Method of laser engraving of metals or alloys

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal or alloy laser engraving and may be used in various branches of machine building, medicine, etc. First, laser radiation power sufficient for structural alteration of metal or alloy surface sections. Plotted is calibration curve of metal or alloy fraction sprayed by laser radiation at definite power level trapped by fluid, in fact, translucent for laser beam and dependent upon depth of engraved metal or alloy surface in fluid. Then metal to be cut is dipped in fluid to depth defined by said calibration curve. Laser beam is spatially swept over metal or alloy surface in, at least, one coordinate. Said laser beam is translated and, at a tone, rotated with radius R. Said radius and angular rotation speed ω are defined from relationship: R=d/2-r, mcm and 2πR·ω>V, m/s, where: D is width of laser beam cutting width, mcm; r is laser beam radius, mcm; V is translation speed, m/s.

EFFECT: higher quality, no harmful effects to environments.

9 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to methods of application on the surface of the metal or alloy alphanumeric or graphic information exposure to laser radiation. Saleeby method can find application in various industries, including engineering, as well as in jewelry and medical fields.

Carrying on their surface alphanumeric or graphic information exposure to laser radiation is performed by moving the beam relative to the surface of the product. Any vector or bitmap image applied to its surface by laser engraving, consists of a set of lines of different lengths. The depth of the data lines, which can be obtained per unit of time determines the speed of cutting of metal products and wear resistance applied to the surface of the image and, in practice, is determined by the parameters of the laser gravious complex beam of laser radiation, the movement of the beam relative to the surface of the product. In order to ensure the most rapid drawing on this laser gravious complex, usually choose the appropriate beam parameters of the laser radiation and the program move the beam relative to the surface of the product. The parameters of the beam laser the th radiation, usually, defines the technical characteristics gravious complex, and the program will move the beam relative to the surface of the product may vary almost arbitrarily by the operator. When printing an image using a beam of laser radiation, the material part of the engraving products inevitably evaporates into the atmosphere, worsening the overall environment and threatening the health of the operator gravious complex.

The known method of laser engraving (see patent RU 2392100, IPC B23K 26/18, B41M 5/24 published 20.06.2010), according to which pre-build a calibration curve according to the depth of engraving the surface of the sample of a given metal or alloy from the power density incident on the surface of the radiation under monotonic increase of the mentioned power density on the value of 1 j/(cm2·) to the amount by which the engraving surface, drops of the melt. Generate protective digital code using a computer, where each number corresponds to a certain depth of the engraving and the power density of the laser radiation is determined from the calibration curve, and the difference between the maximum and minimum depth of the engraving does not exceed 100 microns. Put cuts on the surface of the metal or its alloy visible to the naked eye sign, not only who found an alphanumeric or graphical information with a minimum size of an individual element is not less than 20 μm, laser radiation, which move relative to the engraving surface. then applied to the surface of the obtained visible to the naked eye of the protective sign of the digital code in the form invisible to the naked eye of a sequence of recesses with a linear size of not more than 100 μm and a depth corresponding to the specified number of protective digital code, the laser radiation is selected by the calibration curve specific power.

The known method provides a coating in one process wear marks, one of which is a sign, visible to the naked eye, and the other protective digital code, invisible to the naked eye.

The disadvantage of this method is not sufficiently high engraving speed and low productivity of the process. removed by laser radiation, the material of the engraving products partially evaporates into the surrounding atmosphere, which limits the scope of the above areas with forced ventilation.

A known method of applying image laser engraving on items made of precious metals (application 2006139850/02, IPC B44C 1/22, B23K 26/18, B23K 26/36, B23K 26/42 published 20.05.2008), including pre-polishing and cleaning the surface of the product to the 9th class of surface cleanliness, surface coating rhodium, see what jivanam the surface of the silicon polyethylsiloxane liquid, the fixation of the product and the subsequent application of image point melting the surface with a laser beam through the 14th class of surface cleanliness products.

The disadvantage of this method is the need for pre-coating the surface rhodium coating, which significantly increases the cost of the engraving process. This method does not allow for the wear engraved surface depth of more than tens of microns, since the method requires pre-polishing the surface of the product to the 9th grade purity, and the resulting image has the 14th class of surface cleanliness. hold a film of silicon polyethylsiloxane liquid spray with the engraving metal is not sufficiently effective, particularly when processing the specified manner relative to heavy metals or alloys, such as bronze.

