Method and system for transmitting flow multimedia data with zero copying

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: method includes performing of system call of data transfer, reading of flow multimedia data from disc space and their recording to user data buffer at server receiving flow multimedia data of data request from user equipment; packing of flow multimedia data saved in user data buffer into transferred packs of real time protocol using flow multimedia data packs, in which title and load are separated.

EFFECT: reduction of processor loading, arising from data copying and system calls.

6 cl, 2 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to a method and system for network communications in computer applications, in particular to a method and system for streaming multimedia data with a zero up on the basis of the network Protocol stack Linux.

Background of invention

At the current level of technology in the application server streaming multimedia data based on the Linux operating system, you need to pass a large amount of streaming media data from disk to the network. When streaming multimedia data is transferred from disk to the network, they must be transmitted several times in different system environments.

The transfer process mainly includes three parts: (1) reading streaming multimedia data from disk and write them to the data buffer of the user; (2) packaging of the streaming multimedia data stored in the data buffer of the user, in packets RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol, the transport Protocol real-time) and store them in the transmission buffer of the user; (3) the transmission of the RTP packets stored in the transmission buffer of the user, through a network socket UDP (User Datagram Protocol transmission of datagrams user).

In the Linux operating system, a user process can read data from the disk through a direct system call interface to the ode/o I/O system call can write data from disk directly into the user buffer through DMA (Direct Memory Access direct memory access); when using the system call interface associated with the network UDP socket, you can send the RTP packets, and the system call copies the RTP packets from user space into kernel space and accordingly produces encapsulate these packets, and then transmits these packets in the transmission buffer of the network adapter (network card) via DMA engine, and, finally, the network adapter sends the RTP packets.

In the way current level of technology in a user process can read the stream data from disk without copying (zero copy, "zero-copy"), but a copy of the data is required when streaming multimedia data is Packed into RTP packets, in addition, the data must be copied from user space to kernel space when sending RTP packets.

In addition, every time a user process sends the packet requires one time to use a system call, and each time a system call must be switched from the user state to the state of the kernel, and after the return of the system call, it switches from kernel to user state. In conditions when the server is streaming cartoon the media data is heavily loaded, is copying large amounts of data and context switching that consumes significant CPU resources of the system and reduces the processing capacity of the system.

Overhead in the transmission of the packets of streaming multimedia data mainly arise in the formation data, copying data and transfer data at various levels, such as a user process, the operating system and the management network adapter. It is therefore very important to effectively reduce the number of copy operations data and system calls, to reduce the load on the processor and increase the processing ability of the system to improve server performance streaming of multimedia data.

It is therefore necessary to develop and improve the existing level of technology.

The invention

The aim of the present invention is a method and system for implementing streaming media data with zero copy, with the present method and system based on a network Protocol stack for Linux, and despite the fact that the original network stack of the Linux system is not affected, the present method and system minimize CPU load resulting from data backup and system calls, which improves processing is Yu the ability of the system.

To achieve the above objective, the technical solution of the present invention includes:

the way the streaming multimedia data with zero copy, and this method is based on the network Protocol stack Linux, this method comprises the following steps:

A) when receiving a server streaming media data request data from the user equipment, a server streaming multimedia data of the system call data, read streaming multimedia data from disk and write them to the data buffer of the user;

B) packaging of the streaming multimedia data stored in the data buffer of the user in the packet transport Protocol real-time;

and the transmission of these data packets of the transport Protocol real time in the form of packets of the stream of multimedia data, in which the header and load are separate.

In addition, the step In the present method also includes:

B1) the allocation patterns of the kernel buffer in kernel space for each subject the data packet to the transport Protocol real-time, this structure includes two parts: one part is temporarily allocated kernel buffer, including the header mentioned packet transport Protocol real-time; and D. the natives part is temporarily displayed to the user buffer, including the load of the above-mentioned packet transport Protocol real-time;

B2) using functions of the Assembly/distribution and function direct memory access of the network adapter, the display buffers of the two parts of the structure of the kernel buffer to the transmit buffer of the network adapter and call transfer functions of the network adapter driver for the implementation of the streaming multimedia data with zero-copy.

