Lock prefabricated strip footing
SUBSTANCE: lock prefabricated strip footing includes a support slab and rows of foundation slabs arranged on it. The support slab has a face inclined and bonder surfaces, the upper rib for a slot fixation into a lock of the above block. Foundation units have vertical and horizontal slots, protruding beyond faces of the bed and outbond surface by 1/3 of the width, at the same time the last row of the strip footing is arranged from a block, having a flat upper horizontal surface for resting of wall materials when erecting above walls.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of foundation blocks assembly, increased accuracy of foundation blocks installation, reduced deviations from horizontal and vertical planes, higher resistance of foundation blocks to displacement due to application of geometric parameters of a foundation block.
5 cl, 1 ex, 6 dwg
The invention relates to the construction, namely the structure of precast foundations, widely used in the construction of buildings and structures of different types and purposes in a variety of conditions.
Famous strip Foundation (patent RU 2014391, 07.08.1989)containing the base plate and placed it stacked tiers of the rows of blocks, each of which has two opposite longitudinal walls and uniting their horizontal shelf. Longitudinal wall unit made in the form of a right triangle, one leg of which is combined with a horizontal shelf, placed on top of the block and the other leg with the end of the block, closed by transverse ribs. Each tier of blocks consistently supported each other free from the edges of the ends, and in adjacent tiers of blocks are oriented in opposite directions.
The disadvantage of this strip Foundation is the need for welding adjacent rows in the block, which significantly affects the duration of the period of installation of the Foundation, price Foundation, as well as the service life of the welding operation period is oxidized).
Closest to the claimed invention is a strip Foundation, consisting of base plate vial and a building block slabs of rectangular cross-section having ends through pazi socket for engagement of the block slinging device when the casing at the production stage, transportation and installation (GOST 13579-78* "concrete Blocks for basement walls. Technical specifications").
The disadvantage of this strip Foundation, consisting of base plate vial and block slabs for the construction of foundations, is the presence of excess vertical and horizontal deviations from the design elevations that may occur during the construction of blocks in a row, also decreases the resistance of the Foundation to shift due to the lateral pressure of the soil. Also, a significant disadvantage is that the block on the sidewalls of the through grooves (to capture its construction device when the dismantling, transportation and installation), which after mounting the unit should be sealed with a cement-sandy solution that in the General population increases the duration of construction of the base.
Object of the invention is improved method of installation of the Foundation blocks, increasing the accuracy of setting the Foundation blocks, reducing deviations from the horizontal and vertical planes, reducing labor costs, increasing the resistance of the Foundation blocks to shift through the use of geometrical parameters of Foundation block, vertical and horizontal grooves.
The problem is solved in that in the castle precast continuous footing, including the support plate and smeshannye it ranks Foundation blocks, according to the invention, the base plate has a front inclined and stretcher surfaces, the upper edge for interlocking attachment to the castle of the overlying unit; Foundation blocks have vertical and horizontal grooves, projecting beyond the verge of the bed and stretcher bond surface to 1/3 of the width; however, the last row of strip Foundation is made from a block having a flat upper horizontal surface for supporting wall materials during the construction of the overlying walls. In the center of the front side of the Foundation blocks and on the front side of the base plate caused vertical risks. On the bed surface at the top edge of the block and the support plate in the front corners have nests, where arranged mounting loop of reinforcement. Grooves concrete blocks reinforced with plates and fittings.
Figure 1 shows the types and risks of the castle Foundation concrete blocks for the construction of strip Foundation. Figure 2 shows the types and risks of the base plate for the construction of strip Foundation under the Foundation blocks of a thickness of 60 see figure 3 shows the types and risks of the castle Foundation concrete block with a flat top surface for supporting wall materials during the construction of the overlying load-bearing walls. Figure 4-6 shows a General view of the castle foundations, consisting of base plates and castle found the elemental blocks.
Castle Foundation concrete block for construction of prefabricated strip Foundation has vertical and horizontal grooves, which are beyond the boundaries of the bed (1) and stretcher (2) surface at 1/3 the width of the block. On the front (3) the side of the unit marked vertical risk (4, 5)passing through the center of the front (3) to improve the performance of laying the Foundation concrete blocks in a row, the exact construction of the masonry and to evenly distribute the load of the overlying blocks and bearing walls. The slots are reinforced with plates and fittings class A240. On the bed (1) surface at the top edge (6) of the block and the support plate in the front corners have a socket (7), which is arranged in the mounting loop (8) (from hot-rolled reinforcement class A240) to capture the block slinging device when the casing of the unit at the stage of manufacturing, transportation and installation. The raw material for the creation of the castle Foundation concrete blocks for the construction of precast foundations are concrete average density of not less than 1800 kg/m3and fittings class A240. The base plate consists of an inclined face (9) and stretcher (10) surface, the upper edge (11) to lock fastening to the castle of the overlying unit, which rests on the bed surface (12) of the base plate. On the front side of the base plate caused vertical R the sky (13, 14), which are used for accurate setting of the overlying blocks and proper distribution of the load.
