Recultivation method of open pits using industrial wastes

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: separate excavation of soil layer and overburden rocks, their movement and stocking into individual strip dumps is performed; open-pit field development, laying and levelling of overburden rocks and their compaction is performed to form an impervious screen. Then, backfill material is added, which consists of a mixture of overburden rocks and non-organic wastes - dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production and citrogypsum from production of citric acid in the following ratio (wt %): overburden rocks : dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production : citrogypsum = 2 : (1 - 1.5): (0.2 - 0.3).

EFFECT: reduction of adverse effect on the environment owing to avoiding open-area storage of wastes, and production of citric acid, and their use as part of backfill material during recultivation of open pits.

1 tbl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry, in particular to the protection of the environment, and can be used in revegetation using industrial waste after the conduct of surface mining.

A known method of reclamation of open pits, including excavation, handling and storage of soil in separate tape dumps on the bottom in the center of career fields as mining, overburden stored at the borders of career fields on the outside of the pit wall in the tape dumps, then as mining career field overburden move on the flattened surface of the sides and the bottom of the quarry direct course planning equipment to the j-th blade soil layer, then j-soil layer is laid on the overburden backward planning equipment [A.S. 1062392 the USSR, CL IS 41/00].

But this technical solution cannot be disposed of inorganic industrial waste and thereby reduce reclamation costs, reduce harmful effects on the environment by eliminating the open storage of inorganic industrial wastes.

The closest technical solution adopted for the prototype, is a method of reclamation of quarries using as a waste of industrial production of drives the x particles, made in the weight of the blade [the Patent of the Russian Federation (11) 2004114215 (13)]. The wood particles used wood chips produced from waste wood, which is a byproduct of mining developments, and wooden struts mines, destroyed by blasting.

The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of recycling of inorganic waste, which includes waste cement production - electrostatic dust flue gas kilns, and gypsum-based waste production of citric acid - chitragupt formed at the stage of decomposition of calcium citrate with sulfuric acid, which are currently not found practical application and stored on a dedicated red mud disposal areas. This causes a negative impact on the environment - secondary dusting when exposed to atmospheric air with an air flow of more than 4 m/s, the emission of hydrogen sulfide in biological decomposition components citragupta during long-term storage and disposal of agricultural land for warehousing inorganic industrial wastes.

The purpose of the proposed method is the possibility of reclamation of waste quarries using inorganic industrial waste Pro is svoystv, that does not preclude the implementation of subsequent biological reclamation - planting tree and shrub crops when restoring disturbed lands.

This objective is achieved in that in the present method of reclamation of open pits, including a separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, as mining career fields as backfill material, a mixture of overburden and inorganic industrial wastes - electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupta ratio, parts by weight, overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(1-1 .5):(0,2-0,3).

Comparable analysis of the proposed solutions with the prototype shows that the inventive method differs from the known fact that the weight of the blade together with the overburden in a certain ratio are inorganic industrial waste (electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupt), the following ratio of components (parts by weight), overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(1-1,5):(0,2-0,3), which is not subjected to biochemical oxidation during storage, forming a filling material for career development, with its subsequent seal that mn is considerably decreases the rate of penetration precipitation in depth of the blade, and associated with this process of dissolving components of the electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupta and subsequent groundwater contamination.

With this method of reclamation of quarries, using waste cement plant, electrostatic dust, and waste production of citric acid, chitragupta, there is no environmental pollution. Thus, the claimed method meets the criterion of "novelty."

Known technical solutions for the remediation of the pits with the use of organic waste such as wood particles deposited in the mass of the blade [the Patent of the Russian Federation (11) 2004114215 (13)]. However, that decision does not assume the use of inorganic industrial waste - electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupta. That also leads to the conclusion that it complies with the criterion of "novelty".

The proposed method of reclamation of quarries using industrial waste is implemented as follows.

1. The storm of the pit.

2. The alignment of the contour plot.

3. Moving overburden from the dumps temporary storage, laying on the bottom of the career fields and seal to form an impervious screen, the height of which is not less than 2 m in a compressed state.

