organic wastes - dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production and citrogypsum from production of citric acid in the following ratio (wt %): overburden rocks : dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production : citrogypsum = 2 : (1 - 1.5): (0.2 - 0.3).
EFFECT: reduction of adverse effect on the environment owing to avoiding open-area storage of wastes, and production of citric acid, and their use as part of backfill material during recultivation of open pits.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the mining industry, in particular to the protection of the environment, and can be used in revegetation using industrial waste after the conduct of surface mining.
A known method of reclamation of open pits, including excavation, handling and storage of soil in separate tape dumps on the bottom in the center of career fields as mining, overburden stored at the borders of career fields on the outside of the pit wall in the tape dumps, then as mining career field overburden move on the flattened surface of the sides and the bottom of the quarry direct course planning equipment to the j-th blade soil layer, then j-soil layer is laid on the overburden backward planning equipment [A.S. 1062392 the USSR, CL IS 41/00].
But this technical solution cannot be disposed of inorganic industrial waste and thereby reduce reclamation costs, reduce harmful effects on the environment by eliminating the open storage of inorganic industrial wastes.
The closest technical solution adopted for the prototype, is a method of reclamation of quarries using as a waste of industrial production of drives the x particles, made in the weight of the blade [the Patent of the Russian Federation (11) 2004114215 (13)]. The wood particles used wood chips produced from waste wood, which is a byproduct of mining developments, and wooden struts mines, destroyed by blasting.
The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of recycling of inorganic waste, which includes waste cement production - electrostatic dust flue gas kilns, and gypsum-based waste production of citric acid - chitragupt formed at the stage of decomposition of calcium citrate with sulfuric acid, which are currently not found practical application and stored on a dedicated red mud disposal areas. This causes a negative impact on the environment - secondary dusting when exposed to atmospheric air with an air flow of more than 4 m/s, the emission of hydrogen sulfide in biological decomposition components citragupta during long-term storage and disposal of agricultural land for warehousing inorganic industrial wastes.
The purpose of the proposed method is the possibility of reclamation of waste quarries using inorganic industrial waste Pro is svoystv, that does not preclude the implementation of subsequent biological reclamation - planting tree and shrub crops when restoring disturbed lands.
This objective is achieved in that in the present method of reclamation of open pits, including a separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, as mining career fields as backfill material, a mixture of overburden and inorganic industrial wastes - electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupta ratio, parts by weight, overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(1-1 .5):(0,2-0,3).
Comparable analysis of the proposed solutions with the prototype shows that the inventive method differs from the known fact that the weight of the blade together with the overburden in a certain ratio are inorganic industrial waste (electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupt), the following ratio of components (parts by weight), overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(1-1,5):(0,2-0,3), which is not subjected to biochemical oxidation during storage, forming a filling material for career development, with its subsequent seal that mn is considerably decreases the rate of penetration precipitation in depth of the blade, and associated with this process of dissolving components of the electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupta and subsequent groundwater contamination.
With this method of reclamation of quarries, using waste cement plant, electrostatic dust, and waste production of citric acid, chitragupta, there is no environmental pollution. Thus, the claimed method meets the criterion of "novelty."
Known technical solutions for the remediation of the pits with the use of organic waste such as wood particles deposited in the mass of the blade [the Patent of the Russian Federation (11) 2004114215 (13)]. However, that decision does not assume the use of inorganic industrial waste - electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupta. That also leads to the conclusion that it complies with the criterion of "novelty".
The proposed method of reclamation of quarries using industrial waste is implemented as follows.
1. The storm of the pit.
2. The alignment of the contour plot.
3. Moving overburden from the dumps temporary storage, laying on the bottom of the career fields and seal to form an impervious screen, the height of which is not less than 2 m in a compressed state.
4. Moving scry the different breeds of dumps temporary storage and mixing with inorganic industrial waste (dust electrostatic cement production and chitragupta) in a ratio parts by weight, overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(1-1,5):(0,2-0,3) to form a backfill material, laying and subsequent seal (1).