When using the invention reduces labor costs in the construction of strip Foundation due to the presence of vertical and horizontal grooves, and the possibility of a Foundation construction workers of various skills. Also improved physico-technical indicators as a unit, and the Foundation walls of the building as a whole, i.e. an increase in the accuracy of installation of blocks in the construction of the Foundation, reducing deviations from the horizontal and vertical planes, increasing the resistance of the Foundation masonry shear due to the use of the geometric parameters of the block of vertical and horizontal grooves. It does not require filling the vertical grooves of the binder material in the construction of the Foundation (in some cases only requires a vertical sealing interface with the outside). Due to the location of the vertical and horizontal grooves increases the tightness of the Foundation wall. Due to the special form that allows you to evenly distribute the load on neighboring blocks, the base unit can be used as a supporting skeleton in buildings up to 20 floors and more.
Locking strip Foundation is erected as follows.
On podgotovlen the e base stack support plate. Then mount the bottom row of blocks, then the average and so on (the number of rows depends on the design height of the basement), combining them into the slots. Blocks overlying rows should be laid with ligation, alternating relative risks. The top row of blocks has a flat upper horizontal surface for supporting wall materials during the construction of the overlying load-bearing walls.
An example of specific performance
Castle precast strip Foundation, consisting of pads and castle Foundation blocks (Fig.1-6), has dimensions of: castle blocks section 580×300 mm, 580×400 mm, 580×500 mm, 580×600 mm and a length of 880 mm 1180 mm 2380 mm Last row of strip Foundation is running from a block having grooves and a flat upper horizontal surface for supporting wall materials during the construction of the overlying load-bearing walls. Castle blocks have an average mass of from 260 to 1960 kg, respectively (depending on the density of the concrete mix)and a density of from 1800 to 2500 kg/m3; frost resistance - not less than F200. Castle blocks can be used for low-rise and high-rise construction, as shallow foundations for supporting and self-supporting walls of buildings and constructions. An example of execution of the castle Foundation block:
1) as a supporting Foundation of the skeleton of buildings and structures;
2) as retaining walls;
3 as the walls of underground structures.
1. Castle precast strip Foundation comprising a base plate and placed it ranks Foundation blocks, wherein the base plate has a front inclined and stretcher surfaces, the upper edge for interlocking attachment to the castle of the overlying unit; Foundation blocks have vertical and horizontal grooves, projecting beyond the verge of the bed and stretcher bond surface to 1/3 of the width; however, the last row of strip Foundation is made from a block having a flat upper horizontal surface for supporting wall materials during the construction of the overlying walls.
2. The Foundation according to claim 1, characterized in that the center of the front side of the Foundation blocks marked vertical risks.
3. The Foundation according to claim 1, characterized in that the bed surface at the top edge of the block and the support plate in the front corners have nests, where arranged mounting loop of reinforcement.
4. The Foundation according to claim 1, characterized in that the grooves concrete blocks reinforced with plates and fittings.
5. The Foundation according to claim 1, characterized in that on the front side of the base plate caused vertical risks.
SUBSTANCE: foundation includes boards arranged on a levelling sand preparatory base, having limiters under a foot. Boards have through slots along edges, and limiters are arranged in the form of flat plates, as capable of their insertion into through slots.
EFFECT: increased rated resistance of base soil, increased bearing capacity and reduced subsidence of a structure.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: prestressed shallow foundation formed by a foundation slab, a ground base and a support board installed under the foundation slab and under the ground base at the optimal depth. On the foundation slab there are jacks arranged, which are connected with traction rods and with ground anchors, inserted into the support board and stressed with a total force, which is equal to or is slightly higher than the weight of the erected structure. Anchor traction rods are arranged with tubular section to supply mortar during arrangement of a support board.