In addition, when the service of streaming multimedia data is required to process requests from multiple users, the transmission of one packet of the stream of multimedia data to each user requires one system call.

In addition, in the present method, the network stack provides the following programming interfaces socket: "socket", which is used to create a socket "close", which is used to close a socket, and "sendmsg", which is used for the implementation of the streaming multimedia data with zero-copy.

The system for transmitting multimedia data with zero copy includes the server streaming multimedia data, the server streaming multimedia data configure the computer to implement the streaming multimedia data with zero-copy based network stack p is tokalov Linux. The specified server streaming multimedia data configures the kernel space between the hardware device and the user process, and configures the network stack on the network adapter driver in the kernel space; the kernel space allocated for packet transport Protocol real-time formed by packaging the streaming multimedia data to be transmitted, the following buffers:

temporarily allocated kernel buffer to place the packet header of the transport Protocol real-time,

temporarily displayed to the user buffer to place the load packet transport Protocol real-time.

The network stack provides programming interfaces sockets for custom process programming interfaces sockets include "socket", which is used to create a socket "close", which is used to close a socket, and "sendmsg", which is used for the implementation of the streaming multimedia data with zero copying; however, the specified network Protocol stack is used for packet transport Protocol real time in the form of packets of the stream of multimedia data, in which the header and load are separate.

In addition, Yes the Noah system server streaming media uses technology group (butch) transmission to send multiple packets in a single system call "sendmsg".

Compared with the network stack of the Linux kernel on the existing prior art, the method and system for streaming multimedia data with zero copying disclosed in the present invention, enables the transmission of streaming media data with zero up through the use of DMA functions and SG (Scatter/Gather, distribution/Assembly) network adapter and ensure the transfer of packets of the stream of multimedia data, in which the header and load are separated, which reduces one copy of the data in the packaging process of streaming multimedia data in the RTP packets.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 presents the process of using a network Protocol stack implemented in the present invention, for the implementation of the streaming multimedia data with zero-copy.

Figure 2 presents the structure of the system in accordance with the present invention.

Preferred embodiments of the present invention

Further preferred embodiments of the present invention are described in more detail with reference to the drawings.

In the method of implementation of the streaming multimedia data with a zero up on the basis of the network Protocol stack in Linux accordance with the present invention used in isoamsa original network stack of Linux, which is implemented through the mechanism of the kernel module, while loading and unloading kernel module do not affect the original network stack of the Linux kernel. The system for transmitting multimedia data with zero copying in the present invention includes a server streaming multimedia data, as shown in figure 2, the server streaming the media data is configured by the network adapter for communication with the user equipment. The specified network adapter (network card) supports DMA (direct memory access) and SG (distribution/Assembly).

In the method and system in accordance with the present invention, the hardware device specified server streaming multimedia data includes a network adapter and the disk, as shown in figure 1, in this space the Linux kernel is located between the hardware device and the user process, the network Protocol stack is configured on the network adapter driver in kernel space and the specified network Protocol stack provides programming interfaces sockets for a user process, and these programming interfaces sockets consist mainly of system calls, such as "socket", "close" and "sendmsg", where the "socket" is used to create a socket, "close" is used to close a socket and "sendmsg" is used for the implementation of the streaming multimedia data with zero-copy.

The hardware environment of the method and system in accordance with the present invention requires the network adapter DMA functions and SG, and the software environment is a Linux kernel with the appropriate network functions. To realize the function of streaming multimedia data with zero copy, the method and system of the present invention create the network stack DATALINK based on the socket type AF_DATALINK on the basis of the original Linux kernel. The specified Protocol stack provides custom process programming interfaces socket type AF_DATALINK, which include system calls, such as "socket", "close" and "sendmsg". When this system call "socket" is used to create a socket system call "close" closes the socket system call "sendmsg" is used for streaming multimedia data in the form of encapsulation in RTP packets with zero-copy.