5. Moving and stacking overburden from the dumps temporary storage with the aim of forming a protective screen surface (final overlap) height up to 1.5 m
6. Application of soil and vegetation soil removed during operation of the quarry and stored in temporary storage on the entire area of the recultivation layer of 0.3-0.5 m
7. Planting trees and shrubs.
Electrostatic dust generated during the purification of exhaust gases of kilns cement production, containing parts by weight %: CaO - 38,5-46,5; MgO - 0,5-6,0; Al2O3of 0.8 to 6.2; Fe2O3- 2,6-7,2; SiO2- 2,0-13,0; K2O - 5,5-15,2; Na2O - 0,25-0,9; SO3- 2,3-5,8; chlorides of 2.6 - 3.2; SPT - 4,8-22,1, mixed with chitragupta formed during the production of citric acid on the stage of decomposition of calcium citrate with sulfuric acid containing parts by weight %: CaO - 30,5-31,7; SO3- 44,8-45,7; MgO - 0,02-0,04; Al2O3- 0,8-0,12; Fe2O3- 0,02-0,04; CO2- 0,05; hydrated water - 21,23; with the overburden raw quarry, located in the waste temporary storage, the ratio of overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(1-1,5):(0,2-0,). Received backfill material is analyzed for the degree of leaching of the components used waste and impact on the development of higher plants, which is estimated according to the volume and pH of the resulting filtrate and the mass of the green part of the grown crops. The results presented in the table.
The technical result from the use of this invention is to reduce the harmful effects on the environment by eliminating the open storage of waste: cement production - electrostatic dust, and the production of citric acid - citragupta, and use them in the composition of the backfill material for reclamation of quarries that allows you to restore disturbed lands and implement biological reclamation - planting tree and shrub crops.
This result is achieved in that when the components are mixed backfill material in the ratio, parts by weight, overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(1-1,5):(0,2-0,3), not happening leaching of toxic elements contained in the electrostatic dust and chitragupta that prevents environmental pollution, and does not inhibit the growth and development of tree and shrub crops on this recultivation site.
Changing the ratio of components C the masonry material (parts by weight) in the direction of increasing the content of electrostatic dust of the cement production overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(3-6):(0,2-0,3), it is impractical, since in this case there is contamination of groundwater lamivudine toxic elements electrostatic dust and inhibition of the growth and development of higher plants.
In the study of literary sources similar decisions remediation waste pits in surface mining with the use of industrial waste - electrostatic dust cement production generated in the exhaust gas cleaning kilns, and chitragupta production of citric acid, which is formed at the stage of decomposition of calcium citrate with sulfuric acid, have been identified that allows to make a conclusion on the compliance of the claimed solution to the criterion "novelty".
The use of the proposed method of reclamation of waste quarries using inorganic industrial waste (electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupta) compared to existing methods, the following:
1. The use of inorganic industrial waste in the composition of the backfill material used to fill (backfill) career seizures, shall not prevent the implementation of biological reclamation - planting tree and shrub crops when restoring disturbed lands.
2. Red eye reduction is of the harmful effects on the environment by eliminating the open storage of inorganic industrial waste - electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupta.
Method of reclaiming waste pits in surface mining, including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, mining career fields, stacking and alignment of overburden, their seal to form an impervious screen and the introduction of filling material, the arrangement of the upper insulating cover (final overlap) career of overburden removal and placement of a soil layer, characterized in that the filling material is a mixture of overburden and inorganic industrial wastes - electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupta ratio, parts by weight, overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(1-1,5):(0,2-0,3).
SUBSTANCE: root layer is formed due to removal, loading, transportation and application to the dump surface of overburden rocks from top overburden bench, which consist of fertile soil layer and basement rocks. Then, vegetation cover is formed using the planting material treated with complex biological preparation.
EFFECT: reduction of reclamation periods; increase in durability of cultivated forest and grassy ranges on reclamated lands.
SUBSTANCE: separation of tailings into fractions is performed at tailing drain points on inclined surface, on which system of settling trenches with reinforced-concrete trays laid in them is created. Width of the tray bottom is equal to width of bucket of extraction-loading equipment. Then, mechanical cleaning of settling trenches from conditioning tailings is performed.
