Formation method of root layer of surface of dumps formed with open mining of mineral deposits for biological reclamation

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: root layer is formed due to removal, loading, transportation and application to the dump surface of overburden rocks from top overburden bench, which consist of fertile soil layer and basement rocks. Then, vegetation cover is formed using the planting material treated with complex biological preparation.

EFFECT: reduction of reclamation periods; increase in durability of cultivated forest and grassy ranges on reclamated lands.

 

The invention relates to mines mining industry, in particular for the remediation of anthropogenic disturbed areas.

Existing technologies for the extraction of coal by open method provide for the removal of overburden rocks and placing them on the internal and external piles with further technical and biological reclamation. Technical reclamation (GOST 17.5.3.04-83, 17.502-65) provides for selective or gross capital formation dumps, gaining them after precipitation and cooling of rocks, causing potentially fertile layer of overburden PPP capacity of 1-2 m, application of topsoil SRP with a capacity of 0.2-0.5 m from the plateau surface and the subsequent planting of grass, shrubs and trees. The process extended in time, labour cost and environmentally inefficient. For this reason, reclamation of disturbed areas is mining on an abbreviated program mainly gross formation of dumps, followed by a plateau and a training area for the broadening. In extreme conditions of Central Siberia the process of broadening the mining dumps complicated crowded surface layer with a specific composition of the rocks, with a complex and generally unfavorable for the growth of plants and can take many grams of the water.

Taken from surface mining allotment fertile layer of soil is not used for reclamation for a long time (sometimes more than 20 years) and stored unclaimed in shoulders, turning into a barren, lifeless mineral substrate, occupying a vast area of agricultural land. Biological reclamation of potentially fertile crowded overburden rocks, of which almost form the root layer of the dumps, it is relatively successful in the first 5-10 years, provided sufficient moisture. The increase in biological mass plant communities dumps increases the need of plants for nutrients, there are shortages in food, and plants are depressed and die.

Ivitsky (1981) recommends to grow in such conditions plantings to control erosion, recreational and sanitary-hygienic nature. Selevinia in the Kursk magnetic anomaly, in his opinion, is not justified (the layer to 50 cm), as in 8-10 years tree species die without intensive care. To improve forest soil properties the author considers necessary to ensure the formation of the upper root layer underlying loam or humus layer. For this purpose it is expedient to form a layered soil with buried fertile layer up to 30-50 cm below the sand But this technique reclamation does not give the expected effect on the longevity of forest communities on reclaimed areas in the climatic conditions of Siberia.

The aim of the invention is to reduce the length of reclamation, improvement of durability of cultural forest and herbaceous plants on reclaimed areas and reducing the cost of reclamation.

The goal is achieved by creating a root layer on the surface of dumps that are generated from underlying rocks making it fertile layer of soil (humus-accumulative technozem), with a capacity of not less than 2 m from the top of Stripping ledge followed by planting and sowing, planting material, processed complex biological product.

Practically the method is implemented mining tools used in the mining operations of the mining operations. The first Stripping step are removed by excavator or other mechanisms of loading on the vehicle or by applying to the surface of the blade in other ways. In the process of loading, unloading and preexcavation Stripping the first ledge on the surface of the dumps is an intensive mixing of the topsoil and bedrock. The root layer of dumps created in this way is saturated throughout the entire thickness of organo-mineral (soil) complex. In the process of overgrowing dumps vegetation community roots penetrate into the depth of the root zone,and put on their roots microbiotas from the (arbuscular mycorrhiza, cyanide, associative bacteria, actinomyces and others)capable of activating the organo-mineral complex root layer dumps to meet the increasing needs for long-term functioning of plant communities.

The method of formation of root layer on the surface of the dumps, educated, open mining for biological reclamation, characterized in that the root layer is formed by creating a humus-accumulative technoseal by making the upper fertile layer of soil in bedrock while removing, loading, transporting and applying the upper Stripping ledge on the surface of the blade with a capacity of not less than 2 m, with the subsequent formation of vegetation cover using planting material, processed complex biological product.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: separation of tailings into fractions is performed at tailing drain points on inclined surface, on which system of settling trenches with reinforced-concrete trays laid in them is created. Width of the tray bottom is equal to width of bucket of extraction-loading equipment. Then, mechanical cleaning of settling trenches from conditioning tailings is performed.

EFFECT: reduction of impoverishment of tailings and costs for development of useful components.