The standard semantics of call "sendmsg" at the current level of technology is not able to implement the function of the present invention, therefore, "sendmsg" you want to determine again. The following describes and explains "sendmsg" in accordance with the method and system of the present invention:

ssize_t sendmsg(int socket, const struct msghdr *msg, int flags).

Function:

transfer streaming multimedia data with zero copying is implemented with SIP is using a socket.

Input and output parameters:

socket, the socket is of type AF_DATALINK created by a system call "socket";

msg→msg_name: temporarily not in use;

msg→msg_namelen: temporarily not in use;

msg→msg_iov: input parameter, a pointer that points to the array of struct iovec. Each struct iovec includes the size and the address of the data buffer to be transmitted;

msg→msg_iovlen: input parameter to store the size of the array of struct iovec, which indicates msg_iov;

msg→msg_control: parameter I / o to store management information including the IP address, UDP port and RTP load type of each packet of the stream of multimedia data during input; and returning the index and code errors for packets transmitted with errors.

msg→msg_controllen: input parameter that is used to store the total length of the message msg_control;

msg→msg_flags: temporarily not in use;

flags: temporarily not used.

Return value:

if packets were transmitted with errors, -1 is returned and the error code errno.

If some or all of the packets transmitted successfully, it returns the number of successfully transmitted packets, the index packets sent with errors and corresponding error code through the output parameter.

Information, of which the RTP packets stored in the msg parameter, and the parameter msg_iov stores the load information of the RTP packets, Podles the existing transmission including address and buffer size user data as RTP data packets; msg_control stores the header information of the RTP packets to be transmitted, including the IP address, port number and the RTP load type used to generate the header of the RTP packets.

As shown in figure 1, in accordance with the method of the present invention, the structure of the kernel buffer sk_buffer is allocated to each RTP packet to be transmitted, in the kernel space during system call "sendmsg", and this data structure is composed of two parts: one part is temporarily allocated kernel buffer, including the header of the RTP packet stream of multimedia data, which is generated in accordance with the header information included in msg_control; the second part is temporarily displayed to the user buffer, including the load of the RTP packet, which is obtained in accordance with the load information included in msg_iov. Using the network adapter SG and these two DMA buffer are displayed in the transmit buffer of the network adapter, and is called the transfer function of the network adapter driver for the implementation of the streaming multimedia data with zero-copy. The above-mentioned process mapping (mapping) is known in the art and is not considered in this description.

When the server is streaming the multimedia room perfect for the data in accordance with the method and system of the present invention processes the request of one user, transfer streaming multimedia data with zero copy can be implemented through socket AF_DATALINK and one system call "sendmsg".

When the server streaming multimedia data you want to process many user requests, in addition to the use of streaming multimedia data with zero copy, as in the case of a request for one user, the system performance can be further optimized by reducing the number of system calls: this basically means overriding msg parameter used for the system call "sendmsg", element msg→msg_iov indicates a group of buffers packets and the element msg→iovlen shows the number of buffers packets. A single system call can pass to a group of packets of the stream of multimedia data, and in practical applications one package of streaming multimedia data is sent to every user in one call "sendmsg" to reduce the number of system calls "sendmsg", which leads to the optimization of system performance.

In the method and system of the present invention using the functions of the DMA and SG network adapter for the implementation of the streaming multimedia data with zero-copy. Compared with the standard network stack of the Linux kernel, the method and system in accordance with this the image is the group use the function SG network adapter to transmit packets of streaming multimedia data, in which the header and load are separated, eliminating one copy operation data required in the packaging process of streaming multimedia data in the RTP packets.

Thus, via the DMA function of the network adapter, the network adapter driver directly uses the user buffer for packet transmission, which eliminates one copy operation data required in the process of copying the streaming multimedia data from user space into kernel space.