EFFECT: reduction of impoverishment of tailings and costs for development of useful components.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flooding of worked out peatlands in the restoration of peat bogs. The method is carried out in the autumn-winter period with the establishment of a stable average daily air temperature below the freezing point of water with use of ice blocks made in the form of polyhedra. Near the available source of fresh water the blocks of ice are produced. Then the blocks manufactured using the vehicle are moved to the mapped areas of worked out peatlands and put in few layers in the structure in the form of a polyhedron. At that at each mapped area of worked out peatlands, depending on the area of the site one or more structures from blocks of ice are erected.
EFFECT: increased level of fire safety in the areas of worked out peatlands, reduced level of the risk of emergencies and improved overall environmental situation around the worked out peatlands.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation, in particular, to restoration of disturbed lands located in overmoistened areas. The method is based on stimulating the processes of natural overgrowing and including a complete or partial removal of layer of sand previously applied to the bog to a residual layer above the surface of the bog 1-15 centimetres.
EFFECT: method enables to stimulate the natural overgrowing of disturbed lands, particularly wetland areas with the settlement and development of local wild plant species.
SUBSTANCE: method includes water draining from an open pit, filling of a worked-out area. At the same time the worked-out area is filled with a mineral mass containing metals; water draining from the open pit and worked-out area filling are carried out simultaneously. Besides, the volume of the filled material is comparable to the volume of drained pit water, metals are extracted from the drained pit water by means of electric exchange sorption, technical water produced after sorption is divided into two flows, one of which is sent to process needs of production, and the other is sent via an electric cavitation plant to produce active oxygen, then is sent back to the pit to activate the process of internal pit leaching.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of water-logged pits reclamation.
1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in removal of water from a drop, giving the specified position to the drop bottom, laying of a water-impermeable geomembrane onto this bottom and covering of a geomembrane and a beach with a protective layer from natural soil. The geomembrane edge is installed above the rated water level in the pond, created in the drop with atmospheric precipitation and put into economic turnover. In plan beyond the geomembrane the protective layer in its base comprises an antifiltration layer coupled with a geomembrane.
EFFECT: reduced scope of planning works and dust generation, increased suitability of area of a preserved pond for further use in a direction previously not characteristic for it.
5 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of pits conservation, including open-pit field mining, foundation pit with flattening of pit edges and their reinforcement along the periphery and pit flooding with water. Note that edges flattening is done till reaching the angle of safe cut. Along the lower flooded area of the edges along the whole periphery together with flattening of edges from sheared massive there formed is a retaining embankment till the mark corresponding the minimum water level in pit. After that the retaining embankment is covered by protective layer from macrofragmental material till the mark exceeding the maximum water level in pit to the height of wave run-up. Dumping of protective layer from macrofragmental material is done by segregation of consertal rocks as a result of mining-and-transport equipment unloading at the upper edge of the pit, the edges flattening till reaching the angle of natural slope is done above the minimum water level in pit.
EFFECT: increase of pit edges stability in the area of abrasion.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves filling of the worked-out area to the boundary of upper level of ground water with construction waste close as to its composition to natural minerals with fractions of various size, layer by layer with further compaction of each layer, laying of drainage layer with construction waste with thickness of not less than 0.6 metre and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At that, topographic mapping of the whole pit is performed, and as per its results there made is planning with extraction of sections representing geological natural monument and sections subject to further filling. At that, filling with construction waste is performed while cuts of deposits representing geological natural monument are kept free, and possibility of access to them, monitoring them and arranging the museum of the Earth is provided. The rest sections of the pit according to the planning are broken into zones and filled; at that, overburden rocks are laid on the drainage layer. Hill is formed in one of the zones with its further terracing. Burial places are built on terraces. Columbarium and crematorium rooms are built in the rest zones. Foundation bases of the above buildings are arranged in the following sequence: first, overburden rocks laid on drainage layer are levelled, and piles are driven to the design depth from planning level of the pit. Then, buffer pad from sand of average grain size is made without compaction and binding concrete is provided above buffer pad. Zones are separated from each other by means of artificially created three-dimensional soil shapes, and tracks and access ways are covered with natural or artificial stone.
EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work.
