Formation method of root layer of surface of dumps formed with open mining of mineral deposits for biological reclamation
SUBSTANCE: root layer is formed due to removal, loading, transportation and application to the dump surface of overburden rocks from top overburden bench, which consist of fertile soil layer and basement rocks. Then, vegetation cover is formed using the planting material treated with complex biological preparation.
EFFECT: reduction of reclamation periods; increase in durability of cultivated forest and grassy ranges on reclamated lands.
The invention relates to mines mining industry, in particular for the remediation of anthropogenic disturbed areas.
Existing technologies for the extraction of coal by open method provide for the removal of overburden rocks and placing them on the internal and external piles with further technical and biological reclamation. Technical reclamation (GOST 17.5.3.04-83, 17.502-65) provides for selective or gross capital formation dumps, gaining them after precipitation and cooling of rocks, causing potentially fertile layer of overburden PPP capacity of 1-2 m, application of topsoil SRP with a capacity of 0.2-0.5 m from the plateau surface and the subsequent planting of grass, shrubs and trees. The process extended in time, labour cost and environmentally inefficient. For this reason, reclamation of disturbed areas is mining on an abbreviated program mainly gross formation of dumps, followed by a plateau and a training area for the broadening. In extreme conditions of Central Siberia the process of broadening the mining dumps complicated crowded surface layer with a specific composition of the rocks, with a complex and generally unfavorable for the growth of plants and can take many grams of the water.
Taken from surface mining allotment fertile layer of soil is not used for reclamation for a long time (sometimes more than 20 years) and stored unclaimed in shoulders, turning into a barren, lifeless mineral substrate, occupying a vast area of agricultural land. Biological reclamation of potentially fertile crowded overburden rocks, of which almost form the root layer of the dumps, it is relatively successful in the first 5-10 years, provided sufficient moisture. The increase in biological mass plant communities dumps increases the need of plants for nutrients, there are shortages in food, and plants are depressed and die.
Ivitsky (1981) recommends to grow in such conditions plantings to control erosion, recreational and sanitary-hygienic nature. Selevinia in the Kursk magnetic anomaly, in his opinion, is not justified (the layer to 50 cm), as in 8-10 years tree species die without intensive care. To improve forest soil properties the author considers necessary to ensure the formation of the upper root layer underlying loam or humus layer. For this purpose it is expedient to form a layered soil with buried fertile layer up to 30-50 cm below the sand But this technique reclamation does not give the expected effect on the longevity of forest communities on reclaimed areas in the climatic conditions of Siberia.
The aim of the invention is to reduce the length of reclamation, improvement of durability of cultural forest and herbaceous plants on reclaimed areas and reducing the cost of reclamation.
The goal is achieved by creating a root layer on the surface of dumps that are generated from underlying rocks making it fertile layer of soil (humus-accumulative technozem), with a capacity of not less than 2 m from the top of Stripping ledge followed by planting and sowing, planting material, processed complex biological product.
Practically the method is implemented mining tools used in the mining operations of the mining operations. The first Stripping step are removed by excavator or other mechanisms of loading on the vehicle or by applying to the surface of the blade in other ways. In the process of loading, unloading and preexcavation Stripping the first ledge on the surface of the dumps is an intensive mixing of the topsoil and bedrock. The root layer of dumps created in this way is saturated throughout the entire thickness of organo-mineral (soil) complex. In the process of overgrowing dumps vegetation community roots penetrate into the depth of the root zone,and put on their roots microbiotas from the (arbuscular mycorrhiza, cyanide, associative bacteria, actinomyces and others)capable of activating the organo-mineral complex root layer dumps to meet the increasing needs for long-term functioning of plant communities.
The method of formation of root layer on the surface of the dumps, educated, open mining for biological reclamation, characterized in that the root layer is formed by creating a humus-accumulative technoseal by making the upper fertile layer of soil in bedrock while removing, loading, transporting and applying the upper Stripping ledge on the surface of the blade with a capacity of not less than 2 m, with the subsequent formation of vegetation cover using planting material, processed complex biological product.
SUBSTANCE: separation of tailings into fractions is performed at tailing drain points on inclined surface, on which system of settling trenches with reinforced-concrete trays laid in them is created. Width of the tray bottom is equal to width of bucket of extraction-loading equipment. Then, mechanical cleaning of settling trenches from conditioning tailings is performed.