In the method and system of the present invention, the technology group for the implementation of the transfer function of a group of packets through a single system call, and as a result avoids the situation where you want a single system call to send the same package, and reduced overhead for system calls in the transmission of streaming media data to multiple users. The implementation of this technology multicast known to experts in the art and is not considered in this description.

It should be noted that the specified network Protocol stack is implemented by software, and to implement system calls there are software specific procedure which is known to specialists in this field the ti equipment and not described in detail in this specification.

It should be noted that although the preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described in detail, they should not be construed as limiting the scope of legal protection of the present invention, which is defined by the attached claims.

Industrial applicability

In the method and system according to the present invention fully use the functions of DMA and SG network adapter for the implementation of the streaming multimedia data with zero-copy. Compared with the standard network stack of the Linux kernel, the method and system of the present invention uses the function SG network adapter to transmit packets of the stream of multimedia data, in which the header and the load is divided, which eliminates the copy operation of the data required during the packaging process of streaming multimedia data in the RTP packets.

1. The way the streaming multimedia data with zero copy, and the implementation of this method is based on a network Protocol stack for Linux, and this method includes the following steps:
A) when receiving a server streaming media data request data from the user equipment, a server streaming media system call, transfers the data, read the streaming media data with disk space and recording streaming multimedia data in the data buffer of the user;
B) packaging of the streaming multimedia data stored in the data buffer of the user in the packet transport Protocol real-time; and the transmission of this packet transport Protocol real time in the form of packets of the stream of multimedia data, in which the header and load are separate.

2. The method according to claim 1 in which the said step also includes:
B1) the allocation patterns of the kernel buffer in kernel space for each subject the data packet to the transport Protocol real-time, the structure of the kernel buffer includes:
temporarily allocated kernel buffer, including the header mentioned packet transport Protocol real-time, subject to the transfer; and
temporarily displayed to the user buffer, including the load of the above-mentioned packet transport Protocol real-time, subject to the transfer;
B2) using functions of the Assembly/distribution and function direct memory access of the network adapter, the display temporarily allocated kernel buffer and temporarily mapped user buffer from the specified structure of the kernel buffer to the transmit buffer of the network adapter and call transfer functions of the network adapter driver is La completion of the streaming of multimedia data with zero-copy.

3. The method according to claim 2, in which, when the service of streaming multimedia data is required to process requests from multiple users, the service streaming multimedia data transmitting one packet of the stream of multimedia data to each user making the request, with a single system call.

4. The method according to claim 3, wherein said network Protocol stack provides the following programming interfaces socket: "socket", which is used to create a socket "close", which is used to close a socket, "sendmsg", which is used for the implementation of the streaming multimedia data with zero-copy.

5. The system for transmitting multimedia data with zero copy, and this system includes a server streaming multimedia data, which is configure to transmit the stream of multimedia data with a zero up on the basis of the network Protocol stack Linux, with the specified server streaming multimedia data configures the kernel space between a hardware device that server and user process, and configures the network stack on the network adapter driver in the kernel space;
the specified kernel space you the screen separates for packet transport Protocol real-time formed by packaging the streaming multimedia data to be transmitted, the following buffers:
temporarily allocated kernel buffer to place the header of these packets of the transport Protocol real-time, and temporarily displayed to the user buffer to place the load specified packet transport Protocol real-time;
the specified network Protocol stack provides programming interfaces sockets for a user process, and these programming interfaces sockets include "socket", which is used to create a socket "close", which is used to close a socket, and "sendmsg", which is used for the implementation of the streaming multimedia data with zero copying; however, the specified network Protocol stack is used for packet transport Protocol real time in the form of packets of the stream of multimedia data, in which the header and load are separate.

6. The system according to claim 5, in which the specified server streaming media uses technology group transfer to send multiple packets in a single system call "sendmsg".



 

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