The known method of laser engraving, in particular metal or alloy, (see patent RU 2236952, IPC B44B 3/00, published 20.03.2004), which consists in the preliminary determination of the level of laser power is sufficient for structural changes in the irradiated area of the surface of the product due to the pulse generation mode laser radiation, and in the management of spatio-temporal characteristics of laser beam radiation. When this space is the amount of control the scanning beam of laser radiation is performed in two coordinates, and the point image formed by an interruption of the laser radiation time per pulse generation.

There is a method allows to extend the application area and to increase the power of the laser radiation, however, is not enough to effectively use the energy of the beam of laser radiation. The influence of the laser radiation can lead to the formation of volatile oxides of the engraving material that significantly impairs the sustainability of this method, for example, when engraving beryllium alloys.

The task of the invention was to provide such a method of laser engraving metal or alloy, which would allow us to make more rapid incision or drawing the image on this laser system, i.e. most effectively used energy beam of laser radiation, and there were no environmental pollution sprayed laser engraving material.

The problem is solved in that in the method of laser engraving metal or alloy pre-determine the power level of laser radiation sufficient to structural changes in the irradiated area of the surface of the engraving metal or alloy. Construct a calibration curve according to the proportion of the engraving metal or alloy sprayed LAZ is rnym radiation with a certain power level, detainee liquid medium, is virtually transparent to laser radiation, from the depth of immersion in a liquid environment, the surface of the engraving metal or alloy by increasing the depth of immersion from the minimum value defined by the formation of a film of a liquid medium, completely covering the engraving surface to the depth at which the laser radiation is absorbed in a liquid medium. then immersed graveley metal or alloy in the above-mentioned liquid medium to a depth defined by the calibration curve. Implement spatial management scanning beam of laser radiation on the surface of the metal or alloy of at least one coordinate, at the same time with the translational movement of the beam of laser radiation is implemented by its rotation with radius R and radius R, mm and the angular velocity of rotation ω, kHz, beam of laser radiation satisfy the relations:

r=d/2-r, µm;

2πR·ω>V, m/s;

where d is the width of the least fine lines caused by the image, microns;

r is the radius of the beam of laser radiation microns;

V is the velocity of the translational movement of the beam of laser radiation, m/S.

As the liquid medium can be used, for example, water, mineral oil, alcohol, hydrocarbon liquid.

Engraving of the inventive method can be continuous laser the m radiation or pulsed laser radiation with a pulse duration of 1 NS to 100 μs.

Engraving can be carried out when the translational movement of the beam of laser radiation with a speed of 0.1 to 100000 mm/S.

The translational movement of the beam of laser radiation can be done line-by-line scanning of the engraving surface.

As the liquid medium may be used any substance that, firstly, under the conditions engraving (for example, normal or room) is in a liquid phase state. Secondly, the absorption coefficient of laser radiation that substance is that when a selected thickness of a liquid medium above the surface of the engraving products, the total absorption of the laser radiation does not cause boiling substances, i.e. transition in gas phase state.

The inventive method allows for engraving the surface of metal products faster compared to, for example, a traditional scanning, suggesting that a higher efficiency of radiation of the laser system when implementing the proposed method, as well as the reduction of environmental pollution by keeping a spray of laser radiation material engraving products.

A secondary, but no less important was the technical ability to create the claimed "3D laser engraving as well as etching of materials with low absorption coefficient (in lane is left turn - made of gold). It appears that the total for all of the effects cause is repeated approach of laser radiation on the already irradiated surface as it rotates. the rotation of the beam of laser radiation, thus, can be regarded as a kind of mechanical modulator laser radiation.

The inventive method laser engraving metal or alloy is illustrated in the drawing, where:

figure 1 is a given schematic illustration of engraving beam of laser radiation;

figure 2 shows in enlarged scale the area I shown in figure 1;

figure 3 shows an example of 3D laser engraving", obtained using the proposed method;

Figure 1 is displayed: 1 - machined metal or alloy, 2 - line engraving, 3 - trajectory distance of the beam of laser radiation, the 4 - position of the beam of laser radiation at different points in time, r is the radius of the beam of laser radiation, R is the radius of rotation of the beam, d is the width of the line caused by the image.