4. Moving scry the different breeds of dumps temporary storage and mixing with inorganic industrial waste (dust electrostatic cement production and chitragupta) in a ratio parts by weight, overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(1-1,5):(0,2-0,3) to form a backfill material, laying and subsequent seal (1).

5. Moving and stacking overburden from the dumps temporary storage with the aim of forming a protective screen surface (final overlap) height up to 1.5 m

6. Application of soil and vegetation soil removed during operation of the quarry and stored in temporary storage on the entire area of the recultivation layer of 0.3-0.5 m

7. Planting trees and shrubs.

Electrostatic dust generated during the purification of exhaust gases of kilns cement production, containing parts by weight %: CaO - 38,5-46,5; MgO - 0,5-6,0; Al2O3of 0.8 to 6.2; Fe2O3- 2,6-7,2; SiO2- 2,0-13,0; K2O - 5,5-15,2; Na2O - 0,25-0,9; SO3- 2,3-5,8; chlorides of 2.6 - 3.2; SPT - 4,8-22,1, mixed with chitragupta formed during the production of citric acid on the stage of decomposition of calcium citrate with sulfuric acid containing parts by weight %: CaO - 30,5-31,7; SO3- 44,8-45,7; MgO - 0,02-0,04; Al2O3- 0,8-0,12; Fe2O3- 0,02-0,04; CO2- 0,05; hydrated water - 21,23; with the overburden raw quarry, located in the waste temporary storage, the ratio of overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(1-1,5):(0,2-0,). Received backfill material is analyzed for the degree of leaching of the components used waste and impact on the development of higher plants, which is estimated according to the volume and pH of the resulting filtrate and the mass of the green part of the grown crops. The results presented in the table.

The technical result from the use of this invention is to reduce the harmful effects on the environment by eliminating the open storage of waste: cement production - electrostatic dust, and the production of citric acid - citragupta, and use them in the composition of the backfill material for reclamation of quarries that allows you to restore disturbed lands and implement biological reclamation - planting tree and shrub crops.

This result is achieved in that when the components are mixed backfill material in the ratio, parts by weight, overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(1-1,5):(0,2-0,3), not happening leaching of toxic elements contained in the electrostatic dust and chitragupta that prevents environmental pollution, and does not inhibit the growth and development of tree and shrub crops on this recultivation site.

Changing the ratio of components C the masonry material (parts by weight) in the direction of increasing the content of electrostatic dust of the cement production overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(3-6):(0,2-0,3), it is impractical, since in this case there is contamination of groundwater lamivudine toxic elements electrostatic dust and inhibition of the growth and development of higher plants.

In the study of literary sources similar decisions remediation waste pits in surface mining with the use of industrial waste - electrostatic dust cement production generated in the exhaust gas cleaning kilns, and chitragupta production of citric acid, which is formed at the stage of decomposition of calcium citrate with sulfuric acid, have been identified that allows to make a conclusion on the compliance of the claimed solution to the criterion "novelty".

The use of the proposed method of reclamation of waste quarries using inorganic industrial waste (electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupta) compared to existing methods, the following:

1. The use of inorganic industrial waste in the composition of the backfill material used to fill (backfill) career seizures, shall not prevent the implementation of biological reclamation - planting tree and shrub crops when restoring disturbed lands.

2. Red eye reduction is of the harmful effects on the environment by eliminating the open storage of inorganic industrial waste - electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupta.

Method of reclaiming waste pits in surface mining, including separate recess, moving and storage in separate tape stockpiles of topsoil and overburden, mining career fields, stacking and alignment of overburden, their seal to form an impervious screen and the introduction of filling material, the arrangement of the upper insulating cover (final overlap) career of overburden removal and placement of a soil layer, characterized in that the filling material is a mixture of overburden and inorganic industrial wastes - electrostatic dust cement production and chitragupta ratio, parts by weight, overburden:electrostatic dust cement production:chitragupt = 2:(1-1,5):(0,2-0,3).



 

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