3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flooding of worked out peatlands in the restoration of peat bogs. The method is carried out in the autumn-winter period with the establishment of a stable average daily air temperature below the freezing point of water with use of ice blocks made in the form of polyhedra. Near the available source of fresh water the blocks of ice are produced. Then the blocks manufactured using the vehicle are moved to the mapped areas of worked out peatlands and put in few layers in the structure in the form of a polyhedron. At that at each mapped area of worked out peatlands, depending on the area of the site one or more structures from blocks of ice are erected.

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FIELD: agriculture.

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FIELD: construction.

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FIELD: construction.

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5 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

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FIELD: mining.

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FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: reduced labour inputs and cost of recovery works.

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FIELD: earth recovery during drilling work performing.

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EFFECT: increased quality of earth sump reclamation.

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FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively excavating, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; filling and smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer has particle dimensions of 150-200 mm and thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Draining layer is covered with fertile ground so that fertile ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.3 m is created. Then straw layer in which chemical fertilizers and perennial grass seeds are added is formed over fertile ground layer. The straw layer is smoothed and sprinkled with dispersions containing water-soluble polymeric substances and synthetic water-soluble phosphates, wherein synthetic water-soluble phosphates are taken in amount of 1-4% by ready dispersion weight.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively mining, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer is layer of gravel-sand ground with particle dimensions of not more than 200 mm and has thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Then two parallel spiral channels are excavated along each pit perimeter from slope side. Coil of each channel starts at pit slope top and terminates at bottom thereof at upper ground water level. Both channels are filled with building waste having particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm. After that holes for trees planting are dug out, wherein the holes are arranged between channel coils. Drainage layer is located on hole bottoms so that the drainage layer is connected with building waste of the channels and holes are filled with fertile ground. Then perennial grass, bushes and trees are planted in the reclamated land.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: environment protection, particularly to protect nature against dust blown off with wind from man-made massif surfaces.

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EFFECT: reduced dust carryover.

2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining, construction engineering, possible use during technical reclamation of quarry pits.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting the quarry field, forming paired stopping walls in extracted space of quarry field, filling the space between paired stopping walls by construction wastes, while preserving full height of draining and ventilation channels, and building a ceiling. After extraction of quarry field, present hanging sides of quarry walls are collapsed to impart required verticality to them, flexible longitudinal links are attached to quarry walls with following guniting of quarry walls with solidifying solution across whole perimeter of extracted quarry space. Then, quarry bottom is evened out with following densification by means of rolling with appropriate machines and devices, after that wells are drilled in soil by means of washout and soil is mixed with solidifying solution, then reinforcing cage is mounted therein with simultaneous feeding of concrete mixture for making iron-concrete pile in soil-cement cover, while diameters of soil-cement covers overlap one another, creating a foundation having increased filtration and hardness characteristics, paired stopping walls are built along perimeter of quarry, letting flexible longitudinal links through them with their following attachment inside paired stopping walls, and columns are set up to make a ceiling.

EFFECT: expanded area of possible use of extracted and reclaimed quarries, for example, for further industrial construction.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, possible use for reclamation of damaged lands in agriculture, power-construction industrial branches.

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EFFECT: decreased laboriousness and costs of restorative operations.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of fertile layer during opening of mineral resources and stocking of rock during extraction of same, planning of open mines by backfill with rock and application of fertile layer with restoration of vegetation in accordance to land usage direction. During backfill of rocks into open mines, inclined trench is made from earth surface to open part of exposed formation outlet being left in sides of mine, which provides access and following underground extraction of left deposit resources, and is meant to be a part of payable area.

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4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: methods of underground or surface mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas after production of building stone and other surface-sited minerals.

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EFFECT: extended field of exhausted pit usage, for instance for further freezing facility construction.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining and processing industry, particularly to reclaim soil in agriculture and building and power engineering industries.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing selective mining, conveying and stacking ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; developing pit field; filling exhausted space with building waste in several layers along with rolling of each building waste layer; leveling thereof with overburden and laying ground layer. Pit is filled with building waste up to mid-height pit level, but not under ground water level. After that building waste is rolled and covered with overburden for total pit filling. Then overburden layer is leveled. To prevent ground settlement wells are formed along filled pit surface, wherein the wells are formed up to design depth and are filled with building waste with each building waste portion compaction. Overburden layer, building waste layer, reinforced structure level formed of geo-synthetic sleeves filled with building waste milled to obtain particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm are serially laid on filled pit.

EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.

1 dwg

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EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.

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