EFFECT: invention provides for minimisation of ground base deformation and for elimination of bases and foundations of nearly located buildings and structures, reduction of material intensity and labour intensiveness in construction of foundations.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to erect a foundation on heaving soils includes installation of a foundation slab and heat insulation material onto a levelled base. A sliding layer is laid on the prepared base, and a multi-layer spatial foundation platform, comprising heat insulation material, is erected in a monolithic manner. The lower reinforced concrete slab is formed with vertical reinforcement rods protruding into crossing ribs along the entire height of the platform. Heat insulation material is laid onto the lower reinforced concrete slab with the possibility to arrange a system of crossing ribs. Crossing ribs are formed. An intermediate reinforced concrete slab is formed, the second layer of heat insulation material is set on it. Cross ribs are formed, and the upper reinforced concrete slab is formed, besides, the vertical reinforcement rods are connected to reinforcement of all slab layers.
EFFECT: reduced labour costs, provision of heat insulation material durability against potential damage, higher spatial stiffness of the foundation slab and its distributing capacity, provision of protection against frost swelling.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: heat-insulation foundation comprises wall, foot, insulator of wall, additional insulator of foundation connected to insulators of foot and blind area. Lower edge of foundation insulator is below the level of freezing of soil, and external moistureproof gasket is arranged at the edge of blind area insulator. Additional moistureproof gasket is also located under foot, connected to external moistureproof gasket, and fill is provided between foundation insulator and external moistureproof gasket.
EFFECT: improved operational properties of heat insulation foundation, simplified design, saving of energy resources.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises artificial bed with curvilinear surface, bearing elements and shell arranged on bed. Bearing elements are arranged in the form of radial and circular tapes for shells with positive Gauss curvature or transverse and longitudinal tapes for shells with zero Gauss curvature, forming meshy shell and laid through gaskets made of two layers of material, which slide relative to each other, onto concrete surface formed on curvilinear surface of artificial bed arranged in pit and inverted upwards with its convexity. Radial or transverse tapes are fixed by their edges to support contour in the form of support ring or a system of cross beams, which is deepened into natural bed, and gasket of elastic material is located between concrete of shell and support contour.
EFFECT: reduced settling of foundation, lower material intensity, provision of efficient and reliable protection of above-foundation structure.
SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises support part, vertical stiffening ribs installed in it, which form square metal frame, under-column part arranged on vertical stiffening ribs - metal frame and equipped with elements of column structure connection. Support part is equipped with lower and upper reinforcement grids, and stiffening ribs are arranged in the form of at least three beams coming out of a single centre located on vertical axis of foundation, are arranged in the form of bent profiles and equipped with stiffening elements. Stiffening ribs are installed between lower and upper reinforcement grids, and elements of column structure connection to support part are arranged in the form of reinforcement leads.
EFFECT: reduced metal intensity and increased bearing capacity of foundation, simplified design.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: monolithic foundation for column erected on natural or manmade basement, for instance rammed in the form of truncated cone, comprises support part with metal frame and under-column part installed on metal frame and equipped with elements of column structure connection. Support part is equipped with lower and upper reinforcement grids, and metal frame is made in the form of rigid inserts, which are symmetrically arranged versus vertical axis of foundation and are installed between lower and upper reinforcement grids. Elements of column structure connection to support part are arranged in the form of reinforcement leads.
EFFECT: simplified design, reduced metal intensity and increased bearing capacity of foundation erected under column.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: foundation includes natural base with curved surface, load-carrying members and cover located on base. Load-carrying members are made in the form of orthogonal bands forming a meshed cover and laid on system of blocks installed on natural curved base located in ditch and the bulge of which is directed upwards; at that, ends of bands are attached to support outline made in the form of two-way beam system, which is embedded in natural base.
EFFECT: effective and reliable protection of the construction above foundation, reducing material consumption.