EFFECT: reduction of impoverishment of tailings and costs for development of useful components.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flooding of worked out peatlands in the restoration of peat bogs. The method is carried out in the autumn-winter period with the establishment of a stable average daily air temperature below the freezing point of water with use of ice blocks made in the form of polyhedra. Near the available source of fresh water the blocks of ice are produced. Then the blocks manufactured using the vehicle are moved to the mapped areas of worked out peatlands and put in few layers in the structure in the form of a polyhedron. At that at each mapped area of worked out peatlands, depending on the area of the site one or more structures from blocks of ice are erected.
EFFECT: increased level of fire safety in the areas of worked out peatlands, reduced level of the risk of emergencies and improved overall environmental situation around the worked out peatlands.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recultivation, in particular, to restoration of disturbed lands located in overmoistened areas. The method is based on stimulating the processes of natural overgrowing and including a complete or partial removal of layer of sand previously applied to the bog to a residual layer above the surface of the bog 1-15 centimetres.
EFFECT: method enables to stimulate the natural overgrowing of disturbed lands, particularly wetland areas with the settlement and development of local wild plant species.
SUBSTANCE: method includes water draining from an open pit, filling of a worked-out area. At the same time the worked-out area is filled with a mineral mass containing metals; water draining from the open pit and worked-out area filling are carried out simultaneously. Besides, the volume of the filled material is comparable to the volume of drained pit water, metals are extracted from the drained pit water by means of electric exchange sorption, technical water produced after sorption is divided into two flows, one of which is sent to process needs of production, and the other is sent via an electric cavitation plant to produce active oxygen, then is sent back to the pit to activate the process of internal pit leaching.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of water-logged pits reclamation.
1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in removal of water from a drop, giving the specified position to the drop bottom, laying of a water-impermeable geomembrane onto this bottom and covering of a geomembrane and a beach with a protective layer from natural soil. The geomembrane edge is installed above the rated water level in the pond, created in the drop with atmospheric precipitation and put into economic turnover. In plan beyond the geomembrane the protective layer in its base comprises an antifiltration layer coupled with a geomembrane.
EFFECT: reduced scope of planning works and dust generation, increased suitability of area of a preserved pond for further use in a direction previously not characteristic for it.
5 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of pits conservation, including open-pit field mining, foundation pit with flattening of pit edges and their reinforcement along the periphery and pit flooding with water. Note that edges flattening is done till reaching the angle of safe cut. Along the lower flooded area of the edges along the whole periphery together with flattening of edges from sheared massive there formed is a retaining embankment till the mark corresponding the minimum water level in pit. After that the retaining embankment is covered by protective layer from macrofragmental material till the mark exceeding the maximum water level in pit to the height of wave run-up. Dumping of protective layer from macrofragmental material is done by segregation of consertal rocks as a result of mining-and-transport equipment unloading at the upper edge of the pit, the edges flattening till reaching the angle of natural slope is done above the minimum water level in pit.
EFFECT: increase of pit edges stability in the area of abrasion.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves filling of the worked-out area to the boundary of upper level of ground water with construction waste close as to its composition to natural minerals with fractions of various size, layer by layer with further compaction of each layer, laying of drainage layer with construction waste with thickness of not less than 0.6 metre and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At that, topographic mapping of the whole pit is performed, and as per its results there made is planning with extraction of sections representing geological natural monument and sections subject to further filling. At that, filling with construction waste is performed while cuts of deposits representing geological natural monument are kept free, and possibility of access to them, monitoring them and arranging the museum of the Earth is provided. The rest sections of the pit according to the planning are broken into zones and filled; at that, overburden rocks are laid on the drainage layer. Hill is formed in one of the zones with its further terracing. Burial places are built on terraces. Columbarium and crematorium rooms are built in the rest zones. Foundation bases of the above buildings are arranged in the following sequence: first, overburden rocks laid on drainage layer are levelled, and piles are driven to the design depth from planning level of the pit. Then, buffer pad from sand of average grain size is made without compaction and binding concrete is provided above buffer pad. Zones are separated from each other by means of artificially created three-dimensional soil shapes, and tracks and access ways are covered with natural or artificial stone.
EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work.
SUBSTANCE: recovery method of mined-out pits involves filling of the worked-out area to the boundary of upper level of ground waters with construction waste close as to its composition to natural minerals, laying of drainage layer of construction waste with thickness of not less than 0.6 metre and with fraction size of 150-200 mm. At that, first, planning is performed and cuts of deposits of average coal age are determined. Filling with construction waste is performed while those cuts of deposits of average coal age are kept free, and access is provided to them in order to monitor them and to arrange the museum of the Earth. Then, in the centre of the pit, on the drainage layer there laid are overburden rocks; at that, a hill is formed; after that, when the hill height reaches average absolute level, terracing of hill slopes is performed by means of a bulldozer; and section is pre-broken and furrows indicating the boundaries of the future terraces, tracks and access ways are ploughed. Bed of each terrace is formed with reverse cross slope to two gradients; at that, width of terrace bed is not less than seven metres. For each terrace, starting from lower tier of terraces, along the whole perimetre of the pit, there built are embankment plate or stone walls and they are bound with cement mortar. Drainage system is routed and burial places are built on terraces.