SUBSTANCE: recovery method of mined-out pits involves filling of the worked-out area to the boundary of upper level of ground waters with construction waste close as to its composition to natural minerals, laying of drainage layer of construction waste with thickness of not less than 0.6 metre and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At that, first, planning is performed and cuts of deposits of average coal age are determined. Filling with construction waste is performed while those cuts of deposits of average coal age are kept free, and access is provided to them in order to monitor them and to arrange the museum of the Earth. Then, in the centre of the pit, on the drainage layer there laid are overburden rocks; at that, a hill is formed; after that, when the hill height reaches average absolute level, terracing of hill slopes is performed by means of a bulldozer; and section is pre-broken and furrows indicating the boundaries of the future terraces, tracks and access ways are ploughed. Bed of each terrace is formed with reverse cross slope to two gradients; at that, width of terrace bed is not less than seven metres. For each terrace, starting from lower tier of terraces, along the whole perimetre of the pit, there built are embankment plate or stone walls and they are bound with cement mortar. Drainage system is routed and burial places are built on terraces.
EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work owing to excluding the necessity of extraction of large volumes of soil for creation of fertile layer.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selective mining, movement and storage in separate soil wastes; at that, soil groups are laid periodically to the waste height of 2.5 m, at flattening of 25-35° waste boards. At that, lower part of the group which is 15-20 cm thick - low-fertile overburden rocks; middle part of the group which is 10-12 cm thick is laid with natural looser with fraction size of not more than 10 mm and upper part of the group is filled with organic fertiliser.
EFFECT: reduction of bioproductivity of clay soils and improvement of protection of recultivated soils against wind erosion.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: earth recovery during drilling work performing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves waterproofing sump walls and bottom; filling thereof with used drilling mud; pumping-out liquid phase and filling thereof with peat and mineral ground. Liquid phase is previously accumulated in the sump and cleaned. Mineral ground, peat and used drilling mud are mixed one with another and supplied to bank slope or to road slope. Then grass is planted on slopes. Cleaned liquid phase is used for grass watering.
EFFECT: increased quality of earth sump reclamation.
FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively excavating, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; filling and smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer has particle dimensions of 150-200 mm and thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Draining layer is covered with fertile ground so that fertile ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.3 m is created. Then straw layer in which chemical fertilizers and perennial grass seeds are added is formed over fertile ground layer. The straw layer is smoothed and sprinkled with dispersions containing water-soluble polymeric substances and synthetic water-soluble phosphates, wherein synthetic water-soluble phosphates are taken in amount of 1-4% by ready dispersion weight.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively mining, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer is layer of gravel-sand ground with particle dimensions of not more than 200 mm and has thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Then two parallel spiral channels are excavated along each pit perimeter from slope side. Coil of each channel starts at pit slope top and terminates at bottom thereof at upper ground water level. Both channels are filled with building waste having particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm. After that holes for trees planting are dug out, wherein the holes are arranged between channel coils. Drainage layer is located on hole bottoms so that the drainage layer is connected with building waste of the channels and holes are filled with fertile ground. Then perennial grass, bushes and trees are planted in the reclamated land.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: environment protection, particularly to protect nature against dust blown off with wind from man-made massif surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: method involves contouring dust-forming surface and creating protective structures on dust-forming man-made massif surface in two mutually perpendicular directions, namely transversely to and along prevailing wind action directions; determining wind speed Vlim, m/s which provides maximum permissible dust concentration and maximal prevailing wind speed Vmax, m/s at massif sanitary zone boundary; partitioning man-made massif surface into square areas; installing protective barriers along protective barrier perimeters, wherein the protective barriers are formed of cellular material. Each square area has side length Lar determined from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: reduced dust carryover.