The inventive method is as follows. For effective power consumption of the laser radiation, and also due to the fact that the physical properties of various metals and alloys, the geometrical characteristics of the processed product can vary considerably, determine the power level of laser radiation, enough is about to structural changes in the irradiated area of the surface of the engraving metal or alloy. Then build a calibration curve according to the proportion of the engraving metal or alloy powder by laser radiation with a certain power level, the detainee liquid medium, is virtually transparent to laser radiation, from the depth of immersion in a liquid environment, the surface of the engraving metal or alloy. this increases the depth of the minimum value defined by the formation of a film of a liquid medium, completely covering the engraving surface to the depth at which the laser radiation is absorbed in a liquid medium. Carry out the generation of a digital code using a computer, where each number corresponds to a certain depth of the engraving and the power density of the laser radiation, certain of the constructed calibration curve. Digital code written in a particular number system. The radix may be selected arbitrarily, but the possibility of its use needs to be checked. plunge cuts metal or alloy in the liquid so that the engraving surface is at a depth determined by the calibration curve. after that put on the engraving surface 1 of metal or its alloy (see figure 1, figure 2) the beam of laser radiation of a given engraving, moving through the liquid medium beam laser radiation translational speed V, And simultaneously rotating it with radius r with angular speed ω, values which satisfy the relations (1) and (2).

The inventive method can be carried out applying two or more images without overlap on the surface of the metal or alloy with different engraving depths sequentially or within one pass of the beam of laser radiation.

Applied image can represent text in a variety of headsets, software application which is available in computer memory, including in accordance with GOST 26.008-85, the text may be convex (relief) or in-depth.

Example. Was executed engraving with a diameter of 22 mm with a depth of 400 μm on the plate thickness of 5 mm, material - silver 925. The object of engraving medal with the image of the Holy (see figure 3). Labeling was performed on a universal installation precision laser marking and engraving on the basis of the fiber laser "minimarket 2" produced by LLC "Laser Center. Moving the laser beam relative to the surface of the product was carried out using a two-axis scanner-based actuators VM2500+. The duration of monopulse laser radiation was 35 NS, the modulation frequency of 80 kHz, the energy monopulse measured with a pyroelectric sensor Ophir RE 25, of 0.55 MJ, the diameter of the radiation beam on the surface of the product 50 μm. Previously, using a sample of Matera is Ala, was constructed calibration curve according to the depth of marking the surface of the sample given alloy from the power density incident on the surface of radiation, according to the proportion of the powdered engraved metal or its alloy, detained liquid medium, is virtually transparent to laser radiation, from the depth of immersion in a liquid environment, the surface of the engraving metal or alloy. Were selected the following parameters: the speed of the translational movement of the laser beam V=0.1 m/s, the speed of rotation of the laser beam ω=30 kHz. Based on the topology of the stamp, the radius of rotation was chosen as R=50 µm. Engraving stamp was conducted line-by-line scanning, the height of the line, therefore, was 100 μm, the total number of rows 220. Engraving medals were conducted in distilled water at the depth of the engraving surface 5 mm

1. The method of laser engraving metal or alloy, including a preliminary determination of the power level of laser radiation sufficient to structural changes in the irradiated area of the surface of the engraving metal or alloy and the construction of the calibration curve according to the proportion of the engraving metal or alloy powder by laser radiation with a certain power level, the detainee liquid medium, is virtually transparent to laser radiation, the depth of the submersible is ment in a liquid environment, the surface of the engraving metal or alloy by increasing the depth of immersion from the minimum value determined by the formation of a film of a liquid medium, completely covering the engraving surface to the depth at which the laser radiation is absorbed in a liquid medium, immersion of the engraving metal or alloy in the above-mentioned liquid medium to a depth defined by the calibration curve, the spatial control of the scanning beam of laser radiation on the surface of the metal or alloy of at least one coordinate, at the same time with the translational movement of the beam of laser radiation is implemented by its rotation with radius R, and the radius R and the angular velocity of rotation ω of the beam of laser radiation is chosen based on the following equation:
R=d/2-r, µm;
2πR·ω>V, m/s;
where d is the width of the least fine lines caused by the image, microns;
r is the radius of the beam of laser radiation microns;
V is the velocity of the translational movement of the beam of laser radiation, m/S.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a liquid environment using water.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a liquid environment using hydrocarbon liquid.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the liquid medium used is a mineral oil.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the liquid environment of the use of alcohol.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the engraving are the continuous the main laser radiation.

7. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the engraving are pulsed laser radiation with a pulse duration of 1 NS to 100 μs.

8. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the etching is carried out at the translational movement of the beam of laser radiation with a speed of 0.1 to 100000 mm/S.

9. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the translational movement of the beam of laser radiation is carried out line-by-line scanning of the engraving surface.



 

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