EFFECT: reducing labour costs of recovery work owing to excluding the necessity of extraction of large volumes of soil for creation of fertile layer.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selective mining, movement and storage in separate soil wastes; at that, soil groups are laid periodically to the waste height of 2.5 m, at flattening of 25-35° waste boards. At that, lower part of the group which is 15-20 cm thick - low-fertile overburden rocks; middle part of the group which is 10-12 cm thick is laid with natural looser with fraction size of not more than 10 mm and upper part of the group is filled with organic fertiliser.
EFFECT: reduction of bioproductivity of clay soils and improvement of protection of recultivated soils against wind erosion.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate excavation, movement and storage of the soil layer and overburden rocks, mining of the open-pit field, filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes close in their composition to natural minerals, laying of the draining layer from construction wastes, with thickness of at least 0.6 m and fraction size of 150-200 mm. After filling of the pit with construction wastes, terracing is carried out using a bulldoser, at the same time at first the site is laid out, and furrows that mark borders of future terraces, paths and access roads are tilled. Then the bed of each terrace is formed serially with the bulldoser with a reverse cross inclination up to two degrees, along the entire perimetre of the pit. Bed width at each terrace is arranged as at least equal to seven metres. Then retaining walls are arranged from plates or stones and are bound with cement mortar. The drainage system is laid, and places are arranged on the terraces for burial of the deceased.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs and cost of recovery works.
FIELD: earth recovery during drilling work performing.
SUBSTANCE: method involves waterproofing sump walls and bottom; filling thereof with used drilling mud; pumping-out liquid phase and filling thereof with peat and mineral ground. Liquid phase is previously accumulated in the sump and cleaned. Mineral ground, peat and used drilling mud are mixed one with another and supplied to bank slope or to road slope. Then grass is planted on slopes. Cleaned liquid phase is used for grass watering.
EFFECT: increased quality of earth sump reclamation.
FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively excavating, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; filling and smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer has particle dimensions of 150-200 mm and thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Draining layer is covered with fertile ground so that fertile ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.3 m is created. Then straw layer in which chemical fertilizers and perennial grass seeds are added is formed over fertile ground layer. The straw layer is smoothed and sprinkled with dispersions containing water-soluble polymeric substances and synthetic water-soluble phosphates, wherein synthetic water-soluble phosphates are taken in amount of 1-4% by ready dispersion weight.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas in agriculture and building industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves selectively mining, moving and accumulating ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; excavating open-pit field; smoothing thereof and ground layer laying. After open-pit field excavation the excavated space is filled with building waste up to high ground water layer. The building waste has composition close to that of natural minerals with different fraction dimensions. The building waste is laid in several layers each having thickness of 40-60 cm. Each layer is compacted with soil compactors or compacting mechanism. Then draining layer is laid. The draining layer is layer of gravel-sand ground with particle dimensions of not more than 200 mm and has thickness of not less than 0.6 m. The draining layer is compacted by vibratory plates. Then two parallel spiral channels are excavated along each pit perimeter from slope side. Coil of each channel starts at pit slope top and terminates at bottom thereof at upper ground water level. Both channels are filled with building waste having particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm. After that holes for trees planting are dug out, wherein the holes are arranged between channel coils. Drainage layer is located on hole bottoms so that the drainage layer is connected with building waste of the channels and holes are filled with fertile ground. Then perennial grass, bushes and trees are planted in the reclamated land.
EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and reclamation work costs, improved land protection against wind erosion and scouring.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: environment protection, particularly to protect nature against dust blown off with wind from man-made massif surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: method involves contouring dust-forming surface and creating protective structures on dust-forming man-made massif surface in two mutually perpendicular directions, namely transversely to and along prevailing wind action directions; determining wind speed Vlim, m/s which provides maximum permissible dust concentration and maximal prevailing wind speed Vmax, m/s at massif sanitary zone boundary; partitioning man-made massif surface into square areas; installing protective barriers along protective barrier perimeters, wherein the protective barriers are formed of cellular material. Each square area has side length Lar determined from mathematical expression.
EFFECT: reduced dust carryover.