2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining, construction engineering, possible use during technical reclamation of quarry pits.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting the quarry field, forming paired stopping walls in extracted space of quarry field, filling the space between paired stopping walls by construction wastes, while preserving full height of draining and ventilation channels, and building a ceiling. After extraction of quarry field, present hanging sides of quarry walls are collapsed to impart required verticality to them, flexible longitudinal links are attached to quarry walls with following guniting of quarry walls with solidifying solution across whole perimeter of extracted quarry space. Then, quarry bottom is evened out with following densification by means of rolling with appropriate machines and devices, after that wells are drilled in soil by means of washout and soil is mixed with solidifying solution, then reinforcing cage is mounted therein with simultaneous feeding of concrete mixture for making iron-concrete pile in soil-cement cover, while diameters of soil-cement covers overlap one another, creating a foundation having increased filtration and hardness characteristics, paired stopping walls are built along perimeter of quarry, letting flexible longitudinal links through them with their following attachment inside paired stopping walls, and columns are set up to make a ceiling.
EFFECT: expanded area of possible use of extracted and reclaimed quarries, for example, for further industrial construction.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use for reclamation of damaged lands in agriculture, power-construction industrial branches.
SUBSTANCE: method includes, after extraction of quarry field is finished, closure of each quarry by reinforced structures made in form of sleeves of geo-synthetic material and filled with milled construction wastes, while ends of sleeves are sewn shut. Reinforced structures are placed one after another, closely to each other. On top of reinforced structures, draining layer is filled, then a layer of stripping rocks and finally a layer of potentially fertile soil with following seeding thereof with perennial grasses, brushes and trees.
EFFECT: decreased laboriousness and costs of restorative operations.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of fertile layer during opening of mineral resources and stocking of rock during extraction of same, planning of open mines by backfill with rock and application of fertile layer with restoration of vegetation in accordance to land usage direction. During backfill of rocks into open mines, inclined trench is made from earth surface to open part of exposed formation outlet being left in sides of mine, which provides access and following underground extraction of left deposit resources, and is meant to be a part of payable area.
EFFECT: combination of coal extractive processes with reclamation of lands and preservation of access to concealed resources for their later extraction.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: methods of underground or surface mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas after production of building stone and other surface-sited minerals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves developing open-pit field; caving hanging walls of the pit; forming floor; installing one-sided form and filling the created space with claydite-concrete; arranging heat-insulation and water-proofing screen along pit wall so that the screen extends for the full wall length, wherein the heat-insulation and water-proofing screen includes heat-insulation material combined with waterproofing sheets of surface waterproofing agent; erecting paired support walls provided with natural ventilation system along pit perimeter so that the support walls are spaced predetermined distance from pit wall; covering space between paired support walls and pit wall with surface waterproofing agent and filling the treated space with ice.
EFFECT: extended field of exhausted pit usage, for instance for further freezing facility construction.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining and processing industry, particularly to reclaim soil in agriculture and building and power engineering industries.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing selective mining, conveying and stacking ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; developing pit field; filling exhausted space with building waste in several layers along with rolling of each building waste layer; leveling thereof with overburden and laying ground layer. Pit is filled with building waste up to mid-height pit level, but not under ground water level. After that building waste is rolled and covered with overburden for total pit filling. Then overburden layer is leveled. To prevent ground settlement wells are formed along filled pit surface, wherein the wells are formed up to design depth and are filled with building waste with each building waste portion compaction. Overburden layer, building waste layer, reinforced structure level formed of geo-synthetic sleeves filled with building waste milled to obtain particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm are serially laid on filled pit.
EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.
FIELD: construction and mining, particularly reclamation of pit depressions after building stone and other surface mineral production.
SUBSTANCE: method involves working out pit; filling the worked-out space; leveling thereof and laying ground layer thereon. After pit working-out ditch and water-draining trenches are formed along pit perimeter to impart regular geometrical shape to pit along with pit side flattening to obtain pit sides inclination of not more than 30° along with following pit side compaction by rolling thereof with compaction machines and mechanisms; pouring sand on designed pit slopes; laying impervious screen made of high-density polyethylene on sand layer; pouring ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.5 m on the impervious screen; covering pit bottom with clay layer; compacting clay layer and inclining thereof towards collecting well composed of reinforced concrete rings; arranging radial bed drainage of crushed stone and sand on pit bottom so that the drainage is directed towards collecting well; forming water-removal ditch along pit perimeter; filling the pit with compacted building waste briquettes; arranging clay screen having thickness of not less than 0.3 m over building waste briquettes; arranging plant layer on clay screen.
EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.