SUBSTANCE: method for erection of foundation slab of framed structure includes foundation preparation, arrangement of curb onto prepared foundation, installation of reinforcing grid, its fixation, concreting. Foundation is prepared by filling of gravel layer and a layer of sand over it and laying of hydraulic insulation, for instance PVC film, afterwards lower part of foundation slab of framed structure is shaped by installation of enclosing curb made of concrete, for instance onto hydraulic insulation, arrangement of reinforcing grid limited by enclosing curb along perimetre, fixation of reinforcing grid, for instance by means of welding, transverse and longitudinal axial marking of reinforcing grid into squares, for instance 2.0×2.0 m, in angles of which, perpendicularly to reinforcing grid, reinforcement is installed and fixed, for instance, by means of welding, with length equal to design thickness of foundation slab of framed structure. Concreting of reinforcing grid down to required thickness, with further installation of multiuse curb blocks onto concreted surface in centre of marked squares in number sufficient to fill three first rows perpendicularly to longitudinal axis of foundation slab of framed structure, concreting is performed in two stages, at the first stage space is concreted between enclosing curb, the first and partially second rows of blocks, afterwards concrete should mature to state, when its surface still is adhesive enough for connection with the following portion of concrete to form monolithic structure. At the second stage remaining part of the second and partially third rows of multiuse curb blocks is concreted, after hardness is achieved that excludes concrete breakage, when multiuse curb blocks are withdrawn. The first row of blocks is withdrawn and installed in the fourth row, concreting is continued till final formation of framed structure area. Cells, which are not filled with concrete, produced by blocks of multiuse curb, are closed with reinforced concrete covers, and upper part of foundation slab of framed structure is arranged by laying of reinforcing grid onto produced surface limited along perimetre by enclosing curb, fixation of reinforcing grid, its connection, by means of welding, with outlets of reinforcement of lower part of foundation slab of framed structure and concreting down to required thickness.
EFFECT: reduced material intensity and labour intensity, improved strength and reliability of design.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns construction, particularly building basements for industrial and civil facilities. Basement includes external shell widening in bottom part and holding filler material of varying material durability grade. Filler material of varying durability is laid in layers in horizontal and vertical directions.
EFFECT: reduced material cost of basement, enhanced reliability.
FIELD: construction, particularly new building erection and existent building reconstruction under any engineering-geological circumstances.
SUBSTANCE: foundation structure comprises shallow foundation and reinforcement members. Reinforcement members are made as vertical bars of precast or cast-in-place piles having diameters less than 200 mm and arranged along foundation perimeter. The piles are spaced a distance from outer foundation faces. The distance is equal to 0.1-0.5 of reinforcement member diameter. Distance between neighboring piles is equal to 2-4 reinforcement member diameters and reinforcement member length is 15-20 diameters thereof.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity due to creating compressive operational conditions under different engineering-geological circumstances, increased dynamic rigidity of foundation base and reduced foundation deformation and vibrational amplitude.
FIELD: building, particularly panel foundations for multistory buildings and structures, which apply non-uniform loads to ground base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming crossing slots in ground; reinforcing the slots with frames and concreting the slots. For panel foundation erection in clay ground pit is preliminarily dug in ground. Then crossing slots adapted for reinforcing frames receiving are created in pit ground, wherein the reinforcing frames have projected parts. Areas of reinforcing frames intersection are additionally reinforced along with connecting projected parts and concreting thereof to fill the slots.
EFFECT: increased operational effectiveness and reduced costs.
FIELD: building, particularly to erect bored cast-in-place foundations of increased load-bearing abilities including ones having bottom marks typical to shallow foundations.
SUBSTANCE: stepped foundation comprises bored cast-in-place sections formed with the use of auger. Lower foundation step includes four peripheral cylinders of Dp.l. diameters and heights equal to above diameters. Peripheral cylinder centers are located at apexes of square having side lengths equal to Dp.l.. Square center coincides with center of support. Central support abutting four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step has four expanded parts with Dc.exp diameters determined as Dc.exp=(1.0-1.2)Dp.l. and cylindrical bore having diameter Dp.up determined as Dp.up=(0.6-0.8)Dp.l.. Foundation bottom is 0.7 m below ground surface. Foundation erection method involves forming drilled pile sections; serially drilling wells having daug.1 diameters as each peripheral cylinder having Dp.l. is forming; creating each peripheral cylinder having height equal to Dp.l. by supplying working material for above cylinder forming; filling remainder well section with ground material, particularly with ground excavated from above object. Auger having diameter, which provides necessary Dp.l. diameter is used. The auger provides usage of technological processes, which provides 1.05-1.1 increase of pile diameter in comparison with auger diameter daug.1 and 1.1-1.2 increase of ground pile diameter in comparison with daug.1 diameter. After four peripheral cylinders of lower foundation step creation well having daug.2 diameter is drilled by means of direct auger rotation and ground excavation to day surface. The well has center coinciding with central support center and depth selected so that the well reach tops pf peripheral lower step cylinders. Then lower expanded part of central support is formed, wherein the expanded part has expansion degree Bc.exp./daug.2 equal to 1.5-2.0. During cylindrical bore drilling the expanded part has expansion degree Dp.up/daug.2 equal to 1.2-1.5.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity per foundation volume unit, extended field of technical means.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations in natural base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves driving pair of members pivotally connected with each other and provided with single bevels at lower ends thereof in ground; digging-out trench; installing guiding member on trench bottom; forcing plate members in ground up to plate members abutting upon guiding member and closing of beveled upper ends thereof; installing the similar pair of members having lengths exceeding that of the first pair in trench; driving above pair in ground up to upper beveled ends closing; concreting the trench.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of the foundation due to inclined members embedding and ground compaction under foundation bottom.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect multistory buildings on non-uniformly compressible clay base.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating crossing trenches in ground; filling the trenches with concrete and joining thereof with slab covering the trenches. Trenches are excavated from pit bottom for different depths. Lower trench parts are provided with widened abutment sections having reinforcement bars included therein. The reinforcement bars are used as non-stretched threads. Trenches and slab are reinforced with nettings. Cell centers of the slab are anchored.