2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining, construction engineering, possible use during technical reclamation of quarry pits.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting the quarry field, forming paired stopping walls in extracted space of quarry field, filling the space between paired stopping walls by construction wastes, while preserving full height of draining and ventilation channels, and building a ceiling. After extraction of quarry field, present hanging sides of quarry walls are collapsed to impart required verticality to them, flexible longitudinal links are attached to quarry walls with following guniting of quarry walls with solidifying solution across whole perimeter of extracted quarry space. Then, quarry bottom is evened out with following densification by means of rolling with appropriate machines and devices, after that wells are drilled in soil by means of washout and soil is mixed with solidifying solution, then reinforcing cage is mounted therein with simultaneous feeding of concrete mixture for making iron-concrete pile in soil-cement cover, while diameters of soil-cement covers overlap one another, creating a foundation having increased filtration and hardness characteristics, paired stopping walls are built along perimeter of quarry, letting flexible longitudinal links through them with their following attachment inside paired stopping walls, and columns are set up to make a ceiling.
EFFECT: expanded area of possible use of extracted and reclaimed quarries, for example, for further industrial construction.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use for reclamation of damaged lands in agriculture, power-construction industrial branches.
SUBSTANCE: method includes, after extraction of quarry field is finished, closure of each quarry by reinforced structures made in form of sleeves of geo-synthetic material and filled with milled construction wastes, while ends of sleeves are sewn shut. Reinforced structures are placed one after another, closely to each other. On top of reinforced structures, draining layer is filled, then a layer of stripping rocks and finally a layer of potentially fertile soil with following seeding thereof with perennial grasses, brushes and trees.
EFFECT: decreased laboriousness and costs of restorative operations.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of fertile layer during opening of mineral resources and stocking of rock during extraction of same, planning of open mines by backfill with rock and application of fertile layer with restoration of vegetation in accordance to land usage direction. During backfill of rocks into open mines, inclined trench is made from earth surface to open part of exposed formation outlet being left in sides of mine, which provides access and following underground extraction of left deposit resources, and is meant to be a part of payable area.
EFFECT: combination of coal extractive processes with reclamation of lands and preservation of access to concealed resources for their later extraction.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: methods of underground or surface mining, particularly reclamation of surface-mined areas after production of building stone and other surface-sited minerals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves developing open-pit field; caving hanging walls of the pit; forming floor; installing one-sided form and filling the created space with claydite-concrete; arranging heat-insulation and water-proofing screen along pit wall so that the screen extends for the full wall length, wherein the heat-insulation and water-proofing screen includes heat-insulation material combined with waterproofing sheets of surface waterproofing agent; erecting paired support walls provided with natural ventilation system along pit perimeter so that the support walls are spaced predetermined distance from pit wall; covering space between paired support walls and pit wall with surface waterproofing agent and filling the treated space with ice.
EFFECT: extended field of exhausted pit usage, for instance for further freezing facility construction.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining and processing industry, particularly to reclaim soil in agriculture and building and power engineering industries.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing selective mining, conveying and stacking ground layer and overburden in separate strip dumps; developing pit field; filling exhausted space with building waste in several layers along with rolling of each building waste layer; leveling thereof with overburden and laying ground layer. Pit is filled with building waste up to mid-height pit level, but not under ground water level. After that building waste is rolled and covered with overburden for total pit filling. Then overburden layer is leveled. To prevent ground settlement wells are formed along filled pit surface, wherein the wells are formed up to design depth and are filled with building waste with each building waste portion compaction. Overburden layer, building waste layer, reinforced structure level formed of geo-synthetic sleeves filled with building waste milled to obtain particle dimensions of not more than 150 mm are serially laid on filled pit.
EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and costs.
FIELD: construction and mining, particularly reclamation of pit depressions after building stone and other surface mineral production.
SUBSTANCE: method involves working out pit; filling the worked-out space; leveling thereof and laying ground layer thereon. After pit working-out ditch and water-draining trenches are formed along pit perimeter to impart regular geometrical shape to pit along with pit side flattening to obtain pit sides inclination of not more than 30° along with following pit side compaction by rolling thereof with compaction machines and mechanisms; pouring sand on designed pit slopes; laying impervious screen made of high-density polyethylene on sand layer; pouring ground layer having thickness of not less than 0.5 m on the impervious screen; covering pit bottom with clay layer; compacting clay layer and inclining thereof towards collecting well composed of reinforced concrete rings; arranging radial bed drainage of crushed stone and sand on pit bottom so that the drainage is directed towards collecting well; forming water-removal ditch along pit perimeter; filling the pit with compacted building waste briquettes; arranging clay screen having thickness of not less than 0.3 m over building waste briquettes; arranging plant layer on clay screen.
EFFECT: decreased labor inputs and reclamation work costs.