EFFECT: increased rigidity of foundation slab due to provision of ribs in ground.
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect foundations on natural bases.
SUBSTANCE: shallow foundation comprises support mats and foundation building blocks. Support mats have through orifices along mat perimeters. Upper parts thereof have extensions shaped as truncated cones and adapted to immerse piles in ground as load increases during structure overbuilding.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing ability.
FIELD: construction, particularly to reconstruct buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: foundation comprises supports, sheath freely formed in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Cement mix layer, metal arch trusses and reinforced concrete layer are serially arranged on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are laid on arch trusses and connected with each other through welded joints to create flexible sheath. Pre-stressed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath. In the second embodiment foundation comprises support, sheath freely arranged in ground inside area defined by foundation so that convexity thereof faces upwards and connected to supports by means of flexible ties. Ground mix layer reinforced with cement mix, metal sheets and reinforced concrete layer are serially located on ground inside area defined by foundation. Metal sheets are bent along predetermined profile and connected with each other to create sheath. Relaxed flexible ties inserted in through support orifices and provided with fixing anchors are placed over the sheath.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: construction, surface mounted structures.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to construction and can be used when erecting buildings with considerable loading on a compressed clay bed. The technique for erecting a solid core foundation slab with closed vertical walls, directed downwards, involves designing a foundation pit, trenches, reinforcing them with frames and filling with concrete, and joining the surface with a slab. The trenches are dug from the bottom of the foundation with different depths. The trenches are then joined, thereby forming several closed contours, whose depth increases from the central part of the slab to the edges. The technical outcome is increase in strength of the foundation slab due to effect of the square shaped closed edges in the ground.
EFFECT: increased strength of the foundation slab.
FIELD: constructional engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructions on heaving soils. House footing based on freezing through soils includes a rigid body with flanges and indents from soil side, footing indent inserts made of heat-insulating material, e.g. polystyrene foam at such ratio of flange and footing indent areas that soil pressure from the lower flange surface is not less than standard pressure of frost soil heaving, soil pressure from the lower insert surface is not exceeding design compression resistance of insert material. Also, the said footing contains supplementary heat insulation laid outside of the footing. The upper edge of supplementary heat insulation is passed from external edge of the footing in the form of interrupted inserts through rigid body of the footing and connected to supplementary heat insulation of opposite external edge of the footing. Relative area of interrupted inserts (β=Aint.ins./A0) is given by the relation β≤1-σmax/R, where Aint.ins. is sectional area of interrupted inserts, m2, A0 is gross sectional area of the footing within inserts arrangement regions, m2, σmax is maximum external load pressure in footing material, MPa, R is design resistance of footing material, MPa. Indents and flanges of the footing from soil side are alternating along footing length. Indents centres from soil sides are provided under interrupted inserts centres of supplementary heat insulation from each external edge of the footing.
EFFECT: possibility to lay foundation above the design depth of heaving soil frost penetration level.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of the basements of buildings. The basement structure of a building includes heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40) which is laid on a flat horizontal surface (51) layer of the material breaking capillary action. The basement structure includes a frame (31) which surrounds specified heat - and waterproofing layer (17, 18, 40), at least, in its top part, thus fixing integrity of basement structure in a horizontal plane and which serves for punctiform bracing of the building supported by basement structure. The specified basement structure is encapsulated with foil (111) from a metal material.
EFFECT: prevention of smell penetration in a building and water-proofing maintenance; possibility of fast and energy conserving erection of the basement.
8 cl, 8 dwg